Title

Title: Determining the ABO-Rh Blood Type of simulated samples using the Edu-Lab ABO-Rh Blood typing kit
Name: Jerene Cher
Co-worker: Li Ying Sim
Introduction:-
The aim of this experiment is to determine the ABO and Rhesus (Rh) factor blood type of simulated samples. There are four types of human blood, which is A, B, AB and O. Each blood type is grouped by the presence or absence of the antigen that found on the surface of the red blood cells and the antibodies that found in plasma. Antigens are substances in the blood that cause the immune system to produce antibodies. There are two types of antigens found on the surface of the red blood cells, which are known as antigen A and antigen B. Each blood type is grouped based on which antigens are present in the red blood cells. For blood type A, antigen A is present in the red blood cells, while antigen B is present in the red blood cells for blood type B. Antigens A and B are found in the red blood cells for blood type AB. No antigen is found in the red blood cells for blood type O. Moreover, each blood type is also grouped by an antigen, which is known as Rhesus (Rh) factor. If Rh antigen present on the surface of the red blood cells, this shows that the blood is positive. On the other hand, if Rh antigen does not present, hence, the blood is negative.

Furthermore, there are antibodies in the plasma against each antigens that are not on the red blood cells. It was showed that antibodies to antigen B are found in blood group A, while antibodies to antigen A are found in blood group B. Antibodies to both antigen A and B are present for blood type O, while no antibodies to antigen A or B are present for blood type AB. People with blood type O are known as universal donors because these people can donate blood to any blood type. People with blood type AB are known as universal recipients because these people can receive blood from any blood type.
In this experiment, agglutination tests are carried out to examine the blood type. This is a method to determine certain antigens or antibodies. It was expected that blood clotting will formed if anti-A antibodies reacts with antigen A, anti-B antibodies react with antigen B and anti-AB antibodies react with both antigens A and B. Nevertheless, blood type O has no changes because it does not contain any antigen A or B. During a blood transfusion, the patient must accept a matched blood type. If the blood types are not match, the red blood cell will clump together, agglutinate and it may cause death.
Safety Precautions:
As per DKIT safety rules manual. Blood have potential hazard, hence wear gloves when holding blood and the blood which dropped on the surface must be cleaned using Virkon disinfectant. The gloves and tissues can be disposed in the hazardous bin and the waste that contaminated to the blood should be placed in the disinfectant. The simulated blood waste can be washed out using hot water and distilled water. Hand should be washed following the proper way at the end of the experiment.
Materials and Methods:-
As per manual, Immunology Phar S7013 Lab Manual (2018) Determining the ABO-Rh Blood type of simulated samples, reference page no. 16-18. The students’ blood was used to examine each other blood type using ELDONCARD 2521. Moreover, the ABO-Rh blood type of the simulated blood sample of patient 2 was determined using the Edu-Lab ABO-Rh Blood typing kit and ELDONCARD 2521.
Results:-
The blood type of the patients were determined using the Edu-Lab ABO-Rh typing kit. The results were recorded and it was presented in Table 1.
Table 1 showing the results of the simulated blood sample of the patients that were obtained during the experiment.
Simulated blood sample Agglutination in well A (+/-) Agglutination in well B (+/-) Agglutination in well Rh (+/-) Blood type Observations
Patient 1 + – + A + The simulated blood in well A and well Rh were agglutinated.  
Patient 2 – + – B – The simulated blood in well B was agglutinated.
 
Patient 3 + – + A + The simulated blood in well A and well Rh were agglutinated.  
 
Patient 4 – – – O – No agglutination occurred in each well.
 
Figure 1: A diagram of a blood typing tray that contains the simulated blood sample of patient 1.

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Figure 1. The simulated blood of patient 1 in Well A and Well Rh were clumped together and agglutinated. Thus, patient 1 was determined as blood type A+.

Figure 2: A diagram of a blood typing tray that contains the simulated blood sample of patient 2.

Figure 2. The simulated blood of patient 2 in Well B was clumped together and agglutinated. Thus, patient 2 was determined as blood type B-.

Figure 3: A diagram of an Eldoncard 2521 that used to determine the simulated blood sample of patient 2.

Figure 3. The result was invalid due to the control of the blood sample showed agglutination of red blood cell.
Figure 4: A diagram of a blood typing tray that contains the simulated blood sample of patient 3.

Figure 4. The simulated blood of patient 3 in Well A and Well Rh were clumped together and agglutinated. Thus, patient 3 was determined as blood type A+.

Figure 5: A diagram of a blood typing tray that contains the simulated blood sample of patient 4.

Figure 5. The simulated blood of patient 4 does not clumped together and agglutinated in each well. Thus, patient 4 was determined as blood type O-.

Figure 6: A diagram of an Eldoncard 2521 that used to examine the students’ blood type.

Figure 6. It was showed that there were no agglutination formed in the field of Anti-A and control. Typical agglutination was formed in the field of Anti-B and Anti-D. Therefore, this student was determined as blood type B+.
Discussion:-
This experiment was done to determine the ABO-Rh blood type of simulated samples. From Table 3, blood agglutination was formed for the simulated blood sample of patient 1 and patient 3 which mixed with Anti-A simulated serum. This showed that there was antigen A in the blood sample, hence, patient 1 and patient 3 were determined as blood type A. Moreover, Rh antigen was presented on the surface of the red blood cells, thus, the blood sample of patient 1 and 3 were positive.
On the other hand, the simulated blood sample of patient 2 was agglutinated and clumped together in well B which mixed with Anti-B simulated serum. Antigen B was found in the blood sample of patient 2, therefore it was identified as blood type B. It would not agglutinated when mixing with Anti-A simulated serum and only antigen B can be found because it was blood type B. Patient 3 was determined as blood type O because no blood agglutination was occurred. Rh antigen does not present in simulated blood sample of patient 2 and 3, hence, the blood sample of patient 2 and 3 were negative.
Based on Figure 4, it was showed that the result was invalid due to the control of the blood sample present agglutination of red blood cell. It was suggested that this examination should repeat using washed blood cells or the experiment should repeat for more times. Furthermore, patient 1 and 3 can donate blood to people with blood type A+ and AB+, while can receive blood from people with blood type A+, A-, O+ and O-. Patient 2 can donate blood to people with blood type B+, B-, AB+ and AB-, while can receive blood from people with blood type B- and O-. Lastly, patient 4 can donate blood to all blood types, while can received blood from people with blood type O- only. A person can receive the blood that has same antigens and blood type O, while Rh+ can receive Rh+ or Rh- , but Rh- can only receive Rh- blood during blood transfusion.
In this experiment, simulated blood sample was used. Throughout this experiment, the blood type and whether the Rh factor applied of an individual can be found. The Rh factor can lead to a serious medical problems. It was explained that incompatibility was occurred if a dad with Rh+ blood meets a mum with Rh- blood and born a baby. There are not incompatibility difficulties occurred if the mum with Rh- becomes pregnant at the first time. Nevertheless, the antibodies was formed in the mum’s body after giving the first birth. The antibodies will agglutinated when the mum gets pregnant at the second time and it will destroy the baby.
It was showed that some of the reactions were inaccurate and it was hard to differentiate that whether it was positive or negative reactions. Therefore, it was determined that some parts of the results were not reliable. It was suggested that the experiment should repeat few more times to obtain more reliable results.
Conclusion:-
The ABO-Rh blood type of patient 1 and 3 were determined as blood type A+, while patient 2 and 4 were examined as blood type B- and blood type O- using the Edu-Lab ABO-Rh blood typing kit.
References:-
Kelly, B., Pollock, J. (2018). Immunology Lab Manual unpublished, PHAR S7013: Immunology. Dundalk Institute of Technology, Department of Applied Sciences.

Infoplease. (2018). All About Blood Types online. Available from: https://www.infoplease.com/science-health/health/blood-types accessed 18th October, 2018.

LIVESCIENCE. (2018). Why Do Blood Types Differ? online. Available from: https://www.livescience.com/32448-why-do-blood-types-differ.html accessed 18th October, 2018.

Palomar Edu. (2014). ABO Blood Types online. Available from: https://www2.palomar.edu/anthro/blood/abo_system.htm accessed 18th October, 2018.

myDr. (2018). Blood typing online. Available from: https://www.mydr.com.au/tests-investigations/blood-typing?fbclid=IwAR2l_UXiCsiTvxQmljUj1mwxHwrnkNnXUqXmU9onlPRcbN6DSJbw1D8E6Jc accessed 18th October, 2018.

STUDYLIB. (2018). Biology Lab Report- Blood Typing Lab online. Available from: https://studylib.net/doc/8750577/biology-lab-report–blood-typing-lab accessed 18th October, 2018.

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