Yassmin Solaiman HCR 100 CRN 11665 Instructor

Yassmin Solaiman
HCR 100 CRN 11665
Instructor: Heller
Vitamin A
Vitamin A is one of the groups consisting of nutritional organic compounds which are unsaturated including retinal, retinol, and retinoic acid. It plays various roles in the body. Majorly, it helps in the formation and maintenance of soft and skeletal tissue, mucus membrane, skin and the teeth. Minorly, it is termed as retinol due to the production of various pigments within the eye. Due to the pigments produced, Vitamin A thus enhances good vision in cases where there is poor light as well as being critical in enhancing breastfeeding and reproduction.
b- RDA
Nutritionally, the recommended dietary allowance is crucial for every nutrient to ensure the excess absorption is minimized. The intake varies from every sex due to differences in the masculinity and eventuality metabolism. The Recommended dietary allowance of vitamin A for men is 900 microgram retinal activity equivalents shortened as RAE/DAY. On the other hand, the intake for women is much less, 700 RAE/day. The differences are due to masculinity between the sexes. The RDA also differs according to the ages with infants consuming fewer amounts followed by children and adults consuming higher amounts for example:
• Infants 0- 6 months 400
• Infants 7- 12 months 500
• Children 1- 5 years old 300
4- 6 years old 400
7- 8 years old 500
9- 13years old 600
• Adults (14+) Men 900
• Women(14+) 700
• Pregnant women 770
• Nursing women 1300
C- Storage in the body
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin and not water soluble. Therefore, the vitamin dissolves in fat thus is capable of being stored in the body. Vitamin A is thus stored in the fatty tissues of the body and the liver. The storage is mainly achieved in any case an individual consumes excess amount than that which is needed.
d- Food Sources
Vitamin A is consumed from both plant and animal food. Plant foods are composed of carotenoids which are finally converted to Vitamin A or are in its initial form as vitamin A. The main animal food known for vitamin A is the liver with beef liver, chicken liver, liver sausage, and Cod liver oil. It is also found in whole milk, fortified skim milk, butter, fortified margarine.
e- Toxicity Symptoms
Vitamin A toxicity, also known as Hypervitaminosis A is situation where there is too much consumption of Vitamin A than the required amount thus leading to various symptoms including dizziness, swelling of bones, vision changes or blurry vision, poor appetite, sensitivity to sunlight, vomiting and nausea. When such symptoms are noticed in a patient, it is recommendable to ensure the RDA is reduced until they recover.
f- Deficiency Symptoms
Other than having toxicity when consumed, inadequate vitamin A in the diet may also lead to various symptoms. The inadequacy is brought about the lower amount of the required daily intake. Such symptoms include dry skin since the vitamin plays an essential role in developing the skin cells, Trouble in conceiving and infertility due to its role in reproduction as well as delayed growth. Dry eyes as well as poor sight is also one of the symptoms due to reduced retinol function. The eyes are sometimes incapable of producing tears. Some of the symptoms include, night blindness, chest and through infection as well as poor healing of wounds since creation of collagen responsible for wound healing is achieved by vitamin A.
g- Supplements
Availability of vitamin is in various dietary supplements which in most cases is found in retinyl palmitate or retinyl acetate form. The supplements mostly are in mixed form where preformed vitamin A is combined with provitamin A. The common combination of the supplements is the mineral-multivitamin supplements. The costs of the supplements aren’t much with one capsule costing 0.10 US dollars. In conclusion, recommending the supplements is substantial due to their low costs and high efficiency including lowered child mortality.

Calcium is one of the crucial minerals in the body system since it composes the main body parts including the teeth and bones. It plays major function within the body with about 99% of calcium being used in keeping of both the bones and teeth strong. Minorly, the remaining percentage of calcium is used in blood clotting, cell signaling, nerve function and muscle contraction. Consequently, the cells use calcium in transportation of ions, activation of enzymes and maintenance of regular heartbeat.
b- RDA
The recommended dietary allowance is crucial for every nutrient to ensure the excess absorption is minimized. The intake varies from every sex due to differences in the masculinity thus metabolism. The RDA of calcium should be 1000 milligram DV for the adults and children who are four years and above, 200 mg for the infants and 700 mg for children between 1 to three years.
C-Storage in the body
Since 99% of calcium is used in keeping of bones and teeth strong, this percentage is stored within the body, specifically in bones and teeth. Consequently, due to the role of calcium including blood clotting, cell signaling, it is stored in cells and blood. The storage within the blood is also essential since it enhances transport of ions within the body.
d- Food Sources
Calcium is consumed from both plant and animal food. The common source of calcium is from cooked seeds including the sesame, poppy, and celery seeds. A good example is one table spoon of sesame seeds packing up to about 127 mg of calcium. Other sources include, different types of cheese including parmesan cheese, Yoghurt, Canned Salmon, Sardines, Lentils, beans among others. One important aspect to note is that the calcium sources process a lot of it and thus toxicity is abundant.
e- Toxicity Symptoms
Too much consumption of Calcium enhances calcium toxicity with various symptoms. The current research indicates that increase in stroke as well as heart attack is due to too much intake of calcium. The common symptoms of calcium toxicity include nausea, loss of appetite, vomiting, dry mouth, abdominal pain, constipation, frequent urination and constipation. It is important to note that the symptoms differ from one individual to another.
f- Deficiency Symptoms
Calcium deficiency exposes the body to various symptoms which also differ from one individual to another Such symptoms include lethargy, numbness, tingling fingers poor appetite, fainting and brittle or weak fingernails. Most of the symptoms are related to borne and blood composition.
Calcium supplements are essential since it provides for balancing of calcium within the diet. There are two major forms of calcium supplements such as citrate and carbonate. The cheapest is the calcium carbonate costing of 0.05 US dollars and the most expensive 0.06 per capsule. It is found in mixed form including the lactate. Consequently, the forms are in terms of liquids, chews, capsule and powders. Therefore, the supplements are recommended since it is easier to calculate the amount absorbed thus reducing toxicity.