The main difference between bio degradable polymers or plastic and the non degradable ones is that they can be decay easily underground with the influence of physical factors and microorganisms – bacteria or fungi without creating any bad effects in the environment. So, Degradable plastics refers to a class of plastic products whose properties meet the requirements of use, have the same performance during the storage period and can be degraded into environmentally friendly substances under the conditions of the natural environment after use. Therefore, also known as environmentally friendly plastics.
There are a variety of new plastics: photodegradable plastics, biodegradable plastics, light, oxidative / biodegradable plastics, carbon dioxide-based biodegradable plastics, thermoplastic starch resin-degradable plastics.
The polymer is generally considered to be biodegradable if its entire mass deteriorates in soil or water over a period of six months, which makes it possible to solve the waste problem. In many cases, the decay products of biopolymers are carbon dioxide and water. Any other decomposition products or residues should be investigated for the presence of toxic substances and safety. Biodegradable polymers can be processed using most standard plastics manufacturing techniques, including hot forming, extrusion, injection molding and blow molding.
Now the development of biopolymers is carried out in three main areas: the production of biodegradable polyesters based on hydroxycarboxylic acids; biodegradability of industrial polymers and the production of plastics on the basis of reproducible natural components. Countries like US, Europe, China, Japan and Korea are keen to develop many technologies for such polymers. But in Russia the search for technologies for the production of polymers from renewable raw materials and biodegradable plastics is significantly complicated – the development of new technologies is a pleasure expensive, and there is still enough oil in the country. Nevertheless, we consider the main proposals of the market for biopolymers.
Scientists from all over the world have seriously started to develop technical solutions that make it possible to use renewable energy resources more widely. Due to this, the consumption of fossil fuels should decrease.
The production of plastic bottles and packages spends a fair share of oil reserves.
Oil is not only gasoline, fuel oil and other fuels, it is also a raw material for the chemical industry, which produces a huge range of products. The production of products such as plastic film for greenhouses or plastic bottles, consumes a fair share of irreplaceable oil reserves.
Moreover, since these products are practically not biodegradable, they require expensive and complex recycling, otherwise they clog the environment for many centuries.
Therefore, the development and improvement of production technologies for biological polymers is an extremely topical problem. Today, bioplastics are already produced in the world, practically in no way inferior to conventional ones, but they have not yet received wide distribution – at least in Germany – at least.