\textbf{\title{Instruction Set Architecture

\textbf{\title{Instruction Set Architecture:}}\\\documentclass12pt{article}


\date{October 1, 2018}

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\textbf{\maketitle{{\Large Computer Organization:}}}

Computer Organization refers to the level of abstraction above the digital logic level, but below the operating system level.A computer organization expresses the realization of the architecture or how features are implemented like these registers , those data paths or this connection to memory,contents of CO are ALU, CPU and memory and memory organizations.The detail of these is given as:\\
\textbf{CPU – central processing unit}\\
Where decisions are made, computations are performed and input\ output are delegated. It is the main brain of computer.\\

It stores the infprmation.\\

\textbf{Input devices}\\
Devices which allow people to input the data.e.g keyboard, mouse etc.\\

\textbf{Output devices}\\
Devices which display the output data on screen.\\

\textbf{\underline{{\Large \title{CPU:}}}}\\

It is the central processing unit.It is also known as brain of computer.It has two parts:

1.ALU(Arithematic and Logic unit)

2.CU(Control Unit)\\


Arithematic and logical operations are performed by ALU.Arithematic operations include addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.Logical operations include binary number system. It has two conditions as either true or ‘1’ or false or ‘0’.\\


The fetch/execute cycle is the steps the CPU takes to execute an instruction.Performing the action specified by an instruction is known as executing the instruction.The program counter (PC) holds the memory address of the next instruction.\\


It is any physical device capable of storing information temporarily or permanently. For example, Random Access Memory (RAM), is a volatile memory that stores information on an integrated circuit used by the operating system, software, and hardware.It has different layers:\\

Primary Cache\\
Secondary cache\\
Fast disk\\

\textbf{\underline{\title{INPUT AND OUTPUT DEVICES:}}}\\

Devices which take input from the user,process it and then displays the output on scereen. Common input and output devices are:\\

keyboard etc\\

Some devices are capable of both input as well as output such as:\\

Floppy drive\\
Hard drive\\
Magnetic tape units\\


Suppose you are in a company that manufactures cars, design and all low-level details of the car come under computer architecture (abstract,programmers view), while making it’s parts piece by piece and connecting together the different components of that car by keeping the basic design in mind comes under computer organization (physical and visible).\\

\textbf{\underline{{\Large \title{COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE:}}}}\\

It is an abstract model and are those attributes that are visible to programmer like instructions sets, no of bits used for data, addressing techniques.Computer architecture is a specification detailing how a set of software and hardware technology standards interact to form a computer system or platform. Com puter architecture is basicslly related with the designing of computer system.There are three categories of computer architecture:\\

1.System design\\
2.Instruction set architecture(ISA)\\

\textbf{\title{System Design:}}\\

This includes all hardware components in the system, including data processors aside from the CPU, such as the graphics processing unit and direct memory access. It also includes memory controllers, data

This is the embedded programming language of the central processing unit. It defines the CPU’s functions and capabilities based on what programming it can perform or process. This includes the word size, processor register types, memory addressing modes, data formats and the instruction set that programmers use.\\


This type of architecture defines the data paths, data processing and storage elements, as well as how they should be implemented in the ISA.\\


A very good example of computer architecture is von Neumann architecture, which is still used by most types of computers today. This was proposed by the mathematician John von Neumann in 1945. It describes the design of an electronic computer with its CPU, which includes the arithmetic logic unit, control unit, registers, memory for data and instructions, an input/output interface and external storage functions.\\

\textbf{\title{QUESTION 2: }}\\

\textbf{\underline{Latest Art of Computer Architecture:}}\\

The discipline of computer architecture has three main subcategories:Instruction Set Architecture or ISA. The ISA defines the machine codethat a processor reads and acts uponas well as the word size,memory address modes,processor registersand data type.\\

Micro architecture,or computer organization describes how a particular processoer will implement the ISA.The size of a computer’s memory for instance, is an issue that generally has nothing to do with ISA.System design includes all of the other hardware components within a computing system. These include:
Data processing other than the CPU,such as Direct Memory Access.Other issues such asvirtualiation,multiprocessingand software features.These are other types of computer srchitecture.The following types are used in bigger companies likr INTEL, Macro architecture.Its layers are more abstract.\\

Assembly Instruction Set: A smart assembler may convert an abstract assembly language common to a group of machines into aslightly diffrent machine language for diffrent implementations.\\

Programmer Visible Macro Architecture:
Higher lebvel languge tools such as compiler may define a consistent interface or contract to programmers using them, abstracting diffrences between underlying ISA, UISA and micro architectures.For example C,C++, JAVA standards define diffrent Programmer visible macro architecture.\\

Pin Architecture: The hardware functions that a microprocessor should provide to a hardware platform .e.g.the x86 pins A20M, FERR/IGNNE or FLUSH. Also messages that the processor should emit so that the external caches can be invalidated.Pin architecture functions are more flexible than ISA functions bcz external hardware can adapt to new encodings or change from a pin to message. The term ARCHITECTURE fits bcz the functions must be provided for compatible systems, even if the detailed method changes.\\

\title{Part 2:}\\


\textbf{\title{SUMMARY OF CHAPTER 1:}}\\

In this chapter we have learnt about eight great ideas in computer architecture, technologies, power fall, sea change,fallacies and pitfalls.\\


\textbf{PC’S:} A computer machine designed for people so that they can use it,usually incorporating a graphics display, a keyboard, and a mouse.\\

\textbf{SERVER:} A computer used for running larger programs for multiple users and in result makes a network.\\

\textbf{SUPER COMPUTER:} A class of computers with the highest performance and cost; they are configured as servers and typically cost tens to hundreds of millions of dollars.\\

\textbf{EMBEDDED COMPUTERS:} A computer inside another device used for running one predefined application or collection of softwaresw.\\

\textbf{CLOUD COMPUTING:} refers to large collections of servers that provide services over the Internet.\\


These ideas were invented in the last 60 years of computer design. \\

1.Design for Moore’s law:\\

It states that integrated circuit resources become double every 18–24 months. Moore’s Law resulted from a 1965 prediction of such growth in IC capacity made by Gordon Moore, one of the founders of Intel.

\textbf{ABSTRACTION:} This process is actually removing or hiding alll the complex details.\\

Performance can be done through:
Parallelism: Since the dawn of computing, computer architects have offered designs that get more performance by computing operations in parallel.e.g. We use multiple jet engines of a plane as our icon for parallel performance.\\

Prediction: In some cases, it can be faster on average to guess and start working rather than wait until you know for sure, assuming that the mechanism to recover from a misprediction is not too expensive and your prediction is relatively accurate.\\

1. Systems software:
Software that provides services that are commonly useful,including operating systems, compilers, loaders, and assemblers.\\

2. Instruction:
A command or a set of statments that computer hardware understands and obeys and as a result displays result.\\

3. Assembler:
A program that translates a symbolic version of instructions into the binary version.\\

4. Assembly language:
A symbolic representation of machine instructions.\\

5. Machine language:
A binary representation of machine instructions.\\

6. High-level programming language:
A portable language such as C, C++, Java, or Visual Basic that is composed of words and algebraic notation that can be translated
by a compiler into assembly language.

7. Input device:
A mechanism through which the computer is fed information, such as a keyboard.\\

8. Output device:
A mechanism that conveys the result of a computation to a user,Bsuch as a display, or to another computer.\\

9. Liquid crystal display (LCD):
A display technology using a thin layer of liquid polymers that can be used to transmit or block light according to whether a charge is applied.\\

10. Active matrix display:
A liquid crystal display using a transistor to control the transmission of light at each individual pixel.\\

11. Pixel:
The smallest individual picture element. Screens are composed of hundreds of thousands to millions of pixels, organized in a matrix.

12. Integrated circuit:
Also called a chip. A device combining dozens to millions of transistors.\\

13. Central processor unit (CPU):
Also called processor. The active part of the computer, which contains the datapath and control and which adds numbers, tests
numbers, signals I/O devices to activate, and so on.\\

14. Datapath:
The component of the processor that performs arithmetic operations.\\

15. Control:
The component of the processor that commands the datapath, memory, and I/O devices according to the instructions of the

16. Memory:
The storage area in which programs are kept when they are running and that contains the data needed by the running programs.\\

17. Dynamic random access memory (DRAM):
Memory built as an integrated circuit; it provides random access to any location. Access times are 50 nanoseconds and cost per
gigabyte in 2012 was $5 to $10.

Cache memory:
A small, fast memory that acts as a buffer for a slower, larger

Static random access memory (SRAM):
Also memory built as an integrated circuit, but faster and less dense than DRAM.\\

\textbf{Technologies for building processors and memory:}\\

An on/off switch controlled by an electric signal.A transistor is simply an on/off switch controlled by electricity.
The integrated circuit (IC) combined dozens to hundreds of transistors into a single chip.\\

Silicon crystal ingot:
A rod composed of a silicon crystal that is between 8 and 12 inches in diameter and about 12 to 24 inches long.

A microscopic flaw in a wafer or in patterning steps that can result
in the failure of the die containing that defect.


As an individual computer user, you are
interested in reducing response time—the time between the start
and completion of a task—also referred to as execution time. Datacenter managers often care about increasing throughput or
bandwidth—the total amount of work done in a given time. Hence, in most cases, we will need different performance metrics as well as
different sets of applications to benchmark personal mobile devices, which are more focused on response time, versus servers, which are more focused on throughput.

\textbf{Power Wall:}\\

Although power provides a limit to what we can cool, in the post-PC era the really valuable resource is energy. Battery life can
trump performance in the personal mobile device, and the architects of warehouse scale computers try to reduce the costs of
powering and cooling 100,000 servers as the costs are high at this scale.\\

\textbf{Real Stuff:}\\

A set of programs run on a computer that is either the actual collection of applications run by a user or constructed from real
programs to approximate such a mix. A typical workload specifies both the programs and the relative frequencies.\\

A program selected for use in comparing computer performance.\\