Various driving forces originating from society

Various driving forces originating from society, government, employees and business partners are forcing companies to both incorporate sustainable development in their business practices as well as to align all internal operations and practices with the principles thereof. Project management as a core business competency is not excluded from these requirements. An initial analysis of sustainable project life cycle management methodologies’ current status highlighted that social and environmental aspects of sustainable development are not addressed effectively. An acceptable model aimed at addressing the various sustainable development aspects from a project management perspective is thus needed. This study’s main research objective was consequently to develop the different elements of such a model for Non- government Organizations (NGO). The research focused to prepare a learning practice project management and prepare the readers to develop a project proposal in simple, logical and straight to the point. And taught the project management, the research for project cycle management (PCM) will be followed by below components and process of PCM.
i. Report Writing:
Report writing is an important part of the project management cycle as any project monitoring and evaluation contains reporting in forms of monitoring /progress report and evaluation reports. This section is divided into three subsections, section is on an introduction to report writing, pre-report writing procedures and paragraph development. The focus of the second section is on the structure of a complex report from title page to appendixes. The third section is on report proofreading and a conclusion the session.
What is report?
A report is a structured written presentation to specific readers in response to a specific request regardless of the nature of a report he function of a report is to give and account of something to answer a question or to offer a solution to a problem.
Pre- report knowledge
Before writing a report, you should know the nature (Type) of the report, its purpose and intended audience/ their needs and expectations.
The nature of a report
A report can be of different nature intended for different purpose, accident report, case study, evaluation report, feasibility study, field trip, meeting report, progress report success story, and workshop report.
The propos
In determining the purpose of a report asks you the following questions:
• Why is the report needed?
• What are the real issues and how did they arise?
• What should be included?
• How should it be written?
• Who are to benefit from the report?
The audience:
A report of any nature has its own specific audience, while writing your report you should think that, your readers are busy people and will want information to be presented to them clearly and concisely. This suggests that you should present the information in a way that the readers will expect. To do this you should first identify your readers and why they might be reading your report, and then you can easily imagine how you address their needs and preference. In a simple term, you should try to think about your report from the perspective of your audience by asking yourself what would you like to see in the report in question if you were the audience. This would help you determine the level of detail you need to include in your report and how to organize information to meet your audience need and preference. Determining the audience helps writing a relevant, focused, and precise report. For this to take lace ask you the following questions and try to answer them correctly:
• Who is my audience? Who am I writing or/to?
• What do they need to know?
• What do they want to know?
• What are they hoping to get out of it?
• Are they looking for specific ideas or information?
• What do they already know?
• What decisions are likely to be made as a result of my report?
These are some of the basic questions that you can ask yourself before writing your report. You may be able to think of others, what else would your readers expect when read your report? You can use these questions as the basis for developing your report.
Planning ahead time
Report writing can become tiring and boring if you do no plan it ahead of time. Try to prepare what is needed prior to writing your report. In doing so, consider the following:
• The arrangement: people to meet, places to go, transportation, equipment, etc
• The information: keep the purpose and audience of your report in mind.

Characteristics of an effective report
• Setting the goal and objective
• Data gathering
• Summary
• Paragraphs
• Conclusions
• Section one
Structure and Layout/ Complex Report)
¬a complex report, especially reports involving research, feasibility study, project proposal, evaluation report, must have the following components:
o Title page
o Acknowledgement
o Table of contents
o Abbreviations
o Executive summary/Abstract
o Introduction
o Methodology
o Discussions
o Conclusion
o Recommendations
ii. Project planning and development:
Project planning
Action planning on the other hand is the process that focuses and guides that to d0 activate of a project it specific the progress of planning
o What should be done?
o Why it should be done?
o When is should be done?
o Who should be doing it and?
o What resources or input are needed to do it?
In other word is the process of operationalizing your broad strategic objective and that is why I is also called operational planning when and operational plan deals with cost-benefit analysis, cost- effectiveness and marketing analysis, it is often refer to a business plan. An action plan usually consists of the following element;
o Statement of the problem.
o Statement of the solution to the problem
o Statement of the project cost with detail budgeting
o A spelling out of the steps that have to be followed to reach this objective.
o A timetable/schedule/timeframe for each step?\: duration, start, and completion to activates when>
o The allocation of each activity to certain implementer with detailed areas of responsibility,
o Clarification of the project monitoring strategy and
o Clarification of the project maintenance arrangement
o Clarification of the project expected outputs, outcome and impacts.
o All of these clarity explained and illustrated by vivid example throughout my research
Investment Opportunities: Project idea
The propose of the investment opportunity study to generate project ideas by examining the potentials, problems and the needs and aspirations of the people in question. What can possibly be done in the area? How can its development problems be solved? In what fashion can the economy of the area be transformed? In short, where do the development opportunities for the area lie? It is also the purpose of the investment opportunity study to examine, in general terms, the external and internal environment with a view to identify factors that are likely to either favor or impedes necessarily broad and somewhat sketchy and meant in the first stage to provide planners with a choice of projects from which they may make a selection. Surely not all projects evolved in this fashion would qualify. Some projects idea may be too fanciful for serious consideration. It is the stage when project ideas are screened and evaluate on the basis of certain criteria prior to their being put to additional tests of feasibility.
Project proposal:
A project proposal tells us the what, the why and the how of a solution to a problem. In other words, a project proposal indicates a potential problem and the solutions to it. Therefore it is a proposal/ suggested solution to a problem it explains why the problem exists and why the solution stated is a good one, feasible, effective, and sustainable, it also gives a comprehensive account of the project problem, solution, plan, cost/ inputs, outputs, outcome/impact and project maintenance and sustainability.
Project planning itself has a cycle of its own involving several sequential and iterative steps. A project planning and implementation may involve the following stages.
Project identification/ PI needs assessment:
A need – is a discrepancy or a difference (gap) between what there is or the current state regarding the group or situation in question and what there should be, or the desired state. A need reflects the existence of a certain issue that requires an intervention, an issue that must be dealt with. A needs assessment attempts to identify such gaps, to analyses their nature and causes and to establish priorities for future actions
Top- Down Process

It is top down process because it emerges from the top, that is, the governmental or development agency machinery not the beneficiaries. It is essentially a process of systematic thinking about projects that can contribute in line with the directions spelled out in the framework, to the development of the local area.

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Bottom- up

While thought a top – down approach project merge form the draft plan framework, the bottom-up approach relies on extensive detailed surveys and analyses of the resources, needs and problems of the concerned area. The main advantage of this approach is that it helps in location exactly where in the concerned area a specific need or problem exists. It provides information on the geographical distribution