Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u Chapter 1 Research Overview PAGEREF _Toc520673470 h 41.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc520673471 h 41.1 Background of the research PAGEREF _Toc520673472 h 41.2 Problem Statement PAGEREF _Toc520673473 h 61.3 Research Gap PAGEREF _Toc520673474 h 101.4 Research Objectives PAGEREF _Toc520673475 h 111.4.1 General Objective PAGEREF _Toc520673476 h 111.4.2 Specific Objectives PAGEREF _Toc520673477 h 111.5 Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc520673478 h 111.6 Hypotheses of the Research PAGEREF _Toc520673479 h 121.7 Significance of the Research PAGEREF _Toc520673480 h 121.8 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc520673481 h 14Chapter 2 Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc520673482 h 152.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc520673483 h 152.1 Review of the Literature PAGEREF _Toc520673484 h 152.1.1 Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) in Women Career Advancement PAGEREF _Toc520673485 h 152.1.2 Barriers to Women Career Advancement PAGEREF _Toc520673486 h 172.1.3 Glass Ceiling Effect PAGEREF _Toc520673487 h 182.1.4 Career Advancement PAGEREF _Toc520673488 h 192.2 Conceptual Framework PAGEREF _Toc520673489 h 202.3 Hypotheses Development PAGEREF _Toc520673490 h 222.3.1 Educational Level PAGEREF _Toc520673491 h 222.3.2 Family Consideration PAGEREF _Toc520673492 h 242.3.3 Organization Culture and Structure PAGEREF _Toc520673493 h 262.3.4 Glass Ceiling Effect PAGEREF _Toc520673494 h 282.4 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc520673495 h 29Chapter Three: Methodology PAGEREF _Toc520673496 h 303.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc520673497 h 303.1 Research Design PAGEREF _Toc520673498 h 303.2 Data Collection Method PAGEREF _Toc520673499 h 313.2.1 Primary Data PAGEREF _Toc520673500 h 313.2.2 Secondary Data PAGEREF _Toc520673501 h 313.3 Sampling Design PAGEREF _Toc520673502 h 323.3.1 Target Population PAGEREF _Toc520673503 h 323.3.2 Sampling Location PAGEREF _Toc520673504 h 323.3.3 Sampling Elements PAGEREF _Toc520673505 h 323.3.5 Sampling Size PAGEREF _Toc520673506 h 333.4 Research Instrument PAGEREF _Toc520673507 h 333.4.1 The Purpose of Using Questionnaire PAGEREF _Toc520673508 h 333.5 Construct Measurement PAGEREF _Toc520673509 h 333.5.1 Origin of Construct PAGEREF _Toc520673510 h 333.5.2 Data Scale of Measurement PAGEREF _Toc520673511 h 353.6 Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc520673512 h 363.6.1 Descriptive Analysis PAGEREF _Toc520673513 h 363.7 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc520673514 h 37References PAGEREF _Toc520673515 h 38
Chapter 1Research Overview1.0 IntroductionThis business project aims to examine and understand the relative factors which comprises of organization culture and its structure, family factors, education level and work-life disparity that contributes and effect Malaysian women career advancement. The area of research will be research background and its objectives followed by question, hypotheses and the beneficial outcomes of this research
1.1 Background of the researchThere is no doubt that significant progress has been achieved in furthering the cause of gender equality in the labor market over recent decades. Women nowadays have been moving steadily towards occupations, professions and managerial jobs previously reserved for men. Back in days, women were responsible for household chores only and the only occupation they can go for is, ‘Full-Time House Wife’. If they opt for working life, then they will face limitations such as, government servants, administrative staffs, teacher or nurses. It is undeniable that women are playing an active role, alongside with men in changing the world. This change can be due to the expansion of workplaces that require more labor, or perhaps due to the intentions of women demanding equal rights. (Cheuk, Mohammad, Jusuf, Raza, Noraini& Khairuddin, 2011). Women along with time have made much more progress in their professional and family life.Over the years, there has been a change in the perception of the society and business world, and the women have emerged as competent as men in the work places. While it would not be wrong to accept that the women’s workforce participation has increased substantially over the years (since 1970s), it remains lower than the men’s. There is considerable difference in the men and women employment in the country (Stewart, 2017).
The Malaysia Economic Monitor Report for December states that economy will benefit from the stable growth of GDP from 4.8% to 4.9%. It is important that Malaysians improve productivity in various sector to enhance competition and capabilities in the economy. By eliminating, the male dominance in the workplace Malaysia can experience a 25% increase in output per capital. (World Bank Group, 2012b). This is only possible when more women join workforces and reach higher positions in an organization. Malaysia is capable to transform into a high-income nation with more women participate in the workforce. Therefore, it is important to encourage women to bring their skills to the workforce because closer gender gaps could bring Malaysia into high income status (Yeoh, 2014).
According to an investigation from “The Population Of” (2014) , female population, which comprises of 51.11% is more noteworthy than male population which comprises of 48.15% in Malaysia (allude to Figure 1.1). Ladies constitute the greater part of the Malaysia’s population, it is critical to urge ladies to go into the workforce and hold a high senior-level position to upgrade the aggressiveness in the commercial center as indicated by the World Bank Senior Economist of Malaysia, Sander (as referred to in World Bank Group, 2012b),
Malaysia has just dispensed with the sexual orientation roles in education, a larger number of ladies than men are selected in advanced education. The significant test of Malaysia is pulling in and holding more qualified ladies in the workforce. The expansion of ladies getting into the workforce enhances the efficiency and mitigates the business dangers. This indicates that women build the efficiency of the business as the management has been focus on important aspects like the need for balancing the personal and professional lives. With increasing number of women entering the workforce, the attitude of the employers has significantly changed, and they have been able to minimize the risk arising from the employee perspective (WiseStep 2018).
Nonetheless, Malaysian government and businesses are a significantly way behind in using on this generally uncontested ability pool (TalentCorp and ACCA, 2013).
6032532473900369570Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1The Population of Malaysia from 2002-2012
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2 From The population of Malaysia goes up to 29,620,000 people.
1.2 Problem StatementThe reason that the cooperation rate for women is low in the nation is because Malaysian organizations are not conveying projects to pull in and hold more women in the work environment. (The Malaysian Reserve, 2013). Having women in the organizations is dynamic because of the developing impact of women in the business world and client base comprises of women for the most part. A key test for economies today is to draw in and hold more women in the workforce over the globe. Truth be told, the higher interest rate of women in the workforce builds aggressiveness and efficiency. Notwithstanding, Malaysian government businesses still fall behind in gaining by this undiscovered ability pool (as referred to in TalentCorp and ACCA, 2013).
As per the Malaysian Economic Monitor Report for November 2012 (as referred to in World Bank Group, 2012a), albeit Malaysian women having an advanced education level than men yet the investment rate of ladies in the workforce stay low at 46% contrasted with the neighboring nations, for example, Indonesia (52%), Thailand 70%) and Singapore (60%) (Kok, 2012) (allude to Figure 1.2). Other than that, as indicated by Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak (as referred to in “More Women In”, 2013), 75% of college under study are women yet the women were not similarly speaking to Malaysia’s work compels, there was a jumble amongst instruction and business. According to the Malaysian instruction division, there are just 44.8% of deans are women while there are 71% of instructor arewomen. In the corporate division, there is just 6.1% of chiefs are female and 7 CEOs are female in of Bursa’s 100 organizations. (Malaysian Working Mother Forum MWMF, 2012).
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3female workforce participation Rate in Malaysia is low to Asean countries
Note. From Kok, C. (2012, December 1). The under-developed asset: women
The evaluated number of women “truant” in Malaysian workforce is run from 500,000 to 2.3 million, demonstrating a cerebrum deplete from Malaysia’s ability pool (World Bank Group, 2012a). It will prompt higher human capital and GDP rate will be higher than 5% also by bringing some of these ‘truant women’ again into the workforce. Malaysia additionally could encounter a 23% expansion in salary for every capita with the presence of sex correspondence in the workforce.
There are a few holes enduring amongst females and male in the workforce as far as pay, profession way, and administration advancement. Women were significantly more probable than men to function as administrative laborers (19.2%), benefits specialist and shop and market deals (21%) as indicated by Department of measurement examine in Malaysia (as referred to in Ng, 2012), (allude to Figure 1.3). These employments are typically worked serious and appear as low talented. Men get considerably higher month to month paid for each occupation sort need, even in women overwhelmed employments. The National Employment Returns Report in 2008 (as referred to in Ng, 2012) expressed that the sex compensation distinction from RM82 for administrative laborers to RM1,774 for senior officers and directors (allude to Figure 1.4). Also, the women are underrepresented in administration parts. Korn Ferry’s investigation (as referred to in Yi, 2011) found that 56% of the sheets in Malaysia have no female portrayal. It is moderately high contrasted and Australia (29% just), China (39%) and Hong Kong
(43%) (allude to Figure 1.5).Besides, the arrangement of board ought to mirror the client base which women shape a noteworthy extent. This is because ladies have all the newer thoughts and diverse assessments to address their market. To put it plainly, it is essential to look at the obstructions to Malaysian ladies’ professional success altogether to fathom the basic financial and social issues in Malaysia.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4Occupation Category for Male and Female in 2001 and 2009
Note. From Ng, C. (2012). Women: Economy and employment.
Figure 5Wage Differential between Male and Female in 2008
Note. From Ng, C. (2012). Women: Economy and employment.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 6Asia Boards’ Level of Female Representation
From Yi, A. (2011). Mind the gap: Half of Asia’s boards have no women, a risky position for governance and growth.
1.3 Research GapSexual orientation assorted variety and consideration are essential for association supportability, yet the consciousness of this issue is still low inside Malaysian association (TalentCorp and ACCA, 2013). There are many organizations in Malaysia are not executing projects to advance more ladies go into the workforce even though many examinations have demonstrated that using female capital prompts monetary development. General data is accessible about components contributing low investment rate in ladies’ workforce. With a specific end goal to contribute in accomplishing sexual orientation balance in the Malaysian workforce, this exploration will examine the obstructions to ladies’ profession progression which likewise deciding the explanations for low investment rate of ladies in Malaysian workforce. Above all, this examination additionally gives suggestions for the administration and manager to recognize the arrangements and projects can be actualized to address these hindrances.
1.4 Research Objectives1.4.1 General ObjectiveThe general target of this investigation is to comprehend the hindrances and difficulties confronted by ladies in propelling their professional life and see how these hindrances could be overcome. A definitive goal is to suggest some best practices/methodologies for the government and businesses/organization to help and retain women in the work force through and contribute towards elimination of the gender biasness in the workforce.
1.4.2 Specific ObjectivesTo examine the relationship between education level with Malaysian women career advancement.
To examine the relationship between organization culture and structure with Malaysian women career advancement.
To examine the relationship between family consideration with Malaysian women career advancement.
To examine the relationship between glass ceiling effect with Malaysian women career advancement.
1.5 Research QuestionsHow does education level relate with Malaysian women career advancement?
How do organization culture and structure relatewith women career advancement?
How does family considerationrelate with Malaysian women career advancement?
How does glass ceiling effect relatewith Malaysian women career advancement?
1.6 Hypotheses of the ResearchInitial Hypothesis
H0: Education level is not a barrier to the Malaysian women professional success.
H1: Education level is a barrier to the Malaysian women profession
H0: Education level has no impact on the Malaysian women professional success.
H1: Education level is critical and decidedly related to the Malaysian women profession
H0: Family thought is not identified with Malaysian women professional success.
H2: Family thought is critical and decidedly identified with Malaysian women professional success.
H0: Organization culture and structure is not identified with Malaysian women profession advancement.
H3: Organization culture and structure is critical and decidedly identified with Malaysian women professional success.
H0: Glass ceiling effect is not related to Malaysian women career advancement.
H4: Glass ceiling effect is significant and positively related to Malaysian women career advancement.
1.7 Significance of the ResearchThe consequence of the exploration will give profitable knowledge to the administration, businesses and market members to distinguish the barriers of Malaysian women in advancing their career life and battle the difficulties of advancing and holding women in the workforce. It is imperative for women themselves to take an interest in the workforce and turn into a fiscally free woman, so they can take their own choices without subordinate upon others for cash. Likewise, fiscally subordinate women are great monetary help for the family and contributing fiscally to the public and economy. Women can help in social causes and lift national’s GDP by acquiring effectively (Urvashi, 2012).
It is vital to concentrate on the ramifications of women as essential or co-provider for families and workforce as Malaysian women are bringing home more salary than any other time in recent memory. Consequently, it is basic for government to keep on finding approaches to help double pay families. The legislature should execute a few practices to draw in and hold women to partake in the workforce by perceiving the energy of women funnies. Hence, the objective of tenth Malaysian Plan to build women workforce to 55% of every 2015 is achievable (TalentCorp and ACCA, 2013).
Malaysian women are most dynamic in the workforce at the time of twenties. The interest rate in the workforce starts to diminish once women enter another phase of life. Therefore, women in administration parts are dwarfed by their male associates. The low cooperation given by women in the workforce is considered as a type of cerebrum deplete. This is because just 11% of women who progress to administration part are staying in the workforce. Interestingly, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan can stay 20% of women in the workforce (Staffing Industry Analysts, 2013). The organizations are not doing what’s needed to hold the women in the workforce (Turner, 2012). The discoveries of this exploration will be important for the businesses to execute sex assorted variety and consideration practices to build the investment rate of women in the workforce. The businesses will discover these outcomes valuable to give a strong of the women-accommodating workplace. By developing and enhancing women’s ability pol, the vision of Malaysia to wind up plainly a high-salary country by 2020 is achievable.
1.8 ConclusionPart one builds up the outline of this business examine, it clears up the foundation and the issues of Malaysian women professional success. The objectives, inquiries and criticalness of the exploration have cleared up in this part, the hypotheses have been built up also. On next part, the past scientists’ studies will be examined, theoretical framework and hypotheses advancement will be decided for the examination.
Chapter 2Literature Review2.0 IntroductionKeeping in mind the end goal to give some establishment foundation and reason for the examination venture, writing audits of the past investigations done by a few researchers will be center in this section. It demonstrates the theories bolster the examination venture and filled in as direction to the improvement of hypotheses. The principal segment will be the survey of the factors on this point. Next, a proposed framework will be produced from the examination objectives and research questions. In the keep going area, hypotheses on each of the segments will be produced and be tried to survey the relationship towards Malaysian women career advancement
2.1 Review of the Literature2.1.1 Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) in Women Career AdvancementSocial cognitive profession theory (SCCT; R. W. Loaned, S. D. Darker, and G. Hackett, 1994) underscores cognitive-individual factors that empower individuals to impact their own career improvement, and in additional individual (e.g., logical) factors that upgrade or oblige individual organization. Although the theory has yielded a constant flow of request and useful applications, moderately little of this work has analyzed SCCT’s logical factors or hypotheses. In this article, a few roads for invigorating investigation of the relevant parts of Career are considered. Specifically, the creators (a) look at ” career barriers,” a reasonably pertinent develop, from the point of view of SCCT; (b) propose extra setting centered research and practice bearings got from SCCT. Women professional success is more mind boggling than men because of some interior and outside obstructions, for example, women’s instruction level, family duty and authoritative culture which limit on women’s vocation decisions (Coogan and Chen, 2007). This exploration starts with exchanges of the boundaries in connection to women professional success and pertinence to SCCT as it connects to women vocation needs. As per Morris, Shoffner and Newsome (2009), SCCT is a model created by Loaned, Brown and Hackett in 1994 for professional success. In this theory, individual determinants (self-adequacy) join with saw natural determinants (obstructions and backings) prompt behavioral determinants (profession conduct, intrigue and objective) (allude to Figure 2.1). Self-adequacy is a conviction on a person’s capacity to accomplish a specific objective. Seen hindrance and backings will either help or block an individual to achieve his or her errand. Self-adequacy of working women has a positive association with saw boundaries and backings. Therefore, it is imperative to recognize the wellsprings of backings and obstructions of women profession keeping in mind the end goal to give the women with chance to expand self-adequacy and result desires (Ali and Manke, 2014).
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 7 Social cognitive profession theoryA few specialists utilized SCCT in their investigation of women professional success. Coogan et al. (2007) surveyed some examination from SCCT theory to finish up with a few recommendations to address the specific needs of women relating in their profession life. The scientists likewise found that women’s professional success is influenced by individual, condition and social factor which made boundaries for women build up their vocation. In Wright, Perrone-McGovern, Boo and White’s examination (2012) proposed that profession backings and boundaries assume a basic part in influencing self-adequacy of women, the women saw profession hindrances are adversely related in vocation basic leadership. The specialists had distinguished the women’s vocation backings and obstructions considering SCCT show and create techniques to help the women to manage the recognized hindrances. In the investigation from Flores and O’Brien (2002) additionally inspected the impact of individual and social factors on women’s profession intrigue, objective and execution. The discoveries of the investigation were predictable with SCCT which infer profession premium straightforwardly influence profession objective and self-adequacy influence vocation objective through profession intrigue.
2.1.2 Barriers to Women Career AdvancementBrown and Barbosa (as referred to in Domenico and Jones, 2014) said that there are range of critical roadblocks in the women professional success advance, it occurs all through women’s life stage, for example, tutoring, working and conceive an offspring. According to the study conducted by, (Hyuk-Young 2005), it was noted that the barriers can be emerging based on the country, culture, individual belief and family commitment. In the study of Patwardhan et al. (2016), societal stereotypes against the women, lack of solutions for balancing the work and life and the need for focusing on the family responsibilities compared to men were found to be significant barriers to the career advancement of the women.
Swanson et al. (1997) recognized hindrances can be overwhelmed by distinguishing the kind of boundaries and individual identity. As indicated by Powell (as referred to in Simpson, 2015), there are two sorts of professional challenges, first challenge is “person centered” which incorporate individual attributes, qualities and practices that are not well-fit in administrative parts. Second hindrance is ‘circumstance focused’ which allude to the deterrent inside the work and social-social condition. According to the findings of Simpson (2004), person centered barriers are related to the individual whereas the circumstance or the situational barriers are more inclined towards the work environment. The “person centered” hindrances to professional success will be referred to women’s educational level, while the ‘circumstance focused’ barriers are examined from the perspective of organisational culture and structure, the family commitment, work-life balance and glass ceiling effect.
2.1.3 Glass Ceiling EffectKnutson and Schmidgall (as referred to in Zhong, 2006) showed the glass ceiling is one of the obstructions to women bearer advancement, it alludes to imperceptible barriers that keep qualified women from creating to their maximum capacity inside their organization. It is common tendency for the women to get over presented at the junior executive level but under represented at the senior or the managerial levels. This misrepresentation leads to negative impact on the morale as well as the work environment of the organization (Pillay, 2005). Even though the quantity of working women is expanding in the workforce however the quantity of women in senior level stay low despite the skills and competencies of the women as effective as men. Impetus Inc. (2014), a non-profit association in US showed the glass ceiling in an administration pyramid of women workforce (allude to Figure 2.1). There are 46.8% of US work drive comprises of women, 51.4% of women are in administration and professional level and don’t proceed onward to wind up some portion of the 14.3% of the official officers. A large portion of them remain in the present employments or leave from the workforce. Essentially, the quantity of women gets smaller as they get climb to the administration stepping stool. As indicated by the overview by McKinsey and Co (as referred to in Tiang, 2013), 52% of the entry level professional are women however when they get into senior administration level, they include just 11% of the workforce. The number turns out to be much littler 7% at the CEO and board level.
0-496602As indicated by Lunn (2007), the hindrances to women professional success in Malaysian high instruction industry are more unequivocal. Many the women get chance to move into the line administration level right off the bat in their professions, yet they scarcely get advanced past Dean. As indicated by Omar (as referred to in Lunn, 2007), women scarcely get elevated to center administration level in scholastic industry since it tends to be political arrangement rather than scholarly accomplishment. Other than that, Mohamad study’s (as referred to in Lunn, 2007) expressed that even though the women wish to have an approach of sexual orientation value however this control is refuted by the religious framework that benefits a male centric perspective. Thus, it adversely affects the assurance and economy of any association.
2.1.4 Career AdvancementMaskell-Pretz and Hopkins (1997) characterizes hindrance as a factor, circumstance or occasion that anticipate or control one’s entrance to making process. Professional success is characterized by Newman (as referred to in Subramaniam and Arumugam, 2013a) as the results of socio-mental, human capital and orderly factor. Hindrance can be portray as the contention between the capacity of women and their accomplishment, the hindrance additionally could clarify the restraint of women’s profession advancement(Swanson and Woitke, 1997). Consequently, plainly the effects of the nearness of boundaries and support on women’s professional success results are constantly considered together as they are reflecting impression of each other. Dominant part of the Malaysian college graduates are women, there is a great deal of required ability has been squandered because of some pointless hindrances confronted by qualified women when they seek after their profession. It is imperative that the businesses perceive the significant asset that speak to by women in authoritative and administration parts then utilize them effectively. Furthermore, women at midlife are vary from women at prior and later vocation stages. Women at midlife have set up their profession yet look for further advancement. A few women have hitched or have youngsters, so they will confront a few difficulties with work-life issues, for example, decisions about how to apportion their time in vocation administration and work-life adjust. Women are gradually moving into administrative and position of authority in more noteworthy numbers. The pattern of expanding number of working women in worldwide workforce keeps on pulling in women at the readiness arrange (college training, especially undergrad and postgraduate in business thinks about) to further seek after profession exhibiting upward versatility (Burke and Mattis, 2005
2.2 Conceptual Framework
3996055332740BARRIERS TO MALAYSIAN
00BARRIERS TO MALAYSIAN
17843519685ORGANIZATION CULTURE AND STRUCTURE
00ORGANIZATION CULTURE AND STRUCTURE
17843536830GLASS CEILING EFFECT
00GLASS CEILING EFFECT
The model above demonstrates the proposed of theoretical framework that fill in as the establishment to proceed in this examination contemplate. The created of this framework is in view of the examination objectives and inquiries on this investigation. This framework shows the connection between the autonomous factors (left side) with subordinate variable (right side) which use to look at the connection between training level, association culture and structure, family contemplations, and glass ceiling effect with Malaysian women professional success. The prior area has talked about the needy and autonomous factors while the improvement of hypotheses will be shown in the following segment.
2.3 Hypotheses Development2.3.1 Educational LevelMalaysian women in rustic region are still following their conventional social incentive as women are required to be as a spouse and mother (Abdullah, 2008). Truth be told, they have brought down instructive level, so they are more averse to be utilized. Absence of capability (low training level) thwarting them to advance further in profession. In Wentling’s investigation (as referred to in Subramaniam, Arumugam and Abu Bakar Akeel, 2013b) found that the professional success of women to senior parts relies upon their training level and the advancement openings.
Har and Chong (2014) said by a finding from Department of Statistics Malaysia, higher enlistment rate of women in college will enhance the women’s cooperation rate in the workforce. Be that as it may, the higher the enlistment rate in optional school, the lower the women cooperation rate in the workforce. This is since the women will leave the workforce once they have get married and plan to begin a family and choose to be full-time housewives. The women with certificate or degree capability are special case, they may come back to the workforce even though they have hitched with kids. Nieva, Gutek and Schiffler’s exploration (as referred to in Domenico et al., 2006) found that exceptionally instructed women will probably take part in work than lower instructed women. This is because they have higher desire in the changing parts what’s more, keener on professional vocations. The analysts likewise demonstrated that profoundly instructed women tend to associate in ceaseless business and expand their interest rate in workforce. Furthermore, high scholarly accomplishment perceives to be a piece of worker choice in a few associations particularly for crisp graduate who have no working background (Ernst and Young Global Limited, 2012). Becker’s examination (as referred to in Zhong, 2006) indicated instructive fulfillment is a fundamental giver in professional success and occupation portability where a woman with lone wolf’s degree is advantaged in her vocation advance. Another finding from Sparrowe and Iverson (1999) was that, despite the high training level held, a few women seen ease back professional success because of absence of related preparing and expertise. In this manner, appropriate preparing and improvement are a confirmation of being esteemed. In Eldridge, Park, Phillips and Williams’ (2006) think about likewise found that training, preparing and involvement in the related territory are imperative in women’s profession accomplishment. Relational aptitude, administrative expertise and certainty are drivers of achievement other than exceptionally instructed.
The Malaysia Economic Monitor Report for November 2012 (as referred to in World Bank Group, 2012a) demonstrated that advanced education level has a positive and noteworthy effect on women’s workforce support. The women with post-optional and tertiary level are exceptionally dynamic in labor showcase over all age groups. The analyst moreover said the women with bring down training levels not just leave the workforce after marriage and don’t return yet they additionally abstain from joining the workforce in the first put because of high rate of underemployment and low wage work.
The greater part of the women who originated from a decent social-monetary foundation and highly educated are profited in their profession life. Nevertheless, the female business people who have not gotten a high training are contrast as far as identity and mental qualities. They began up their business with a solid energy for progress. They confronted snags at the beginning time of their profession however they didn’t surrender and keep on working hard until the point that their desire is accomplished (Sepehri, Sattari andRashvanlouei, 2010). Keeping in mind the end goal to prevail in professional success, scholarly accomplishment is required, and budgetary capacity is critical in achieving training. These days, it is not a trouble for women to accomplish advanced education. The country women are more relied upon the family who give budgetary and passionate support to them. The urban women will look for grants and advances to help themselves in their advance (Abdullah et al., 2008).
Keeping in mind the end goal to further investigation the connection between instruction level with profession advancement, this examination recommended that:
H1: Education level is critical and decidedly identified with Malaysian women profession advancement.
2.3.2 Family ConsiderationMarriage is emphatically associated with low level of women interest in workforce, reflecting women experience issues in adjusting work with family commitments (World Bank Group, 2012a). The wedded women have the most minimal investment in the workforce, most them occupied with housework, for example, taking consideration their kids. Other than that, there is absence of reasonable and superb childcare choices outside and notwithstanding when their kid goes to kindergarten or grade school, numerous women discover it hard to return to workforce because of moderately short school hours. Women directors who have family are experienced with more difficulties in adjusting their work and family duties. This is because the obligation of childcare is still put on mother, which putting included duty working women that is sometimes went up against by men (Amaratunga et al., 2008).
As indicated by the discoveries from the overview of TalentCorp and ACCA (2013), the principle reason of Malaysia women exit from the workforce was to raise a family in light of the fact that there are restricted options for working mothers to consider in taking consideration their kids. The increasing expense of house keepers and childcare focuses, long and resolute working hours and absence of help from the businesses are likewise the reasons that they are clearing out from the workforce. As per Abdullah et al. (2008), women have solid duty on family obligation particularly in numerous Asian nations. They are more unpleasant due to having part of contention amongst work and family. As per an examination done by Funston and Quach (2008), women are being underrepresented in senior administration level in Australia was essentially because of family responsibilities. Women are relied upon to be the primary care suppliers to satisfy the family needs. Therefore, family duty affects a women’s capacity to accomplish her vocation objectives. The specialists likewise found there is absence of sharing duty part in parental care amongst a couple. Occasionally, women need to make troublesome choice, for example, stay single or childless in examination with the men so as to achievement in professional success since they remain the primary parental figure of the family (Subramaniam et al., 2013b) As per Sepehri et al. (2010), women constantly confronted block in business what’s more, advancement openings because of their contention part amongst work and family. Hochscid and Machung (as referred to in Sepehri et al., 2010) found that lone 20% of the men in double pay families bring on level with housework with their accomplice. The women have numerous parts to manage their work and family, this has come about the contention emerge between their social part of worker and their normal social part of spouse and mother. What’s more, the women may never accomplish the equality of need and merit contrast with men due with extra obligations at home (Subramaniam et al., 2013a).
In Mallon and Cassell’s investigation (1999) found that women experiencing issues in looking for advancements in a few enterprises because of the prerequisite of long working hours. The open doors for advancement is additionally appears not commendable for women since they need to give up the quality time go through with their families. As indicated by Jacobs (2012), numerous new mothers think that it’s hard to concentrate on their work once they get over from maternity take off. There is nobody deal with their youngster unless the organization has a decent kid emotionally supportive network where they can continue working with significant serenity.
Nevertheless, a few women stay in the workforce because their folks help to take look after their kid with the reason of trust and family relationship. They additionally enlist hireling to help in family unit obligation, so they can invest more energy at work (World Bank Group, 2012a). Other than that, watchful arranging is vital for double profession couples to manage local weights. A few women get assistance from the spouse to do the housework where both are sharing the family duties (Abu Bakar, 2012). To be sure, the help of spouse and family is essential in keeping up double vocation relationship and adjusting the women’s part in family and work life (Lunn, 2007). Keeping in mind the end goal to further examination the connection between family thought with profession advancement, this examination suggested that:
H2: Family thought is critical and emphatically identified with Malaysian women professional success.
2.3.3 Organization Culture and StructureSepheri et al. (2010) said there is a link between organizational culture with the managerial roles and gender. Most of the organizations in the 20th century have been rerun by men, while women are in low-level positions with little autonomy. Thus, the organization culture has been shaped by men, there is a commonplace associate in the minds of people between males’ traits and managerial ability. Male-dominated organizations also lead to perception that men are the appropriate spokesperson and decision-maker. According to Funston et al. (2008), the ‘men’s club’ still exists in some organizations, the men are more likely to have a mentor and have more opportunities for promotion. As a result, there is isolation for women promoted into managerial level within many organizations. In Cockburn’s study (as cited in Pillay, 2005) stated that the male-denominated organizations are not intended to closer the wage gap and diversify their workforce by moving women from low-paying occupations into higher level jobs. Due to greater use of informal networking, men tend to be promoted faster than women, while women just rely on formal promotion procedure. The training opportunity is also offer more to men than women in terms of managerial development (Subramaniam et al. 2013a) According to Vianen and Fischer (2002), the women seem less ambitious than men to progress to management level, the organizations should change the organization culture by trying to motivate women with higher paid and recognition. The researchers concluded that the processes of selection and lack of female role models are the causes of the slow advancement of women to top management level. Besides that, there is an obstacle for women to develop their career in a ‘men’s club’ culture. This is because they experience resistance in information sharing and development of relationships (Simpson, 2004). The Law Society (2010) describes the legal profession as cultural masculinity because the male mindset and culture of the profession is very entrenched, and it does not help women, only men. The news of marriage, child-birth or even engagementwould be indicating lack of commitment in the workplace. Furthermore, there are lacks positive women role models in their profession. They identified most of the women in senior roles achieved the status at a significant cost to their personal lives. Therefore, it did not inspire the young profession to advance further. Chakrabarty’s research (as cited in Abdullah et al., 2008) found that female managers are less acceptable in the male-dominated culture. There are some organizations are practicing job segmentation where men are normally being employed under decision making departments whereas women are placed in supporting departments. In addition, opportunity of growth for women were restricted in some organizations, there is an earning gap between men and women with similar job level or educations and experiences. This has resulted high turnover rates and less senior-roles of women (Domenico et al., 2006) However, In Eagle and Johnson’s study (as cited in Zhong, 2016) stated the management styles between women and men are not much different, the organizations culture is no longer in male-denominated nowadays and women in senior-roles have adapted their behavior to correspond to traditional male-dominated culture. Additionally, the female leaders always get cooperation and respect from colleagues. There is also increasing of women leader in corporations nowadays due to increasing of acceptance and recognition of women in leadership (Amaratunga, Haigh, Ginige ; Thurairajah, 2010). To further study the relationship between organization culture and structure with career advancement, this study proposed that
H3: Organization culture and structure is significant and positively related to Malaysian women career advancement.
2.3.4 Glass Ceiling EffectAccording to Sepehri et al. (2010), there are some explanations for women fail to advance to senior managerial level. Most organizations have been created by men and they have some prejudices block women from laddering to senior positions. Some prejudices refer to describe stereotypical characteristic of women such as emotionalism and limited stress resistance as negative leadership qualities. As a result, the masculine traits are generally regarded as more suitable for management. There islack of awareness about diversity, diversity initiatives and leadership training to promote women enters management level. These deficiencies from the aspect of organization disadvantage women in terms of advancing their career (Simpson, 2004). In addition, Brownell, Diaz and Umbreit (as cited in Zhong, 2006) indicated that the challenges of women face in progressing to the senior roles include the old boy network, poor career planning and unhelpful boss. The advancement towards higher level is difficult for women manager because the glass-ceiling still exists. It implies that the organizational barriers which beyond personal control as the most significant barrier towards women’s upward progression (Subramaniam, 2013a). The male-dominated working environment and an inequitable working culture prejudiced against women cited as main reason for women to leave from workplace. There is an inequality opportunity and the process for leadership development is not solid and transparent at all. It implicates women’s perception of unfair selection and gender penalization compared to their men colleagues (TalentCorp;ACCA, 2013). According to Jaromilla (as cited in Pillay, 2005), the glass ceiling was created when a society made women believe they should be home taking care of the family. This has changed tremendously whilst women are being encouraged to pursue higher education and compete with the men for the highest positions in a fairer way. Although there is an increase of highly educated women, but the problem has not been resolved. Man are still ruling the companies and protecting their power with well managed ‘glass-ceiling’. Some women often found that the men still prefer to work with male colleagues even though they are treated with respect. The casual interaction between men seems make them more comfortable together (Eldridge et al., 2006). Besides that, gender stereotyping happens when the organization assigns the task with decision making to the men and women assist to carry out. This can result in dissatisfaction in work and ultimately affect their career advancement opportunities (Amaratunga et al., 2008). However, there are some changes to the organizational culture nowadays with the law of anti-discrimination and equal opportunity and gender equality. Culture change was associated with reduced career barriers and has a significant effect on the success of women leaders in any industry (Amaratunga et al., 2008). In PWC of Malaysia, 64% of manager, 41% of directors and 36% of partners are women. There is no specific policy to add women in senior positions, just every employee is given equal opportunities (Jacobs, 2012). Besides that, Ernst ; Young Malaysia provides education, mentoring and networking opportunities to assist women succeed as professionals and leaders. In Securities Commission Malaysia, the women in senior roles act as role model and mentors to motivate the younger counterparts to climb up to the career ladder (TalentCorp;ACCA, 2013). In order to further study the relationship between glass ceiling effect with career advancement, this study proposed that
H4: The glass ceiling effect is significant and positively related to Malaysian women career advancement.
2.4ConclusionSection two conveys an intensive outline and comprehension of this business inquire about. The connection between the reliant variable with every free factor is deciphered in the hypotheses frame. All the four hypotheses will be tried in view of the reaction from the specimen with legitimate research approach which will be talked about in the following part.
Chapter Three: Methodology3.0 IntroductionThis chapter for getting essential information to look at the hypotheses featured in Chapter two. The areas will be examining in this section incorporate plan of research, strategies for information accumulation, outline of inspecting, instruments of research, develop estimation, estimation scales, information handling also, techniques to examine the information.
3.1 Research DesignAn exploration configuration gives a rule to do the examination. Allude to the control of niggardliness (as referred to in Hair, Money, Samuel and Page, 2007), the scientist ought to select an outline which gives proper data on the examination questions and hypotheses. Furthermore, the plan should to enable the analyst to finish the errand proficiently. The establishment period of the essential research process is finished once the specialist has settled the investigation plan (Hair et al., 2007).
In this exploration, quantitative approach will be directed to gauge the components that would ruin Malaysian women professional success. Quantitative methodologies give objectivity and general information to test the hypotheses by applying measurement estimation. The numbers are utilized specifically by the respondents to speak to normal for something, the scientist’s view does not influence the hypotheses test what’s more, the survey was additionally embraced from the past research (Hair et al., 2007).
Descriptive and inferential insights will be utilized to direct the information investigation for this look into. The histogram and graph got by clear insights from the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) help the specialist to comprehend and break down the information all the more effectively. Inferential measurements are utilized to clarify hypotheses and help the scientist to make suppositions about the population from an example (Hair et al., 2007). Other than that, clear research is led to obtain the information that portrays the factors of this examination. Cross-sectional investigation is utilized as a part of this examination where information is gathered from target population at a given point in time and outlined factually.
3.2 Data Collection MethodThere are different wellsprings of information and techniques to gather the information with the end goal of dissecting the hypotheses and fathoming the examination questions. The strategy of gathering information is a basic area in each sort of research (Sekaran and Bougie, 2010). It is additionally basic to guarantee the wellsprings of data and the strategies for information gathering are fitting so the exploration venture is led effectively. In request to meet the exploration’s objective proficiently, the specialist has gathered both primary and secondary information.
3.2.1 Primary DataEssential information implies direct data obtained by the specialist on the factors looking at for this investigation (Sekaran et al., 2010). Around here research, the specialist gathered the essential information by the utilization of by and by administrated poll and mail surveys. The advantages of utilizing by and by administrated poll are analyst ready to gather all the finished surveys from respondents inside a brief span outline and the respondents likewise can elucidate the inquiries on the spot on the off chance that they experience any issue. The advantage of utilizing mail surveys is it covers more extensive topographical range at most reduced cost. Also, the respondents additionally can finish it whenever the timing is ideal at anyplace and whenever. In request to accomplish a superior reaction rate, the analyst kept the inquiries brief and do follow-up for the study.
3.2.2 Secondary DataAuxiliary information implies second-hand data which procured from sources that as of now existed and it is key for a large portion of the examination. There are a few wellsprings of auxiliary information utilized as a part of this examination which incorporate books, associations’ booklets, factual modified works and distributed diary and articles from the web. The fundamental preferences of looking for auxiliary information assets are immense sparing of time and cost in gaining data (Hair et al., 2014).
3.3 Sampling DesignSampling alludes to the strategy in picking a reasonable number of the correct component from the population. The specimen speaks to the bigger population and it is utilized to make judgment about that population (Crossman, 2010b). Through concentrate the test and understanding the example’s attributes, the specialist ready to sum up such qualities to the population component (Sekaran et al., 2010). The sampling forms include:
3.3.1 Target PopulationThe extent of the investigation is vital in characterizing the objective population, the objective population is the group of components identified with the exploration objective (Hair et al., 2007). The point of this examination is to comprehend and look at the barriers faced by Malaysian women in career advancement. In this way, the objective population of this investigation will be the Malaysian working women who matured between 20-60 years of age. Other than that, Convenience sampling is directed where the subjects are chosen by specialist because of their straightforwardness availability and nearness to the analyst.
3.3.2 Sampling LocationThe sampling is concentrate on Klang Valley regionbecause over there are more working women in urban area, so it can obtain better accurate result.
3.3.3 Sampling ElementsThe women who are working right now in Malaysia are focused on in light of the fact that they can give the significant data in light of their insight and encounters. They likewise can tell the analyst what are the obstructions and difficulties that they confronted along their profession life. Moreover, they can give the reasons on low investment rate of women in Malaysian workforce and the issues add to sexual orientation imbalance in the workforce.
3.3.5 Sampling SizeIt is vital to establish the representativeness of the sample for generalization with an appropriate sample size (Sekaran et al., 2010). The sample size consists of 120 to 150 working women by considering the constraint of cost and time. The sample population has not been restricted to any specific industry, however, the inclusion criteria for the study is the women above the age of 20 years.
3.4 Research InstrumentThe test instruments utilized as a part of this surveyare questionnaireand Facebook massager surveys. This method is very simple, more affordable and devour less time, a survey is givento the respondents and gather back by the analyst on that day. Facebook survey is likewise another helpful information accumulation component where the respondent can finish the survey at their own chance also, place and returning of survey is follow-up by the researcher.
3.4.1 The Purpose of Using QuestionnaireSurvey is a typical strategy for gathering information since analyst can without much of a stretch get to the required information and the survey reactions are effortlessly coded. This technique is helpful to achieve substantial respondents in various geological range too (Sekaran et al., 2010). Polls are typically used to gather real data identifying with respondents’ conduct and conditions. It is likewise helpful in taking a gander at the sentiments of working women identifying with a specific issue-low interest rate of women in Malaysian workforce.
3.5 Construct Measurement3.5.1 Origin of ConstructThe wellsprings of the build utilized as a part of this business inquire about are received from various specialists, diaries and articles which appear as table beneath:
Construct Example of Measured Items Sources
Education Level Woman must meet certain requirement of education in order to receive promotion.
Higher level of education gives more opportunity for promotion.
Having additional Certificates or activities enhances chances for promotion Kowe et al. (2012)
Family Consideration Responsibility for taking care of family serves as a challenge for women in working industry
Maintaining balance between work life and family is difficult
Some women may give preference to family rather than career. Cow et. Al. 2013
Subramiam et al (2013c)
Glass Ceiling Effect Females due to piqued have less roles in working industry
Equal opportunity for women are limited
With age chances of promotion decreases for women
Women can never showcase their skills as they are always assigned at positions below and they are bound to follow orders. Philay (2004)
Sephiri et. Al (2011)
3.5.2 Data Scale of MeasurementThere are 4 sorts of information scales estimation: ostensible, ordinal, interim and proportion. The level of refinement on scale increments bit by bit as the scale move from ostensible to proportion. In this examination, the Section An of the survey which comprises of 6 questions is composed in light of ostensible scale and ordinal scale. The analyst employments the ostensible scale to appoint subjects to each class or group and no respondent would fall into third classification (Sekaran et al., 2010). Segment A records the age, race, conjugal status, number of offspring of the respondents, training level and occupation class of the respondents. With respect to the variable of age, respondents can be group into 4 classifications: 20-30, 31-40, 41-50 and 51 or more. These 4 groups will be allocated to the code number of 1, 2, 3 and 4. These numbers speak to a basic and helpful mark with no genuine esteem.
Then again, the Section B of the survey which comprises of 24 questions is planned in view of interim scale. Interim scale is likewise including appointing numbers to reflect how firmly the respondents concur or can’t help contradicting the develop proclamations. 5-purposes of Likert scale which go from firmly dissent (1) to unequivocally concur (5) are utilized to survey the factors (allude to Table 3.2). The estimation of the Likert scale can be total up to gauge the members’ general reaction.
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 1 Summary of the Variables and 5-points of Likert Scale
Variables Likert Scale
Organization Culture ; Structure
Glass Ceiling Effect 1 – Strongly Disagree
2 – Disagree
3 – Neutral
4 – Agree
5 – Strongly Agree
3.6Data AnalysisAfter completion of data processing, the researcher used SPSS software to analyze the data obtained in the research as it can assist the researcher to analyze the quantitative in an efficient and effective manner. The methods of data analysis used in this study include Descriptive Analysis, Pearson Correlation Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression.
3.6.1 Descriptive Analysis
Descriptive analysis is used to explain the characteristics of target population that being studying such as age, marital status and occupation. It is useful to summarize the data collection and present it in a more meaningful way by using graphs, charts and diagrams. Besides that, frequency distribution and the assess of central tendency like mod, mean and median are used by some researchers to measure and describe the statistics of descriptive summary of the study (Crossman, 2010a). In this study, a table will be drawing out to summarize the demographic information based on the survey questionnaires returned by the respondents
3.7 ConclusionThis section starts with clarifying the technique for investigate plan then advancement of survey until the strategy for information investigation. The strategies of information examination will be performed in the following section so as to decipher the outcome from the factual yield. The reports on the outcomes are connected with the exploration questions and hypotheses of this examination. All the outcome will be appeared in table or graph frame to guarantee simple perusing
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