UNIVERSITARY SYSTEM ANA G

UNIVERSITARY SYSTEM ANA G. MÉNDEZ
TURBO UNIVERSITY IN ISABELA
GRADUATE SCHOOL OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES
PROGRAMA AHORA

RESAERCH IN ACTION
THE USE OF TECHNOLGY AS A RESOURCE FOR THE TEACHING AND ACQUSITION OF ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE
bySonia N. Acevedo Castro
Isabela, Puerto Rico
May 2018
Chapter I Introduction
This investigation will be addressed to explore how the use of technology as a resource to teach a second language influences or increases the acquisition of a second language. “It will also study a social situation in order to improve the quality in action within the same.” (Elliot, 1993) Asserting that this study seeks to demonstrate the effectiveness of technology as a resource for the teaching and acquisition of English as second language. It also seeks to improve the use of any technological resource in the educational environment throughout a learning program.
The use of technology in the educational environment has for many years proven to have an impact on the acquisition of second language (Shayamlee, 2012), it is for this reason that the author is motivated to evaluate any additional information that can sustain the supposition stated, concerned with the matter of understanding and learning more about technology’s effectiveness.
Antecedents
There have been many studies that say, that the key to successful use of technology in language teaching lies not only in hardware or software, but in “human hardware our human capacity as teachers to plan, design, and implement effective educational activity. (Warschauer, M., & Meskill, C., 2000). It can be inferred by means of this information, that a language learner cannot only really on hardware or any technological resource to acquire a second language. There must be a human capacity and compromise with wanting desires to learn a language. Yet, other researchers indicate that eLearning is counterintuitive to this theory because it is presented to the individual rather than a group of learners. However, technology allows us to provide plenty of opportunities to implement a social learning strategy in eLearning. (Spencer. 2015) This demonstrates that although technology is not the fundamental source of learning, it is still a useful resource.

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Sometimes it can be an issue the reliability of these technologies for classroom use.  Not having teachers prepared to work with the technology being implemented in the classroom can cause a waste of time and investment. Technology is very much part of language learning throughout the world at all different levels. We are as likely to find it in the primary area as much as in adult education. Meaning that everyone should have access to a technological resource or should at least know how to work with them.
Furthermore, it has been proven that technology has radically changed the
traditional ways of teaching. “Use of authentic materials in the form of films, radio, TV has been there for a long time. It is true that these technologies have proved successful in replacing the traditional teaching” (Shyamlee, 2012). As a modern style in this era, it can be sustained that technological resources appear to have a positive more than negative impact in the educational environment.
Problem Statement
This investigation pursues as a primary end to determine the usefulness of
technology in the teaching and acquisition of English as a second language. In addition, it examines which technologies are useful in the acquisition of a second language. This will allow others who are interested in the learning of a second language to be more selective when using and implementing technology as resource in any learning field. This research will aid educators of a second language to apply the use of technology in a teaching environment. It can also improve the teaching and learning process when learning English as a second language.
This can also correspondingly impact new technological discoveries and existing theories and approaches. By providing a follow up information on the numbers of teachers and students that had been exposed to a technological tool, and that has improved their teaching and acquisition of a language in a classroom. It might also help on the definition of concept: How does the use of technology as a resource, aids the teaching and acquisition of English as a second language?
Questions
Intending to learn how the use of technology as a resource helps in the teaching and acquisition of English as a second language; the following questions have been formulated:
1. Is technology a useful tool to acquire a second language?
2.How effective can technology be in a second language acquisition?
3. What are some negative aspect that can be encounter when teaching with a technological resource?
Chapter II Literature Revision
This revision chapter presents the variables of the study together with a recapitulation of articles, and other studies that further explain how the use of technology as a resource of teaching and learning a second language improves or increase second language learning.
Use of Technology
First, what is technology? Technology as define by Ramey (2013) is a body of knowledge devoted to creating tools, processing actions and the extracting of materials. Technology is also an application of science used to solve problems. And it is used to o accomplish numerous tasks in our daily lives, in short-term; we can describe technology as products and procedures used to simplify our daily lives.

The use of technology has been incorporated in many fields including the educational setting. As mentioned in American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Language (2012) in recent years, technology has been used to both aid and enhance language learning. Teachers at different levels have incorporated various forms of technology to support their teaching, engage students in the learning process, provide authentic examples of the target culture, and connect their classrooms in the U.S. to classrooms in other countries where the target language is spoken. (ACTFL,2012). Not only does the use of technology in the classroom aids and enhances the language learning, it also enhances the learning experience of any student.
There are many technological resources that can assist teachers in class and improve students’ performance in the learning English as second language, for example tablets.
An explorative focus group study was conducted with teachers (n = 18) and students (n = 39) in a secondary school that has implemented tablet devices since 2012. The general finding of this study shows that the use of tablet devices in the classroom setting has an impact on both teaching and learning practices.

(

Teaching Second Language
Teaching English as a second language refers to the teaching of English language to a person whose first language is not English. Teaching English as a Second Language is a high-demand subject of instruction that continues to experience growth in schools across the country. (TESOL, 2018) The Teaching of English has become an important learning development due to the cultural diversity, increase of immigration or migration, career development, and globalization. Therefore, many theories and approaches have been implemented to guide and help in the understanding of the language teaching method.

Teaching a second language has two main methods: Behaviorist and Cognitive method. Skinners behaviorist theory, (1957) which cites significance in the stimulus response relationship and interceding process in the language learning. Skinner observed human behavior in a wide range scenario to determine the influence that the environment has on the stimulus response of a person to learn. On the other hand

Second Language Acquisition
Need to add, theoriesSecond language acquisition is the process of learning a second language besides your native language. the acquisition of language follows several principles. This considering communication or instruction. The American-Speech-Language Hearing Association states, that most of the time, to acquire a second language most students will rely on their family members, and if this person does not know the language then they shouldn’t be teaching it.  (ASHA,2017) As for learning a second language student must have constant interaction with the target language. from the Sociocognitive, they are both important to the acquisition of a second language. The cognitive approach helps you understand how mental factors are involve in learning. (McLeod, 2017)
This order is explained in Krashen’s second language theory. Krashen’s second language theory consist on five main hypotheses: The Acquisition-Learning hypothesis; the Monitor hypothesis; the Natural Order hypothesis; the Input hypothesis; and the Affective Filter hypothesis.

Theory
Recapitulation
In both theories, it said that learners acquire a learning when is expose to a
meaningful learning by communication. (Krashen & Bandura, 2017) If technology is presented as a natural resource and combine with daily routine learners will have an easy accommodation when performing with a technological tool.  Although, the Social cognitive theory states that a learner should be able to socialize to acquire language it can be implied, that the learner is having a direct interaction with a technological research in daily basis. Throughout the computers, television, radio, apps, cellphones and other new technologies. Therefore, it can be assumed that the learners are learning a second language, yet to acquire it fully it is required more time investment, money, and uncertainty results (Warschauer, M., & Meskill, C. ,2000)
But unlike the other theories, the cognitive theory sees the learner from the perspective of a machine, their brain can access and acquire any given information and instruction at any circumstances. With the information processing the learner acquire and repeat the information or follows instruction and produces exactly as it is. Researchers state; that even though this the cognitive approach differs in some point from the Sociocognitive, they are both important to the acquisition of a second language. The cognitive approach helps you understand how mental factors are involve in learning. (McLeod, 2017)
Here I need to add the same information from the paragraphs abovChapter III Methodology
This chapter presents the methodology used to do the study according to the
antecedents, theories and revision of literature. It also describes throughout the critical
analysis the design, sample and procedure within the same.
Critical analysis
Design
The type of design used in this study is a transactional qualitative design. A qualitative design according to Shuttleworth & Wilson (2008) is concerned with the features, attributes and characteristics of phenomenon that can be interpreted thematically. The qualitative design it is a non-experimental design, where variables are not manipulated. It I also designed as an action investigation, as a requirement of the course, where a wide range of strategies are carried out to improve the social education system.
Sample
Sample is a subset of cases or events extracted, randomly, from a population as stated by Singaravelu. (2012) For this study the author used samples extracted from information on a diversity of books, articles, magazine, and other investigations.
Procedure
The procedure followed for this study was first to enroll in the course EDUC 617: Seminar in School Setting. Select the problem to be investigated and begin the research process. During the research, selective reading is necessary to answer the research questions. There was constant feedback towards the investigation with the professor Dra. Lissette Hernández Villanueva, after all these steps the analysis of data was conducted using the three research questions of the study, ending with the contribution, see appendix A, and the conclusions and recommendation of this study. Then the oral defense will be presented.
Data Analysis
This chart presents the inquiries of this study, with the data collected including the authors.

Table 1.

Analysis of research data
Inquiries Data Author
1. Is technology a useful tool to acquire a second language? Not only does it teach a new language but also it assists young learners gaining new cultural items.

(Itler, 2015)
2. How effective can technology be in a second language acquisition? Films, radio, TV has been there for a long time. It is true that these technologies have proved successful in replacing the traditional teaching.

The use of Web-based lessons as a supplement to traditional in-class writing instruction was significantly more effective which depended on the textbook alone. (Shyamlee and Phil, 2012)
(Itler, 2015)
Question Data Author
3. What are some negative aspect that can be encounter when teaching with a technological resource?
Computer usage in classrooms increases student’s amount of sedentary time and decreases their amount of active time.

The use of educational technology in the classroom promotes shorter pieces of reading, which has a negative impact on students’ ability to read longer pieces of writing.

(Dolidze,2011)
(Dolidze,2011)
Chapter IV Conclusion
Conclusion

It has been proven that technology is a useful resource in the teaching and acquisition of English as a second language when is use correctly. The use of technology should never be the goal in and of itself, but rather an instrument to help language learners to use the target language in culturally appropriate ways to accomplish an authentic task. (ACTFL,2012) It is a potential support to be consider when learning a language. Although, the effectiveness of a technology to acquire a second language will rely on the expertise and qualified teachers, and not completely on the technology. Yet, there is currently no definitive research that indicates if students will acquire a second language effectively by the use of any technological resource and without interaction and guidance of a qualified language teachers.

Recommendations

The recommendations of this investigation are based on the conclusions of the study. There are many projects that can be done to change the actual situation of the use of technological resources here in Puerto Rico. The first suggestion is to initiate an evaluation of schools that lack of any technological resource. The second suggestion is to create a plan design to incorporate more technological resources in this school settings, and specialize teachers to master their proficiency in technology, not only English teachers. Finally, implement English teaching language learning programs.
Appendix
Annex 1
Creative Contribution
L.E.A.P – The Learning English Application Program
To contribute with the use of technology as a resource to teach and acquire a second language, the investigator suggests that all schools and every teacher teaching a second language should have access to a computer programs as a resource in their classroom. As evaluated in the different studies and theories, humans learn a language by exposing to it. The more socialize the person is to the language the more they will learn it. Therefore, if each classroom, household and library should have a program, app design and guided by an expertise to teach and supervise that leaners are complying to it. Each learner will have the opportunity to have another resource that ca benefits their acquisition of a second language by exposing themselves directly to the language through this program. This program will have access to different apps and software designed to contribute to this matter, but a program with no interactions may not succeed in its task.  Teachers should be trained to implement this program to their classroom.
Learners will have access to this program freely and have the feedback of a qualified teacher or guidance. To keep track of this learner progress and provide support, and motivation.  
Objectives:
The objectives of this program are:
1.Expose language learners to the use of technology.

2.Create access to a new tool for language learners.

3.Supervise directly the use of the technological resource.

4.Involve more the participation of teachers in the use of technology.

5.Improve students second language learning.

Activities that can be accessible to a learner through this program are:
Listening/speaking activities with immediate feedback.

Writing prompts with immediate response.

Forum discussions of topics and doubts.

Trainings, drills of repetition.

Chats, where students can learn from of other with the same level of learning.

Evaluation of contribution:
To evaluate the effectiveness of this program, the investigator suggests:
A rubric with specific criteria, this will determine how effective is the program, and the progress that the language learner has made.
The evaluation of this program will be done every three months.
Each design will have pre-test and posttest.

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References
Acquiring English as a Second Language: What’s Normal and What’s Not. (n.d.).
Retrieved February 23, 2017, fromhttp://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/easl/
ACTFL. (2012, July 30). Retrieved February 20, 2017, from
https://www.actfl.org/news/position-statements/role-technology-language-learning
Chomsky, N. (1986). Knowledge of language: Its nature, origin, and use. New York:
Prager.
Krashen, Stephen D. Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning.  
Prentice-Hall International, 1988.

McLeod, S. (1970, January 01). Bandura – Social Learning Theory. Retrieved February
23, 2017, from http://www.simplypsychology.org/bandura.html
Second Language Acquisition. (n.d.). Retrieved February 20, 2017, from
http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/second/
Spencer, R. (2015, October). How to Apply Social Learning Theory for Effective
eLearning. Retrieved February 22, 2017, from http://www.elearninglearning.com/learning-theory/?open-article-id=4229573&article-title=how-to-apply-social-learning-theory-for-effective-elearning&blog-domapin=pulselearning.com&blog-title=pulselearning
Stephen Krashen’s Theory of Second Language Acquisition. (n.d.). Retrieved February
20, 2017, from http://www.sk.com.br/sk-krash-english.html
Technology. (n.d.). Retrieved February 20, 2017, from
http://www.dictionary.com/browse/technology
Technology noun – Definition, pictures, pronunciation and usage notes |   
Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary at OxfordLearnersDictionaries.com. (n.d.).
Retrieved February 23, 2017, from http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/technology
Warschauer, M., & Meskill, C. (2000). Technology and second language learning. In J.
Rosenthal (Ed.), Handbook of undergraduate second language education (pp.
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