Task 1 – Analyse the concept of organisational culture

Task 1 – Analyse the concept of organisational culture, where possible contextualise the analysis by using two different organisations. Consider key factors such as rituals, routines and behaviours and how they can affect achievement of organisational objectives.

Describe the traits of power culture, role culture, task culture and person culture; compare the different traits of these cultures.

Evaluate three internal and three external factors that could influence organisational culture including national cultures. Explain how these factors may influence the culture in a positive or negative way.

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Guideline Word Count: 850 – 1000 Words
A.C. 1.1 – Analyse the concept of culture to organisations
Organisational Culture is the personality of the respective environment that people find themselves working within; it is predominantly focused on how people are expected to behave, dress, and articulate themselves etc. All personnel will have differing personalities that they can utilise in any organisation; they may find that they can continue to display their traits, but as long as they remain professional whilst in the working environment. extrovert characters may have need to ‘wind down’ their personality and any introvert personnel may be expected to exert themselves further.

To put this into perspective, people would be obligated to act differently in unalike environments. For instance, a soldier in the British Army would be expected to listen and be fully conversant with any instructions that they are issued from the hierarchy. There would be an expectation to have the following attributes:
All soldiers are expected to be in the right place; at the right the time; in the correct attire. This expectation is to ensure the operational effectiveness is intact. Without this, they may be unable to finish the task required within the allotted time.

Dependent on the role, there may be no academic qualifications required. Roles such as Infantry would require no academic qualifications due to the nature of the job; whereas a pilot would require a vast academic background.

All soldiers are encouraged to think for themselves and be vocal about any ideas, this will endorse pragmatism. This will subsequently assist their superiors with any decision making. Furthermore, they may be expected to produce presentations on crucial matters to other members of their department or a wider audience.

Physically/medically fit
Soldiers are expected to have a competent level of physical fitness; enabling them to deploy overseas and be ‘fit to fight’. Medical fitness may hinder deployments; therefore, soldiers will need to ensure that they highlight any injuries/illnesses they have as soon as practicable.

Positive thinking
Negativity breeds further negativity, no matter how anyone is feeling; they need to ensure that they don’t pass their pessimism on to others. If they have any qualms, they are expected to liaise with the relevant parties to resolve the issue.

Willingness to assist others
There is an expectation to assist others whom are struggling; this could be with work, at home etc. This brings together the team cohesion of the Army; thus, helping with the operational effectiveness.

There is no scope to openly disagree with instructions from superiors. If there is anything that causes disagreement; a conversation should be had in private, away from their peers, superiors and subordinates. This will prevent the superior from feeling belittled or undermined. Ideas are a great tool, as long as they are presented in a professional manner.

This philosophy will differ from different organisations, there may however be some similarities. For example, a ‘normal’ office role may require the following attributes:
Dependent on the organisational policy, personnel may be permitted to wear smart clothing when in the office. For instance, a car salesman would be required to wear a suit; this shows professionalism to their subsequent customers. Other occupations such as call centres may have a more relaxed dress policy; this is because they may have a limited face to face interaction with external personnel.

Physical/Medical Fitness
Unlike the Army, there would be no requirement for office workers to have a high level of fitness; there may be a requirement for them to be in good health or for the managers to have knowledge of their health state. This would be ultimately for precaution in the event of a medical emergency. For instance, if they had a peanut allergy; they may be expected to declare that.

Dependent on their specific role, there may be no requirement for an office worker to have a strong level of confidence. For instance, if they were only working predominantly on computers and had no obligation to make formal presentations to their peers; there would be no reason for them to have a high level of social confidence. Although confidence it is a desirable attribute, it is not always a necessity.
Unlike the Army, most office roles will require some sort of academic qualifications to be eligible. This is due to the need to produce competent emails; understand computers etc.

Alike the Army, there will need to be a level of punctuality to ensure that personnel are able to undertake their work from their expected start times.
There will be a level of expectation that personnel are to present themselves in a respectable manner; i.e. their hygiene is satisfactory, and it does not appear like they have just ‘rolled out of bed’. All these factors may provide their subordinates, peers and superiors with a negative perception of them.

Alike all organisations, employees may be given deadlines that they are expected to complete within the given time; the onus is on the them to ensure that this is carried out.

Some social events such as football matches, parties etc. may not require some of the above-mentioned attributes; this does not mean they may be disregarded; but it does mean that the rules may be relaxed, it will be down to the individual’s own discretion. They will be able to ‘let their hair down’. They may begin to use language which would not be tolerated within a normal working environment.

To conclude, the onus is on the individual to understand and adapt to the respective organisational culture. They will need to evaluate what is expected of them from each organisation and adhere to it accordingly.

A.C. 1.2 – Compare the traits of power culture, role culture, task culture and person culture
Power Culture
Power culture is where only a small number of personnel are involved within decision making; it is common within industries such as fashion, film and some social media networks (in initial phases). There will be little bureaucracy, so there will be little requirement to liaise with numerous personnel to ascertain a decision. ‘Apple’ is a good example of this culture; back in its initial stages, Steve Jobs was the sole owner for the company. He would have been able to dictate the trajectory of the company.
The positives for this culture are as follows:
Swift decision making, which may breed confidence from employees.

The process will run efficiently as it will not have to be considered by many party members.

The cons for this culture are as follows:
There is little scope for scrutiny, so decisions may not have been thoroughly considered; they may contain numerous ambiguities and factors that could be improved.

Employees may have little faith that one – two people are able to consider every obstacle when decision making.

Role Culture
Unlike Power Culture, the Role Culture’s decisions are spread ample amount of people. Power Culture focuses on large organisations whom employ a high volume of personnel; such as Banking, Accountancy, insurance companies and Armed Forces etc. Power is disseminated from the role people reside within. Each role should be explicit, and every person should have a comprehensive understanding of whom they manage and what is expected from them.

Due to the mass of the organisations, it is unlikely that all personnel will know everyone within these industries; managers will need to implement manners to assist liaison methods amongst individuals. This could be in the form of brochures, online seminars etc. This could further allow them to re-emphasise what is expected from each individual.

All correspondence with both internal and external agencies may need to be audited for continuity purposes.

The Pro’s for this culture are detailed as follows:
It offers a level of stability for employees.

The emphasis of auditing conversations and tasks may be important as evidence for a later date.

The Con’s for this culture are detailed as follows:
There is a reluctance to change, with the unpredictability of modern society; there must be a level of tolerance. Any change needed may take a long period of time to implement.

Any change may lead to re-education of personnel’s new roles; consuming time and finances.

Task/Team Culture
This is the aggregation of intelligent personnel whom hone an expert skill set in certain fields; they are generally used to rectify internal/external issues. Personnel whom are incompetent are generally ‘weeded out’ amid the initial phases. This relates to organisations such as Law, Tax and Consultancy Firms. An example when Task Culture is used would be when a company are having issues, they may seek advice from Consultants whom are able to provide useful advice going forward.

The Pro’s for this culture are detailed as follows:
Personnel are paid to be educated.

Huge sum of money invested for personnel to attend training
Lifelong commitment to learning.

The Con’s for this culture are detailed as follows:
They are required to work with demanding time-lines.

Heavy workloads.

Person Culture
This uncommon culture is where people believe that they are unique or superior to the organisation. There is an emphasis on the expertise and the output of the individuals as oppose to the organisation itself. The organisation simply exists to only employ these personnel. This culture commonly exists in areas such as: Accountants, Lawyers etc.

The Pro’s for this culture are detailed as follows:
Able to manage their own workload.

Loose and flexible, minimal organisational structure.

The Cons for this culture are detailed as follows:
No fixed income.

Few controls or procedures
A.C. 1.3 – Evaluate internal and external factors that could influence organisational culture, including national cultures
There are numerous factors that can affect a business both internally and externally, these are detailed as follows:
If personnel within the organisation believe they are not being paid a sufficient salary to sustain themselves in their personal lives; this will undoubtedly affect morale and possibly their work output. Salaries should be compared against competitors and used as a reference to deter anybody from leaving. If personnel are receiving a decent wage; this will provide them with further incentive to give 100%.

Management and Leadership
Management should be regularly evaluated to ensure that the respective organisation is both prosperous without sacrificing the needs of its employees. Again, if the needs of the employees are sacrificed for the sake of prosperity; this will lead to a plummet in morale and faith in the organisation’s leadership. Every opportunity should be taken to conduct an internal climate assessment; this will allow employees to provide essential feedback to assist the organisation moving forward.

Policies and Values
There should be a strict policy implemented within the workplace; this is to ensure that personnel are treated with the upmost respect. It is pertinent that organisations are advocates of anti-discrimination; this will assist with guaranteeing personnel feeling safe and appreciated within the workplace. This means that nobody is treated any different, regardless of their sex, age, ethnicity, sexual orientation etc.

Business Relationships
As we move more towards a technological era in society; Business Relationships could be hindered if conferences, meetings etc. are moved further towards a technological route. This is due to the lack of ‘face to face’ interaction with their cohorts.

Politics and the Economy
As of recent, the unpredictability of Politics and the economy has suddenly become the norm; organisations need to adapt to the constant changes that are happening with inflation, the base rate, tax etc. Any eventualities may have an adverse effect on an organisation; managers will need to have the versatility to consider Plan B in the face of adversity.
Laws and Policies
With Laws changing on a regular basis, managers need to be aware of any alterations that have taken place. There may be an amendment in Employment Law, managers will need a comprehensive understanding, which they must action appropriately. This information could be relayed to their subordinates through brochures, meetings, emails etc.

Task 2 – Identify values and cultures that encourage behaviours to support the organisational strategy.

Consider leadership styles a manager can adopt and evaluate personal managerial behaviours that can reinforce organisational values and cultures.

Establish how to communicate organisational values to the organisation that motivate the organisation to apply these values.
Guideline word count: 850 – 1,000 words
A.C. 2.1 – Identify values and cultures that encourage behaviours consistent with organisational strategy
There are an ample amount of ways to push an organisation in the right direction; for the managers, it is having the ability to take that back-step and listen to their peers and subordinates. For example, the Armed Forces conduct regular Internal Climate Assessments to elicit information about how all people from the bottom to the top are feeling about a number of issues, such as:
The Politics within both the Unit and Army
Management within the Unit
Financial Incentives
Work Recognition
Scope for Promotion/Different Roles
A manager’s main social focus should be the need for retention; without this, the organisation’s experience may begin to deplete. There are numerous manners that can be utilised to enforce a positive environment, these are detailed as follows:
A Voice for Employees
All roles over time can become monotonous, as mentioned above, allowing employees to have an input on any ongoing issues can prove vital; it broadens their role and can make them an asset in decision-making. It provides that ‘warm and fuzzy feeling’ that they are valued within their organisation. It permits them to voice something outside of their normal role; this is a great opportunity for managers to ascertain opinions outside the normal protocol.
It can be infuriating for anyone to receive half a story, managers have the responsibility to ensure that everyone is familiarised with any ongoing events. Information can be cascaded via the chain of command; allowing supervisors to empower their subordinates; alternatively they could send a mass email to ensure everyone has been notified. Both methods can be efficient and are designed to keep everyone informed.

It is apt for all Managers to have a level of transparency in their character; personnel may feel uncomfortable liaising with someone who “blows hot and cold”. There needs to be a level of consistency with their approach to work and staff. Being honest regarding what is occurring higher above will ensure that a level of trust is built between the employees and their superiors.

Appraisals once a year may not be enough for some employees; some thrive off regular feedback and this may need to be administered if it assists their output. A simple “well done” can go far, managers must recognise this and looking at avenues to unlock all their employees’ potential. The occasional tangible incentive could be given to show acknowledgement of their hard work and tenacity.
Teamwork is such an important component of an organisation, managers must ensure that nobody is alienated from the group and that they champion team cohesion. Elaborating on the pertinence of teamwork will educate employees on the advantages of ‘joining forces’ as oppose to working in isolation.

If all of the above-mentioned factors are aggregated and utilised within the organisation, work output and team morale will be strong. This will give the managers peace of mind that they are doing their job correctly.

A.C. 2.2 – Evaluate personal managerial behaviours that reinforce organisational values and cultures
Managers will need to have a vast level of versatility in their role; they will need to adapt to the situation they find themselves in. There are a numerous amount of management styles, all having their strengths and weaknesses.
The ‘Business Dictionary’ defines management as the “organisation and coordination of the activities of a business in order to achieve defined objectives”.

Some of the manners of management are detailed as follows:
This method refers to the “Do as I say” approach. This is a very dictated style of ensuring personnel do as they demand. The manager would overlook work conducted from their subordinates to ensure that it is carried out both efficiently and correctly; there is no room to question any direction given. This method is used commonly in some industries such as the Armed Forces. This is used to inform employees that they are to do as their told.

This method has apparent pro’s and con’s, some personnel will not take lightly to the “monkey say, monkey do” approach; it can be deemed condescending and encourages little educational development from employees.

In adverse circumstances, this can be an ideal approach as it provides a platform to take charge and ensures people do as what they are told to achieve the objective.

This is the “back seat” approach to management, a manager would inform their employees of the vision of the organisation and how they can achieve that. They would be ‘firm but fair’, this will notify their subordinates that they are approachable; however they are not a ‘doormat’. They would motivate their staff by providing feedback on their performance.

This method allows the employees to free roam and think for themselves but offers that level of discipline in the event of complacency.
Some may deem this approach to be relatively careless as the manager is not on the forefront of the workload.

This is the method of “people before the task”, the social aspect of the organisation will take precedence over everything else. The management will have a focus on how to bring the best from their employees. There is an emphasis on harmony within the workplace, with the aim of having a peaceful and respectful environment.

With such an emphasis on the morale of the employees, personnel will be content their opinions and well-being are valued.

The level of performance within the organisation may be sub-standard due to the lack of focus on the work.

This is commonly known as the ‘democratic style of management’, Managers will not only have a predominant focus on harmony within the working environment; they are willing to listen to the opinions on any affairs. They may use a voting like system for any decisions made.

This method will create trust among staff, this incentivises personnel to work for each other.

This will be very time consuming for the manager, this will subsequently increase their workload and may make their decisions extremely inefficient.

A.C. 2.3 – Establish how to communicate organisational values to the organisation that motivate the organisation to apply these values
Communication is an imperative component of any organisation, this is the process that ensures that all personnel are well informed of concurrent events partaking inside the workplace. This will boost team morale and cohesion. Some of the positive effects of communication within an organisation are detailed as follows:
Builds and maintains relationships: It is able to build that trust between both employer and employees; it allows them to have faith that important information will always be cascaded and not ‘leave them in the dark’ over matters that may inadvertently affect them.
Innovation Facilitation: Communication on matters may lead to personnel expressing their opinions which may lead to alternative options for Managers. A lack in communication would provide a ‘bottle neck’ in innovative ideas from their subordinates and peers.

Effective Team Builder: Communication amongst all departments and levels may lead to personnel feeling far more comfortable within their role. For example, if employees had information that an upcoming redundancy was to take place; they may have a fair amount of prior knowledge, allowing them to look for other options simultaneously, preventing them from ‘falling off the cliff’.

Team Management: Managers that have the tools to communicate effectively will subsequently bring the best out for their employees’ work. They can utilise their communication skills to inform them of where they are excelling and where they may need to develop, without offending them. This again will build that trust between the employer and their employees.

Managers will need to consider about the different ways to get their message across; there comes a time when actions are louder than words. The following methods can be implemented to assist with getting their message to the audience:
Leading by the front
The Manager will need to adopt any values that are published within the organisation, this will demonstrate to their subordinates that they have assumed that philosophy. It is imperative that this action is taken, to avoid ascertaining a negative perception from the very people that they wish to follow suit.

A Manager could get involved in any of the monotonous, arduous and repetitive tasks that some employees may have to adopt; this will give the employees the belief that they have someone who genuinely believes in the ethos that they distribute.

Enhance employees’ knowledge
The simple task of distributing leaflets to members of staff may seem like pragmatic approach; it can be construed as quite the opposite. An employee is likely to have a brief glance at a booklet before disposing of it. The Manager may need to review their options and perhaps and have ’round the table’ meetings to discuss any concurrent events. This will provide the opportunity for those inquisitive individuals to let their voice be heard.

It may the common case in the event of a meeting that there is only person speaking for the duration; it is important to encourage questions, opinions and general participation amid meetings. This will give them that ‘warm and fuzzy’ feeling that they are an asset within the organisation.

To conclude, communication is the catalyst in the endorsement of core values within an organisation. It will get a message from A to B efficiently and effectively.

Task 3 – Discuss four tools that are available to an organisation to identify and develop its culture and explain who should implement the use of these tools.
Devise four methods to deal with messages and behaviour which are in conflict with organisational values
Guideline word count: 400 – 500 words
A.C. 3.1 – Discuss the tools available to an organisation to identify and develop its culture
There are a number of tools available to an employer when considering the development of its culture within the organisation; some of these tools are detailed as follows:
Recruitment Strategy
The Organisation’s vision
The manager will need to consider their vision of the organisation; do they deem it to have a fast-paced philosophy, or do they prefer a more chilled environment where there is limited stress? This will allow them to have an idea on the type of people they recruit, are they employing someone that has experience working at high intensity pace; and will they easily adapt to their ways? Personnel whom prefer a slower, less stressful environment may not suitable for this role.

Cultural Fit Interview
This method should not be used to set people up to fail; however it should be utilised by asking potential employees what they hope to ascertain from the role; and what their aspirations are. Questions should be put forward of what they expect from the organisation; the manager can use this information to decipher whether the interviewee is suitable for the role.

Listen before providing information
A good tactic for any employer is to listen and gauge behaviours of the interviewee. They can ask probe them about previous experiences and ask them for input on hypothetical situations. Once they have sought a sufficient amount of information; they can inform them of what they expect within their organisation. This information will decide if both views correlate.

A Minimum of three people on the interviewing panel
We are all only human, it is not expected that we can elicit every minor detail from one conversation; amid interviews there should be a varied number of personnel that can probe and take notes on the interviewee. Having an adequate number of interviewers will allow them to discuss the individual post interview; they can compare information that they have annotated and come to an informed decision on their suitability.

Training and Development Strategy
Training and development is a fundamental element of any establishment; it not only allows personnel to be more proficient within their role, it can assist with retention and broadening of employability within the organisation. The following should be predominantly focused on:
Respectful Behaviour: It is imperative that personnel are polite and courteous to one another; they should be reminded that they should treat others how they wish to be treated.

Outcome Orientation: This is the emphasis on the outcome of any task; employees should be informed of their collaborated efforts and achievements.

Attentive to Detail: Having that methodical approach to work and ensuring all the salient elements of the job are completed, along with the major tasks.

Innovation: Informing personnel that they are always encouraged to bring forward coherent ideas that will benefit the organisation.

Communication Strategy
There needs to be a level of consistency when conversing any message; if there are any conflicting messages, it can breed negativity and pessimism among employees.

Managers will need to ensure that they are not distributing contradicting messages from one another; this may give off the wrong message to their subordinates. It is pertinent that they are ‘singing off the same song sheet’.
The onus may be on the HR professionals to implement and announce policy that is line with the organisation’s values.

Reward System
This is the motivational process that HR can emphasise on to motivate employees to give 100% effort. This intertwines with core values such as team cohesion, integrity etc. For instance, if a department were working extremely efficiently due to high team work; they may be given an award, perhaps an extra leave day. The system is implemented to incentivise employees to not become complacent and comprehend that hard work is recognised at all levels.

A.C. 3.2 – Devise methods of dealing with messages and behaviours which are in conflict with organisational values
Conflict is an inevitably that is simply unavoidable; conflict can be deemed in a negative light; however with the correct mentoring, it can be very a useful asset. Everyone will have slightly differing views on different policies and ideas; it is how we voice these opinions, debate can be a healthy tool, if handled in the correct fashion.

To aid Managers with minimalising animosity and friction, they must consider the following factors:
Understanding and evaluating people’s emotional responses
Not all people will react the same to workplace disputes; some may react aggressively, passively, become upset, and some may not let it bother them. A Manager will need to evaluate different responses and tailor their mannerisms around that. This will assist them when providing both positive and negative feedback to the respective individual; without causing any disruption to their relationship and the organisational effectiveness.

For instance, if the manager had an aggressive demeanour and they displayed this to someone who also has an aggressive personality; this could lead to an unnecessary and avoidable altercation. They will need to consider if they are the right person to give them the feedback, and if so, they will need to inform them in a manner that does not ‘get their back up’.

Similar to above, the manager will need to elicit opinions from their peers of how they portray themselves. This will help them understand if they are someone who people are not keen to liaise with, due to their abrasiveness or aggression. Once they understand and accept where their faults are, they can use this to work on those weaknesses.

Considering all views
Leaders should consider the views of all personnel within their organisation; fundamentally, everybody has an opinion, and these can be exploited to further enhance the organisation. It may cause friction if personnel are silenced by their superiors; it will make them feel inferior and their level of participation may begin to deplete.

Rooting the issue
Getting to the root of any issue can be achieved through conversation, simply speaking to someone can encourage them to open up about their issue(s). Once this problem has been established, possible resolutions can begin to be implemented.

Accepting people for how they are, not whom they are not
Everybody works in a different style, some may work in an unorthodox manner to others; it is vital that managers do not attempt to change their style, especially if their work output is still achieving expectations within the allotted time.

Implementation of Feedback sessions
There are scope to have Internal Climate Assessments within organisations; this will allow employees to have their input on different policies and other issues that they believe are good and bad. They may offer resolutions of how the organisation’s weaknesses can be improved. This can allow the hierarchy to ascertain details of common gripes; allowing them to plan the trajectory for the short and long term.

Be vigilant and enforce the team’s measures
It is understandable that nobody thrives from issuing discipline to others; however when protocol is in place, there must be a level of consistency. This will prevent issues of unfair disciplinary to differing personnel; for instance, if two people commit the same offence, they must be punished with similar volume; regardless of previous merit, no favouritism can be shown to either individual.

To conclude, not everybody will always see eye to eye, it is about the professional manner on how these issues are addressed. A manager has an ample amount of guidance, they will need to assess these and use them to better the organisation.

Task 4 – Determine three key strategies and tactics for their implementation in order to influence people in support of organisational values. Justify why these strategies are legitimate.

Evaluate how national differences and cultures can impact on transferability of operational structures, systems and processes
Guideline word count: 400 – 500 words
A.C. 3.3 – Determine legitimate strategies and tactics to influence people in support of organisational values
It is vital that all employees are on board with the organisation values; the onus will be on the manager to ensure that they are incentivised by them and that they believe in what they stand for. According to Bauer and Erdogan (2009), there are nine commonly used influence tactics, these are detailed as follows:
Rational Persuasion
This revolves around facts regarding data, statistics, pragmatism. Rational persuasion is used to elicit that trust that the employer has utilitarian decision-making alternatives.

Inspirational Appeals
This is the emphasis on values, emotions and feelings. This tactic is used to motivate the targeted audience; this method could be used by a public speaker, who could emphasise on the positives and detail what effects everybody’s hard-work can make.

3461385161290A notorious example of an inspirational message.

400000A notorious example of an inspirational message.

This messaged was used during the War to encourage personnel to join voluntarily. The poster itself holds a very powerful message; informing people that they have a moral and physical duty to serve their country.

This is the assistance from an external agency to help an employer spread a message; receiving information from someone whom is completely objective may entice people further to abide and champion their organisation values.

Personal Appeal
This is the common friendly approach, this is often used by people whom are on good terms. They may simply ask them to help them with something; out of respect they will assist them with the respective task.

This is the give and take approach; for instance, if someone helps someone with a task, there may be an expectation for them to reciprocate those actions at a later date, when needed.

This is the joint effort of numerous departments in the hope of achieving a similar goal; for instance, in May 2010, the Conservative Party and Liberal Democrats came into Government as a coalition; they joint forces with a joint aim, held in their manifesto.

This is the presumption from employees that if they do not do as they as directed; there will be consequences for their actions. An employer can re-emphasise this pressure by having both formal/informal conversations with their audience. Pressure tactics are useful when in adverse situations.

Legitimacy Tactics
This is the assurance that the rules are compliant with current policy and law. This is to ensure that the employer does not abuse their power; and all their actions can be justified and accounted for. This is not used to incentivise employees; it is to inform them that they are to follow the direction given.

Influence attempts have three possible outcomes that can occur, these are detailed as follows:
This is the refusal to do as directed, personnel may be vocal about this; informing their employer of their dissatisfaction; or being passive in their reluctance to complete the respective request.

This is the agreement that the audience will comply with what they have been tasked with; it does not necessarily mean that they agree with the idea behind it.

Commitment occurs when the employees not only agree with what has been directed; they also champion it among their peers.

A.C. 3.4 – Evaluate how national differences and cultures can impact on transferability of organisational structures, systems and processes
The Business Directory defines national culture as “The set of norms, behaviours, beliefs and customs that exist within the population of a sovereign nation. International companies develop management and other practices in accordance with the national culture they are operating in”. (Hofstede, 2018)
Professor Geert Hofstede undertook a full study of the dynamics of how values within a workplace are affected by culture. He defines culture as “the collective programming of the mind distinguishing the members of one group or category of people from others”.

During his research of national culture he noted that there were six dimensions to his research, these are detailed as follows:
Power Distance Index
This is the emphasis on the fact that members whom hold less power accept and understand that power is disseminated unequally among people.

The point behind this element is the emphasis on how society deals with the level of inequality of power among people.

Individualism versus collectivism
This defines the difference of people’s perspectives in relation to caring for others.

Individualism refers to someone whose main concern are themselves and their imminent family. This approach could be deemed as an insular approach.

Collectivism is the broader outlook of caring people outside their imminent family parameter.

This could be answered by people’s self-image being referred to as “I” or “we”.

Masculinity versus femininity
Masculinity in an organisation can be referred to a society for achievement, heroism, assertive tones and success. There is a focus on competition and winning.

Femininity refers to caring for people whom are weak, modesty and aiding quality of life. This has a predominant focus on consensus-orientation.
It is all about finding the fine balance between achieving goals and helping those most vulnerable achieve their goals.

Long Term Orientation versus Short Term Orientation
Industries that score low on this dimension are one’s that are reluctant or apprehensive to change; there is more of a concern about past merit and their previous successful way of conducting tasks.

Industries that score high on this dimension have more of a logical reasoning approach to this; they will consider modern trends and prepare their organisation for the future, embracing change.

There may always be a reluctance to completely change the dynamics of an organisation; especially when their ways have always been successful; embracing any change should be taken with an open mind to ensure that the organisation reaches the best possible outcome.

Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI)
As mentioned above, some personnel will always have reluctance to change; change can be a scary but also exciting part of life. It is about going into the realms of the unknown with an open and optimistic frame of mind.

Indulgence versus restraint
Indulgence refers to a society that is content for people to enjoy themselves and having fun; as oppose to restraint, which elaborates on strict social regulations. Again, what matters more, completing the work efficiently or maintaining morale?
How National Culture affects Organisations
It is becoming more and more common that personnel from different backgrounds and culture are beginning to work alongside each-other. This is allowing businesses to elicit a vastly diverse workplace; this will help them by having people whom have a toolbox of different ideas, adding further value to the organisation. There are three main areas that are mainly affected by different cultures, these are detailed as follows:
English is the business language of the world, even if someone speaks perfect English; messages may be misconstrued from lack of education of someone else’s culture. When conveying a message to another, words count for only 7% of that message. The main focus is the body language of the person giving that instruction; if that message is taken out of context, it may lead to an unnecessary grievance.
It is important that a manager is comprehensive in their familiarity of their employees’ background; this will allow them to educate others to prevent confusion.

Workplace etiquette
This point refers to different understandings of others; everybody will all have a different perception on what means what. For example in the Armed Forces, if there is a parade at 1200 hrs; there would be an expectation to be there around 15 minutes prior to that timing. This is to show efficiency and prevent anybody from being late. In most organisations, if this timing was given; it would be expected that people arrive a few minutes before or after that.
Another example, if someone within an organisation was to work a few extra hours after their allotted working day; some may see this as someone who is extremely loyal and keen. Others may see it as someone who is unable to manage their workload; thus, is inefficient at their role.

Organisational Hierarchy
This is the responses to the hierarchy within an organisation; some people will accept being told what to do when given an instruction; whereas others may question the legitimacy or the productivity of it. Managers will need to know how to deal with the differing personalities and cultures in this aspect.

It is a good tool to sometimes question why something needs doing; it allows them to understand the reasoning behind it and what is being used for. It can however upset others if their inquisitive attitude is persistently shown as it may show a lack of trust in their managers ability.

Countries such as Japan whom generally have a social hierarchal structure; this will breed respect for employees’ superiors when asked to do something.

Countries in Scandinavia such as Norway, have more of a social democracy within their working organisations. There will be more of an emphasis on more informal conversations as oppose to having a dictated approach.

In-text: (Study.com, 2018)
Your Bibliography: Study.com. (2018). What is Organizational Culture? – Definition ; Characteristics – Video ; Lesson Transcript | Study.com. online Available at: https://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-organizational-culture-definition-characteristics.html# Accessed 19 Aug. 2018.

In-text: (tutor2u, 2018)
Your Bibliography: tutor2u. (2018). Handy’s Model of Organisational Culture | tutor2u Business. online Available at: https://www.tutor2u.net/business/reference/models-of-organisational-culture-handy Accessed 19 Aug. 2018.

In-text: (YouTube, 2018)
Your Bibliography: YouTube. (2018). Power Culture. online Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D9_e_nRbkZ0 Accessed 19 Aug. 2018.

In-text: (YouTube, 2018)
Your Bibliography: YouTube. (2018). Role Culture. online Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z-cn2wsm11c Accessed 19 Aug. 2018.

In-text: (YouTube, 2018)
Your Bibliography: YouTube. (2018). Task Culture. online Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mcywjsi1riw Accessed 19 Aug. 2018.

In-text: (UKEssays, 2018)
Your Bibliography: UKEssays. (2018). Internal And External Factors That Impact Organisational Business Essay. online Available at: https://www.ukessays.com/essays/business/internal-and-external-factors-that-impact-organisational-business-essay.php Accessed 19 Aug. 2018.

In-text: (Growth Engineering, 2018)
Your Bibliography: Growth Engineering. (2018). Improve Organizational Culture: 10 Quick Tips for a Better Company Culture. online Available at: http://www.growthengineering.co.uk/improve-organizational-culture-10-quick-tips/ Accessed 21 Aug. 2018.

In-text: (Cleverism, 2018)
Your Bibliography: Cleverism. (2018). 6 Management Styles and When Best to Use Them. online Available at: https://www.cleverism.com/management-styles/ Accessed 21 Aug. 2018.


In-text: (Mueller, 2018)
Your Bibliography: Mueller, D. (2018). How to Communicate Your Company’s Core Values and Work Culture. online Qnnect.com. Available at: https://www.qnnect.com/blog/how-to-communicate-your-companys-core-values-and-work-culture Accessed 22 Aug. 2018.

In-text: (Official Blog – Australian Institute of Business, 2018)
Your Bibliography: Official Blog – Australian Institute of Business. (2018). Why Communication Should Be a Focus in Business. online Available at: https://www.aib.edu.au/blog/communication/6-reasons-effective-communication-focus-business/ Accessed 22 Aug. 2018.

In-text: (Sbusinesslondon.neolms.eu, 2018)
Your Bibliography: Sbusinesslondon.neolms.eu. (2018). School of Business London. online Available at: https://sbusinesslondon.neolms.eu/student_lesson/show/1450?lesson_id=2208;section_id=7053 Accessed 23 Aug. 2018.

In-text: (The Globe and Mail, 2018)
Your Bibliography: The Globe and Mail. (2018). Top 10 ways to manage conflict in a business. online Available at: https://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/small-business/sb-managing/top-10-ways-to-manage-conflict-in-a-business/article25014821/ Accessed 25 Aug. 2018.

In-text: (Agile Vietnam, 2018)
Your Bibliography: Agile Vietnam. (2018). Common influence tactics. online Available at: https://agilevietnam.com/2013/01/04/common-influence-tactics/ Accessed 26 Aug. 2018.

In-text: (BusinessDictionary.com, 2018)
Your Bibliography: BusinessDictionary.com. (2018). What is national culture? definition and meaning. online Available at: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/national-culture.html Accessed 26 Aug. 2018.

In-text: (Hofstede Insights, 2018)
Your Bibliography: Hofstede Insights. (2018). National Culture – Hofstede Insights. online Available at: https://www.hofstede-insights.com/models/national-culture/ Accessed 26 Aug. 2018.

In-text: (Hult Blog, 2018)
Your Bibliography: Hult Blog. (2018). How cultural differences impact international business in 2017 Hult Blog. online Available at: http://www.hult.edu/blog/cultural-differences-impact-international-business/ Accessed 26 Aug. 2018.