The Egyptian kingdom occupied a large enough area, so it is not surprising that the way of life and the beliefs of the Egyptians from different parts of the state differed significantly. Each province had its own gods and cults, but also the ancient Egyptians believed in “general Egyptian” gods, and since the Middle Kingdom, when Egypt established close trade relations with Palestine, Nubia and Syria – and the gods worshiped by representatives of these peoples.
The main deities in the religion of the ancient Egyptians were nine; they, according to the belief, were the first gods and creators of the world and other gods. The Supreme Nine (Ennead) of the pantheon of the gods was revered throughout Egypt, and the deities that were part of this “nine” were:
“Ra is the god of the sun and the earth’s firmament;
– Shu is the god of air;
– Tefnut – goddess of rain and water;
– Geb – the god of the earth;
– Nut – goddess of the sky;
– Osiris – the god of the other world and the patron of the kings;
– Isis – the goddess of love and motherhood;
– Set is the god of sandstorms, rage, war and death;
– Nephthys is the goddess of death, healing, creativity and sexuality ; patroness of the dead in the afterlife.
In addition to the “original” gods, the ancient Egyptians also believed in an innumerable number of other deities. Exactly pure gods, which were worshiped by the subjects of the pharaohs, has not yet been established – for example, in one of the international treaties signed by Pharaoh Ramses the second, more than a thousand gods and goddesses were mentioned. Also in each of the major cities of ancient Egypt formed the supreme triads of the gods – divine families consisting of the god-father, the goddess-mother and the god-son: in Memphis the triad consisted of Ptah, Sokhmet and Nefertum; in Abydos – Osiris, Isis and Horus, in Thebes – Amon, Mut and Khonsu.