Study of Major Stakeholders’ Factors Causing Delay in Construction Ananda Das M

Study of Major Stakeholders’ Factors Causing Delay in Construction

Ananda Das
M.BEM
1st year 2nd Sem. SPAD
Seminar I
SPA/NS/BEM/699
Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u Chart of Tables, figures and equation PAGEREF _Toc512941126 h 3Chapter 1: Introduction PAGEREF _Toc512941127 h 41.1 General PAGEREF _Toc512941128 h 51.2 Need of the study PAGEREF _Toc512941129 h 61.3 Aim PAGEREF _Toc512941130 h 61.4 Objectives PAGEREF _Toc512941131 h 61.5 Scope PAGEREF _Toc512941132 h 61.6 Methodology PAGEREF _Toc512941133 h 61.7 Outcome PAGEREF _Toc512941134 h 7Chapter 2: Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc512941135 h 82.1 General PAGEREF _Toc512941136 h 82.2 Major Stakeholders in Construction PAGEREF _Toc512941137 h 82.2 Factor of delay in construction project in brief PAGEREF _Toc512941138 h 92.4 Statistical Methods PAGEREF _Toc512941139 h 102.5 Justification of statistical process PAGEREF _Toc512941140 h 132.6 Inference PAGEREF _Toc512941141 h 142.7 Summery PAGEREF _Toc512941142 h 15Chapter 3: Current scenario of delay and impact in construction PAGEREF _Toc512941143 h 153.1 General PAGEREF _Toc512941144 h 153.2 Types of delay in construction PAGEREF _Toc512941145 h 163.3 Delay Factors in Construction Projects PAGEREF _Toc512941146 h 183.3.1 Consultant Related Delay Factors PAGEREF _Toc512941147 h 183.3.2 Contractor Related Delay Factors PAGEREF _Toc512941148 h 193.3.3 Client Related Delay Factors PAGEREF _Toc512941149 h 213.4 Responsibility of delay PAGEREF _Toc512941150 h 223.5 Responsibility of Delay PAGEREF _Toc512941151 h 223.6 Inference PAGEREF _Toc512941152 h 243.7 Summery PAGEREF _Toc512941153 h 24Chapter 4 : Case studies and questionnaire survey PAGEREF _Toc512941154 h 254.1 General PAGEREF _Toc512941155 h 254.2 Root-cause analysis PAGEREF _Toc512941156 h 254.3 Questionnaire Generation PAGEREF _Toc512941157 h 254.4 Data collection PAGEREF _Toc512941158 h 264.5 Questionnaire for case study PAGEREF _Toc512941159 h 264.6 Outcome from case study PAGEREF _Toc512941160 h 294.6.1 Case Study 1 PAGEREF _Toc512941161 h 294.6.2 Case Study 2 PAGEREF _Toc512941162 h 314.6.3 Case Study 3 PAGEREF _Toc512941163 h 384.6.4 Case Study 4 PAGEREF _Toc512941164 h 454.7 Case study analysis PAGEREF _Toc512941165 h 494.8 Questionnaire generation for survey PAGEREF _Toc512941166 h 504.9 Summery PAGEREF _Toc512941167 h 52Chapter 5: Statistical analysis PAGEREF _Toc512941168 h 535.1 General PAGEREF _Toc512941169 h 535.2 Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc512941170 h 535.2 Result of Relative Index Method PAGEREF _Toc512941171 h 535.2.1 Client related delay PAGEREF _Toc512941172 h 545.2.2 Contractor related delay PAGEREF _Toc512941173 h 555.2.3 Consultant related delay PAGEREF _Toc512941174 h 565.3 Mean Score Method PAGEREF _Toc512941175 h 575.3.1 Client related delay PAGEREF _Toc512941176 h 575.3.2 Contractor related delay PAGEREF _Toc512941177 h 585.3.3 Consultant related delay PAGEREF _Toc512941178 h 595.4 Overall analysis PAGEREF _Toc512941179 h 605.5 Degree of agreement of two statistical methods PAGEREF _Toc512941180 h 625.6 Analyze and Outcome PAGEREF _Toc512941181 h 625.7 Summery PAGEREF _Toc512941182 h 65Chapter 6: Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc512941183 h 666.1 General PAGEREF _Toc512941184 h 666.2 Dependency analysis PAGEREF _Toc512941185 h 666.3 Cause of major delays PAGEREF _Toc512941186 h 686.3 Approximate solution for multi-stakeholder PAGEREF _Toc512941187 h 696.4 Summery PAGEREF _Toc512941188 h 706.5 Future scope of work PAGEREF _Toc512941189 h 71References PAGEREF _Toc512941190 h 72
Chart of Tables, figures and equation
TOC h z c “Table” Table 1 Different types of statistical processes PAGEREF _Toc512720569 h 11Table 2 Different types of statistical process II PAGEREF _Toc512720570 h 12Table 3 Different types of statistical processes III PAGEREF _Toc512720571 h 13Table 4 Analysis of questionnaire for survey PAGEREF _Toc512720572 h 50Table 5 Client related delay ranking by RII PAGEREF _Toc512720573 h 54Table 6 Contractor related delay ranking by RII PAGEREF _Toc512720574 h 55Table 7 Consultant related delay ranking by RII PAGEREF _Toc512720575 h 56Table 8 Consultant related delay ranking by Mean Score PAGEREF _Toc512720576 h 57Table 9 Contractor related delay ranking by Mean Score PAGEREF _Toc512720577 h 58Table 10 Consultant related delay ranking by Mean Score PAGEREF _Toc512720578 h 60Table 11 Rank co-relation of client related delay ranking PAGEREF _Toc512720579 h 63Table 12 Rank co-relation of contractor related delay ranking PAGEREF _Toc512720580 h 63Table 13 Rank co-relation of consultant related delay ranking PAGEREF _Toc512720581 h 64
TOC h z c “Figure” Figure 2 Diagram on methodology PAGEREF _Toc512772383 h 7Figure 3 Types of stakeholder PAGEREF _Toc512772384 h 9Figure 4 Delay in activity PAGEREF _Toc512772385 h 17Figure 5 Types of delays PAGEREF _Toc512772386 h 18Figure 6 Description with types of delays PAGEREF _Toc512772387 h 19Figure 7 Graphical representation of client related delay PAGEREF _Toc512772388 h 55Figure 8 Graphical representation of contractor related delay PAGEREF _Toc512772389 h 56Figure 9 Graphical representation of consultant related delay PAGEREF _Toc512772390 h 57Figure 10 (MS) Graphical representation of client related delay PAGEREF _Toc512772391 h 59Figure 11 (MS) Graphical representation of contractor related delay PAGEREF _Toc512772392 h 60Figure 12 (MS) Graphical representation of consultant related delay PAGEREF _Toc512772393 h 61Figure 13 Percentage distribution of major delay factors in residential project PAGEREF _Toc512772394 h 63Figure 14 Co-relation between RII and Mean Score PAGEREF _Toc512772395 h 66Figure 15 Dependency Matrix PAGEREF _Toc512772396 h 68
Chapter 1: Introduction1.1 GeneralConstruction Industry has been one of the major source of income to developing countries like India. In near 2022 India is heading for mass hosing for housing for all scheme. In this big project various activities are associated where many stakeholders are involved. So, delays and their impacts on the construction projects is a major concerning issue among the various industry experts, so there is a great research going on these days analysing the causes of delays and theirs impacts on construction projects.

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Delay in construction is to finish off the construction work in time which is mentioned in contractual document. Modern buildings are very complex, requiring the co-ordination of permissions, people, goods, plant and materials. Sometimes construction begin with many unknown matters such as incomplete design information, uncertain site conditions, suppliers, and so on. Any deviation from the original planned schedule or activities will lead to delay resulting in loss of productivity, money and so on. So, there is a necessity to minimize the causes of delays and maintain the cash flow in the construction.

The delay analysis includes calculation of delay time and identification of causes. So, an analysis becomes a basis for financial calculations which determines the penalties or other damages that shall be assigned to the parties responsible for delay. Schedule delays should be analysed to appoint responsibility for the duration of the delay among the project parties (owner, contractor, and third parties). There are many methods exists for analysis of delay in project schedule. However, different analysis methods will provide different results for the same circumstances depending on the time and resources available for the analysis and accessibility of project documentation. Analysis of construction project delay become a practice in project life cycle. There are many methods and computerized methods available in construction management, which are assessing the impact of delays due to various factors. These methods certainly provide an impact of delay on project performance. The assessment of this performance in terms of delay becomes valuable for both parties for litigation and responsibility. It is helpful in calculating the damages and penalties as well as the amount of time party has been impacted. CITATION Ash13 l 16393 (Ashwini Arun Salunkhe, 2013)This paper is seeking for the major factors causing delay in building construction in India and comparatively analyse the factors behind delay with the use of statistical approach. Through the literature study, case study and surveys study, can be found the major factors of delays. All the factors are analysed and measured to find the relative weightage between them. The study finds the factors like financial, co-ordination etc. and cause of delays are further analysed for ranking. Based on analysis of overall studies this paper suggests improvements to reduce or understand delays in construction.

1.2 Need of the studyIn India, delay is a common term in construction sites. It has some specific cause which affecting the entire project. The primary importance is to find the grassroot of delays which later effect cash flow, productivity, recourse allocation, relationship between stakeholder etc. So, finding the cause and reduction process is important to control on delay in construction.
1.3 AimTo analyse factor causing delay and process of minimizing it for Indian condition in building construction for greater understanding of delays. Comparative analysis of factors of delay by using Mean Score and Frequency index method.
1.4 Objectives-To find out different causes and sources of delay in construction projects in India.

-To understand the impact of delay in construction.

-To identify the statistical process for delay analysis.

-To compare statistical delay analysis to understand and give specific importance on delays.

-To discuss and suggest possible solution for delays for construction projects.

1.5 ScopeThis seminar is for the comparative analysis between mean square and relative importance index to understanding delay in residential construction projects. The main stakeholders of the construction are contractor, consultant and client which are taken for study.

1.6 MethodologyStudy of multi stakeholder factor causing delay through comparative significance analysis
-Literature Study: Explanation of key words, Journals, research papers
-Identify questioner by evaluating current delay scenario in construction
-Survey and statistical analysis
-Suggestion to cater delay in construction and conclusion
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Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2 Diagram on methodology1.7 OutcomeIt is expected that the two processes of analysis should give the different ranking of the factors of delay. The ranking shall be mapped based on statistical method.
Chapter 2: Literature Review 2.1 GeneralDelay is the most common, risky, costly and complex phenomena problems in construction projects. Time is the most important aspect where it changes the performances (in case of owner) and cost flow (in case of contractor) in project which leading towards frequent disputes and lawsuits. CITATION Wae07 l 16393 (Wa’el Alaghbari, 2007)In India delays are very common in every construction projects and the magnitude of delays varies from project to project. Sometimes projects are only a few days delayed; some are delayed by over a year or so. So, it is important to define actual causes of delay to minimize and avoid delay in construction project. CITATION Ahm03 l 16393 (Ahmed, 2003)2.2 Major Stakeholders in Construction
According to CITATION Fre84 l 16393 (Freeman, 1984) “A stakeholder is any group or individual who can be affected or is affected by the achievement of the organization’s objectives”.

CITATION ECh10 l 16393 (E Chinyio, 2010) said that stakeholders can affect an organization’s functioning, goals, development and even survival. They also mentioned that stakeholders are beneficial when they help to achieve its goals and they are antagonistic when they oppose to the mission. Stakeholders are vital to the successful completion of a project because their unwillingness to continuously support the vision or objectives of the project leads many projects to fail.
CITATION Aki14 l 16393 (Aki Aapaoja, 2014) stated that project manager identified 11 stakeholder groups in the construction project based on their salience and probability to impact/ability to contribute. The identified stakeholders are as follows: (1) Customer: Local municipality responsible for the project’s follow through and success. (2) End user: Doctors, nurses, patients. (3) Main contractor: The main responsibility for the construction activities. (4) Sub-contractors: Perform small, straightforward and discrete functions. (5) Side-contractors: Responsible for larger and more complex functions than subcontractors. (6) Main designer (architect): Main responsibilities for the design and the consolidation of designs by other designers. (7) Other designers: Design discrete and technical subsystems. (8) Public authorities: Representatives of local and public authorities. (9) Material suppliers: Supply material and equipment. (10) Local residents and neighbours: May express some requirements or requests for the project. (11) The council and board of the municipality: The final decision maker, who ultimately approves the project. (12) Sponsor: Bank funds the project.

According to CITATION Xia17 l 16393 (Xiaohua Jin, 2017) major stakeholders of the construction project are clients, design team, contractors, project managers and risk management. It has seen that all the stakeholders approached to the construction projects which is influenced by characteristics like location, education, size, interest, power, experience and relationship to the project.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3 Types of main stakeholderSo, So, for summarizing the research contractor, client and consultant are taken into account. Science these three stakeholders are the most important in a residential project only these three stakeholders have taken for further research.

2.2 Factor of delay in construction project in brief
There are many factors affecting in construction of residential projects in all over India.
The main effect of the delay is construction time delay and starching of the execution of project duration. There are many views on the causes of time delays for construction and engineering projects. Some are related to single party and others are ascribed as several quarters, and many other relate more to systemic defects or deficiencies rather than to a group or groups CITATION DEH81 l 16393 (D.E. Hancher, 1981).

Many studies have been done to know the causes of delay in construction industries. According to CITATION NRM94 l 16393 (N.R. Mansfield, 1994) the causes of delay and cost overrun in construction projects in Nigeria are payment for completed works and financing, bad contract management, changes in site conditions afterwards, material shortages, and problem in planning.

CITATION SAA95 l 16393 (S.A. Assaf, 1995) also analyse the main causes of delay factors in large building construction projects and their relative importance index. In this study, they found 56 causes of delay present in Saudi Arabia building construction projects. According to the contractors, the most important delay factors are preparation of drawings and their approval (delays in progress of contractor, payment by owners and changes in the design). In case of consultancy related issues, the architects and engineers, delays are caused by problems of cash during construction, relationship between contractors and consultants and decision-making process is very slow on behalf of owners. At last, the owner’s delays are errors in design, shortages of labour and inadequate labour skills.

CITATION SOO96 l 16393 (S.O. Ogunlana, 1996) identified and analyse the causes of delays in building construction projects in Bangkok, Thailand and he compared these delays with other delays and cost overruns for determining important problems which are behind the delays. They summarized the delay causes in the construction projects, as follows:
(1) Shortages/inadequacies of modern technology and the industry infrastructure (mostly resource supply);
(2) Caused by clients and consultants; and
(3) Caused by contractor lack of experience – incompetence/inadequacy
CITATION MMe98 l 16393 (M. Mezher, 1998) went for a survey for the finding the causes of delays in the construction projects in Lebanon from the behalf of owners, contractors and architectural/engineering firms. They found that owners are more concerns about financial issues, contractors are more concerned most on contractual relationships. Finally, consultants answered project management issues to be the most important cause of delays.

CITATION WMC98 l 16393 (W.M. Chan, 1998) also surveyed the causes of building construction delays in Hong Kong as respect to clients, contractors and consultants, and examined the factors affecting productivity of main stakeholders of project. The survey answered differences between the perceptions of the relative significance of delay factors which include funding and payment for completed works, bad contract management, changes in site conditions, material shortage, and improper planning.

CITATION HAA00 l 16393 (Al-Moumani, 2000) surveyed the causes behind the delays on 130 public construction projects in Jordan, and the results shows that the main causes of delay in building construction of public projects depends to user changes, designers, weather, late deliveries, site conditions, and economic conditions.

2.4 Statistical Methods The delay analysis process involves both computation of delay time and causes behind it. So, an analysis could become a basis for financial calculations which finds the other damages or penalties that shall be assigned to the stakeholders responsible for delay. Schedule delays should be analyzed because appointing responsibility among the project stakeholders for the delay duration.

First categorised the stakeholders involved in the construction projects like project group, owner group, contractor group, consultant group, design group, material group, equipment group, labour group and external group. Many journal papers listed the factors which are the cause of delays as per the categorised groups. The factors are listed for the survey for the construction project and persons from the stakeholder put their weightages as per their understanding of delay. CITATION Ash13 l 16393 (Ashwini Arun Salunkhe, 2013) CITATION YKi l 16393 (Y. Kim, n.d.), applied a new method for analysis of delay called “delay analysis method using delay section” (DAMUDS). This scientific method is based upon critical path method (CPM) and contemporaneous period analysis (CPA). This paper analysis through three delay methods of analysis. They are “what if” method, “but for” method and CPA method respectively. As compare to CPM and CPA, this method gives specific results in analysing and apportioning schedule delays.

CITATION JSJ011 l 16393 (J. S. Jonathan, 2001), discovered a method of computation of activity delays. This method consists of equations and these equations can be easily coded in a computer program. This method gives speedy access of information regarding project delay and contribution of activity. This method also provides objective causes for addressing responsibilities of delays. For automation and improvement of delays in construction in future, this method can be integrated or added to any system.

CITATION THe05 l 16393 (T. Hegazy, 2005), in this paper they introduced a computerized method with modified window approach with daily assessment of delays to produce accurate and repeatable results. Their method analyses in the critical path where this method find the day by day fluctuation in whole project duration. But this method is only doable for small and medium size construction projects which is to be implemented on a spreadsheet.

CITATION AAB98 l 16393 (Cunningham, 1998), compared three delay methodologies to analyse their interdependencies, those are As-built schedule analysis, As-planned schedule delay analysis, and Modified As-built schedule delay analysis. This paper performed an analysis through critical path method (CPM) on genuine on-site construction activities. These steps used to get the impact of schedule delay on construction progress. The results of this paper give the idea that one method is not sufficient universally over other in all situations.

The weightage survey can be analysed to find the most critical causes for delay and can be ranked by using following statistical methods.

Methods: Important Index, Rank Correlation coefficient, Relative important index

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 1 Different types of statistical processesMethods: Mean score, Overall mean score, Frequency index, Severity index, Relative important index

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 2 Different types of statistical process IIMethods: Relative important index(II), relative important index(III), Relative important weight, Important index, Frequency index(II), Severity index(II), Important index(II), Relative important index(IV)

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 3 Different types of statistical processes III CITATION Ash13 l 16393 (Ashwini Arun Salunkhe, 2013)2.5 Justification of statistical process CITATION Mur07 l 16393 (Murali Sambasivan, 2007) used RII for determining ranking for importance of various delay causes construction industry.
CITATION Des13 l 16393 (Desai Megha, 2013) said that the RII is for ranking the different causes. These rankings make is done for cross-comparison of the relative importance of the factors as perceived by groups of respondents (i.e. contractors, clients, consultants). Each cause’s RII perceived by all participants should use to assess general and overall rankings for giving an overall data of the causes of delays in construction.

According to CITATION MKS15 l 16393 (M. K. Somiah, 2015) Relative Importance Index or weight is an analysis of relative importance between many factors among themselves. RII is mainly used for analysis because it fits the purpose of this study. RII helps in finding the contribution a variable that can makes the prediction of a criterion variable by itself and combination with other predictor variables. In this process effect of all the variables are taken in account to the whole process.

Equation SEQ Equation * ARABIC 1
RII = ? (Xi x Yi) ÷ (Zi x 5)
Where,
RII – relative importance index
Xi – number of responses of the factors
Yi – the value of rating
Zi – total number of responses to the factors
Other statistical process is mean score method which is adopted by CITATION Moh07 l 16393 (Mohammed Alias bin Yusof, 2007). In this method, weighting scale of 1 to 5 is adopted because of its simplicity and suitability to understand each delay factor, significant based on respondent own judgment and experience in the construction field. This five-point scale is use for calculating the mean score for each factor, which is used to determine relative ranking of each factors by using mean score, with low mean score has low ranks and high scores have high ranks.

According to CITATION Wae071 l 16393 (Wa’el Alaghbari, 2007) this scale is taken to avoid neutral answers that do not provide information on very important or non-important issues.

Equation SEQ Equation * ARABIC 2
Mean score = ? (f * s/N)
Where, f is frequency of the respondent, s is score given by the respondent (i.e. in between 1 for lowest possibility to 5 for highest possibility), N is total numbers of respondents.

The RII and mean score value had a range from 0 to 5 (0 not inclusive), higher the value of RII, more important was the cause of delay and in mean score method lower the standard deviation has high rank.
CITATION MPV12 l 16393 (M. P. Venkatesh, 2012)2.6 InferenceFrom the above description from various journals and reports, it has understood that the major stakeholders are client, consultant, contractor and other external cause in construction project. For each stakeholder, each has different kind of cause of delay in construction projects. By using statistical analysis (ranking and frequency distribution) process the delay factors can be ranked according to their weightage in construction.
2.7 SummeryTime delay is mainly happened because of ill management of planning in construction site where the major stakeholder of construction is behind this delay. Comparative analysis of delay factor should be done to identify the main factors behind the delay. Next causes and types of delay and their effect can be carried out.

Chapter 3: Current scenario of delay and impact in construction
3.1 General
According to CITATION SWN071 l 16393 (NUNNALLY, 2007) construction delays as “any addition to the execution period that more than stipulated in the contract or the increase of time beyond the stated date to complete the project within the agreed period”
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Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4 Delay in activity3.2 Types of delay in construction CITATION Zak88 l 16393 (Zaki M. Kraiem, 1988) classified the construction delays into three main categories: (A) excusable, (B) excusable compensable and (C) non-excusable (D) Concurrent delays.
A) Excusable Delay
Excusable delays happen where construction contract allows the contractor some additional time only which the time is consumed by the delay. Excusable delay has three main elements (1) Unforeseen event, (2) Event beyond the contractor control, (3) Events without fault or negligence. The example of this kind of delays includes force majeure, exceptionally, strike and inclement weather.
(B) Excusable compensable
Excusable compensable delays happen where the construction contract allows the contractor to claim additional monies equal to monies lost in the delay and additional time. The examples can be late instruction given to contractor, delays in approval of material, incomplete design by architect, and change in order given to contractor.
(C) Non-excusable
Non-excusable delays happen where the contractor is not entitled to claim extension of time nor additional compensation. In fact, the owner could conceivably be able to recover delay damages from the contractor. The amount of the recovery is generally determined from liquidated damage provisions included in the contract. The example of this kind of delay are the fault of the contractor or his subcontractors, materials, suppliers, workforce.

(D) Concurrent delays
If only one factor is delaying construction, it is usually easy to calculate both the time and money resulting from that single issue. A more complicated – but also more typical – situation is one in which more than one factor delays the project at the same time or in overlapping periods of time. These are called concurrent delays according to CITATION WAM05 l 16393 (Alaghbari, 2005)
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 5 Types of delays
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 6 Description with types of delays CITATION The09 l 16393 (Trauner, 2009) in this book author categorized the delay types in mot easiest way with the help of simple examples.

3.3 Delay Factors in Construction ProjectsAs like other types of building delays in residential projects can be categorize into main stakeholders like consultants, contractor, owner and external factors. The causes of delay by these stakeholders are further explained in this sub head.
3.3.1 Consultant Related Delay FactorsSeveral studies identified consultant related delay factors affecting construction projects. CITATION AAA06 l 16393 (A. A. Aibinu, 2006) said that incomplete drawings, late issue of instructions in site and bad supervision quality impacted on consultant related delays. CITATION ALG99 l 16393 (AL-Ghafly, 1999) find that bad site supervision by consultant was main cause of delay. CITATION AAl09 l 16393 (Skitmore, 2009) identified construction delays in approving major changes in scope of works in middle of construction, less experience of the consultant and delay in reviewing design documents.

In a separate study, CITATION DAr85 l 16393 (D. Arditi, 1985) identified the main causes of consultant related delays in design work and inadequate site inspection. CITATION SAA06 l 16393 (S. A. Assaf, 2006) find the consultant related delay like delay in site inspection and testing, delay in approving changes in the scope of project, rigidity of consultant, poor communication and coordination between consultant and other stakeholders, late review and approval of design documents, conflicts between consultant and design engineer, inadequate experience of consultant. CITATION SAA951 l 16393 (S. A. Assaf, 1995) find errors in design made by designers, changes in types and specifications during construction, communication gap between owner and consultant during design stage.

CITATION DWM97 l 16393 (D. W. M. Chan, 1997 ) find delays in design information, inexperienced design team and mistakes and faults in design documents. In a separate study, CITATION AME08 l 16393 (A. M. E. El-Razek, 2008) said that design changes during construction, changes in specifications and material types during construction and design errors made by designers causes delays. CITATION ASF06 l 16393 (A. S. Faridi, 2006) found approval and slow preparation of drawings, incomplete drawings, specifications and or documents and change in drawings causes consultant related delays. CITATION MGü13 l 16393 (M. Gündüz, 2013) found delay in inspection and testing, poor communication and coordination with other stakeholders and conflicts between consultant and designer as the most in main cause in delays. In a study analysing factors affecting delays in Indian construction projects, CITATION DHe12 l 16393 (D. Hemanta, 2012) concluded that lack of commitment and Architect’s reluctance for change contributed to delays.
CITATION KCI051 l 16393 (K. C. Iyer, 2005) found in the beginning the factors of insufficient project formulation and problem in timely decision making by the consultant as the main causes of delay. CITATION WMC98 l 16393 (W.M. Chan, 1998) identified the delay factors like unforeseen ground conditions, unclear design information and necessary variations of construction works as main consultant related delays. CITATION FYY06 l 16393 (F. Y. Y. Ling, 2006) studied the causative factors of technical risks which consist of design failure, error in estimation and failure in new technology. CITATION TYL06 l 16393 (T. Y. Lo, 2006) found the factor of bad site management and supervision as the main cause of consultant related delay. CITATION NRM941 l 16393 (N. R. Mansfield, 1994) stated the problems like poor contract management, discrepancies and mistakes in contract documents and inspection and supervision of completed work as the main causes of consultant related factor of delays.

CITATION YAO10 l 16393 (Y. A. Olawale, 2010) found inappropriate evaluation of duration of project, faults in contract documentation and disagreement of contract specification is the cause of consultant-related delay. CITATION MSa07 l 16393 (M. Sambasivan, 2007) found that contract management, approval and preparation of quality assurance, drawings, and control and waiting time for approval of inspections and tests are the factors causing delays in the consultant-related types.

3.3.2 Contractor Related Delay Factors CITATION AAA06 l 16393 (A. A. Aibinu, 2006) found cashflow difficulties, planning and scheduling problems, breakdown of equipment and maintenance problems, shortages in material and equipment, slow mobilization and shortage of worker power are the main delay factor to this category of contractor. CITATION ALG99 l 16393 (AL-Ghafly, 1999) identified that cash flow and money challenges, inadequate manpower and poor project management were key factors. CITATION AAl09 l 16393 (Skitmore, 2009) said that poor qualification of site technical staff, bad site supervision and management and problem in financing the project were critical factors of delay. CITATION DAr85 l 16393 (D. Arditi, 1985) found that problem in supply of materials, and financial difficulties of contractor were the main factors of delay. CITATION SAA06 l 16393 (S. A. Assaf, 2006) found the contractor related delay factors like; financing difficulties in project by contractor, conflicts in sub-contractors schedule in project execution, during construction rework due to errors, conflicts between contractor and other stakeholder (consultant and owner), poor site supervision and management by contractor, poor coordination and communication by contractor with other stakeholder, insufficient planning and scheduling of the construction project by contractor, implementation of improper construction methods by contractor, delays in sub-contractors work, inadequate contractor’s work, many changes of sub-contractors because of their inefficient work, poor skill and qualification of the technical staff of contractor, site mobilization in delay.
CITATION SAA951 l 16393 (S. A. Assaf, 1995) found contractor’s inadequate finance problem, manpower shortage, slow delivery of materials and errors during construction works sometimes affected delivery of the projects. CITATION DWM97 l 16393 (D. W. M. Chan, 1997 ) found the delay factors like poor site supervision and management and improper project scheduling and planning. CITATION AME08 l 16393 (A. M. E. El-Razek, 2008) observed that inadequate financial resources and slow delivery of materials in behalf of contractor were the main causes of delays. CITATION ASF06 l 16393 (A. S. Faridi, 2006) found manpower shortage, bad site management and supervision and non-availability of materials on time during construction as main causes of delays under contractor.
In a separate study, CITATION MGü13 l 16393 (M. Gündüz, 2013) said that inadequate contractor experience, ineffective project planning and scheduling, and poor site management and supervision respectively ranked highly. CITATION DHe12 l 16393 (D. Hemanta, 2012) used delay factor analysis which said that site accidents during construction due to lack of safety measures, use of obsolete or improper methods of construction and delay in material delivery contributed the highest impact.
In a separate study, CITATION KCI051 l 16393 (K. C. Iyer, 2005) found that poor human resource management and labour strike and uniqueness and constrain of the project activities requiring high technical knowledge are the causes of delay during construction. CITATION WMC98 l 16393 (W.M. Chan, 1998) found that poor site supervision and management, inadequate experience of contractor and delays in subcontractor’s works are majors causes of delay.
In a separate study, CITATION FYY06 l 16393 (F. Y. Y. Ling, 2006) studied the problems of Singaporean firms undertaking construction projects in India in terms of economic risks (labour supply, materials supply, and equipment availability), financial risks (relating to capital supply, credit rating, and cash flow), managerial risks (relating to quality assurance, productivity, cost control and workforce management) and technical risks (relating to systems and equipment failure, accidents and collision. Many studies have identified that material related delay is one of the main contractor related delays which has contributed significantly to causes of schedule delays in construction projects. CITATION DWM97 l 16393 (D. W. M. Chan, 1997 ) said that material shortage and badly procurement of material topped as causes of delays.
In a separate study, CITATION WMC98 l 16393 (W.M. Chan, 1998) found materials shortage in the market causing delay, poor quality of materials, price rise of materials and late delivery of materials are delay factors. CITATION SAA06 l 16393 (S. A. Assaf, 2006) found the material related delay; shortage of construction materials in market, changes in material specifications during construction, delay in material delivery, damage of sorted materials when they are needed urgently during construction, delay in manufacturing special building materials, late materials procurement, late in finishing materials selection due to availability in market.
Other researchers examined the causes of equipment related delays through contractor and assessed their significance in schedule delays in construction projects. CITATION DWM97 l 16393 (D. W. M. Chan, 1997 ) found that equipment shortage and improper equipment contribute to causes of delays. CITATION SAA06 l 16393 (S. A. Assaf, 2006) found equipment breakdowns, equipment shortage, low skill level of equipment-operator, low equipment productivity and efficiency, lack of high-technology mechanical equipment as causes of delays.

3.3.3 Client Related Delay Factors CITATION AAA06 l 16393 (A. A. Aibinu, 2006) said that Clients’ cash flow problems, variation in orders and slow decision making were critical factors. In a separate study, CITATION DHe12 l 16393 (D. Hemanta, 2012) examined that for early finish, lack of incentive for contractors and slow decision making from owner’s perspective were critical. CITATION ALG99 l 16393 (AL-Ghafly, 1999) said that delay in making progress payments by the client is critical delay factor. CITATION AAl09 l 16393 (Skitmore, 2009) found lack of money to complete the construction and slow decision making by owner as having main impacts to delays. CITATION DAr85 l 16393 (D. Arditi, 1985) found delay in payments to contractor and change in orders had the best effect. CITATION SAA06 l 16393 (S. A. Assaf, 2006) found delay factors caused by the owner as; delay in progress money payments by the owner, delay to deliver and furnish the site by the owner to the contractor, change scope and orders by owner during project, late in approving and revising design documents by the owner, delay in approving sample materials and shop drawings, poor coordination and communication by owner and other stakeholders, slowness in decision making by owner, conflicts between joint-ownership of the project, incentives problems for contractor for finishing which is ahead of schedule and suspension of work by owner.

CITATION SAA951 l 16393 (S. A. Assaf, 1995) found due to cash flow several stoppages of works and delays in progress making payment to the contractor as the major causes. CITATION DWM97 l 16393 (D. W. M. Chan, 1997 ) found variations done by client, unrealistic contract durations signed by client and low speed of making of decision. CITATION AME08 l 16393 (A. M. E. El-Razek, 2008) found delays in payments to contractors and slow making of decision were main causes of delays. CITATION ASF06 l 16393 (A. S. Faridi, 2006) found slowness in decision-making in behalf of owner and changes in type of materials and specification during project by the owner as delay factors that the causes of delay under owner’s category. CITATION MGü13 l 16393 (M. Gündüz, 2013) found change in orders, site delivery delays and slowness in making of decision as the major delay factors under owner’s category.
In a separate study, CITATION DHe12 l 16393 (D. Hemanta, 2012) found slow decision from the owner point of view and problem in time schedule depicted in contract as causes of delays. CITATION KCI051 l 16393 (K. C. Iyer, 2005) found the factors that the interest of representative of client in not getting the project completed in time, completion date specified but planned not yet by the owner and emphasized urgency by the owner while issuing the tenders as the main causes under this type.
In a separate study, CITATION WMC98 l 16393 (W.M. Chan, 1998) found variations by the client as a major cause of the delay. CITATION FYY06 l 16393 (F. Y. Y. Ling, 2006) found the unrealistic duration of contract as the main cause of delay under the client related delay.

CITATION NRM941 l 16393 (N. R. Mansfield, 1994) found the factors of payment and money of completed works and changes in design by the client as main causes of delays. CITATION RNN95 l 16393 (Nkado, 1995) found the delay factors like problem in specified sequence of completion, priority on time in construction, possible changes and financial ability to start of design as the main causes of delay under client’s category. CITATION YAO10 l 16393 (Y. A. Olawale, 2010) found changes in design by client, and payment and financing for completed works in project as the major causes of delays.

CITATION MSa07 l 16393 (M. Sambasivan, 2007) found that the factors of inadequate finance of client and payments for completed works, interference of owner and slow decision-making process are the main causes of delays under the owner-related column.

3.4 Responsibility of delayResponsibility is depending on the contractor who is liable or awarded for extra cost and additional time for completing the project. The categories are:
Owner responsible: Contractor will be granted for the additional time and indirect cost to complete the project.

Contractor responsible: Contractor is not granted neither additional time nor additional cost and may be pay the damages.
Neither party responsibility: Contractor should get additional time to complete the project, but no extra damages and cost granted for that.

Both parties responsible: Contractor will get extra time to complete
3.5 Responsibility of DelayContractor’s responsibility:
delay in delivery of materials to site;
shortage of materials on site;
construction mistakes and defective work;
poor skills and experience of labour;
shortage of site labour;
low productivity of labour;
financial problems;
coordination problems with others;
lack of subcontractor’s skills;
lack of site contractor’s staff;
poor site management; and
equipments and tool shortage on site.

Consultant’s responsibility:
absence of consultant’s site staff;
lack of experience on the part of the consultant;
lack of experience on the part of the consultant’s site staff; (managerial and
supervisory personnel);
delayed and slow supervision in making decisions;
incomplete documents; and
slowness in giving instructions
Owner’s responsibility:
lack of working knowledge;
slowness in making decisions;
lack of coordination with contractors;
contract modifications (replacement and addition of new work to the project and change in specifications); and
financial problems (delayed payments, financial difficulties, and economic problems).

External factors:
lack of materials on the market;
lack of equipment and tools on the market;poor site conditions (location, ground, etc.);
poor economic conditions (currency, inflation rate, etc.);
changes in laws and regulations;
transportation delays; and
external work due to public agencies (roads, utilities and public services).

3.6 Inference
In this chapter we understand that delays are categorize in four group (A) excusable, (B) excusable compensable and (C) non-excusable (D) Concurrent delays. These delays are different from each other with respect to time and money involved in it.

Causes of delays are categorize into four main stockholders like, consultants, contractors, owners and other external factors. Here all the past journal works are explained for the finding of main responsibilities of delay in construction projects.

3.7 SummeryIn this chapter explained the types of delays in building construction. Next causes of delays are categorising further into main stakeholders of the construction for better understanding. At last, comes out the main responsibilities of the delays in building construction. In next chapter it is needed to find the current scenario of delays in residential projects in India with the help of root-cause analysis.
Chapter 4: Case studies and questionnaire survey4.1 GeneralThe aim of the analysis was to identify the common ‘root’ causes and find a useful measure for every root which can be used for the mitigation of delay factors in residential projects in future. Through the previous analysis, it is proved that the following categories are important for the study.

1. Client related issues in construction
2. Contractor related issues in construction project
3. Consultant related issues in construction project
4.2 Root-cause analysisRoot cause analysis is the top most critical factors determination process and gives recommendations and suggestions in construction project. This method will be very helpful to minimize problems and the project delays in construction industry. This method is useful to know the main cause and the solution taken from experience.

This process is mostly useful for engineers, contractors, clients, consultants and project managers. This process will get to reduce risks, problems and projects delays in construction industry.

4.3 Questionnaire GenerationFrom the above mention chapter 3, this study came to the point where the main delays occurred in the construction site from the literature study. So, delays can be categorised in major three stakeholder- Client, Consultancy and owner related delays.
These questionnaire is divided mainly into two main parts. First part is for general information for both the respondent and company. Second Part consist of list of the identified causes of delays in construction project in general. These delay causes are grouped into three categories according to the sources i.e. consultant, client and contractor related delays in construction companies. For each because two questions were asked i.e. what are the main root-cause of that delay? And what are the solution of that project delay taken in the past?
The respondent had the full freedom to choose the delay causes which was occurred in their residential construction project in the past. They can add additional causes of the delays in that list if it is not in the questionnaire. Respondent also give the respective solution which had taken in the past in their construction project to recover the delay.

4.4 Data collectionIn this the variation survey will be done at three residential construction sites and then root causes of these variations will be found through questionnaires at different level of management. The site selection process is done with following criteria:
The site should be residential construction project.

The respondent is directly connected the construction part.

The construction site should have maximum activities when the data is collected
The following four case studies are selected based on the criteria for data collection mentioned before and situated in Kolkata and Delhi, which are the main two cities in India where residential construction are growing day by day.

Those data are collected from big and middle level contractors, companies, consultants and clients. All details are gathered from residential type of projects. Main activity process, problems and risks are monitored from discussions.

4.5 Questionnaire for case studyFirst part of the questionnaire is company and respondent related. This part is based on the experience, skills and respondent’s company details.

A. COMPANY AND RESPONDENT PROFILE:
1. Organization/Company Name:
2. Name of the person contacted:
3. Type of job/position:
4. Yours experience in construction field:
5. company experience in building and construction business:
6. Respondent sign & seal:
Second part is on the delay factors and problems in construction industry. The root-cause questionnaire was made based on the 73 causes of delays which respondenttt were asked to give the causes and the probable solution for each delay. These factors of delays were categorized into three groups namely contractor, client and consultant.

B. Questionnaire form Part-II:
(write root cause of the delay and solution you have taken in past project, you can add extra subhead of delay in this list also)
(a) Client Related issues for construction delays:
1. Delay in progress of payments to contractor / consultant
2. Conflicts between joint-ownership (among owners)
3. Change orders by client during construction
4. Delay in revising and approving design documents by client (working and structural drawing)
5. Delay in approving shop drawings and sample material by client
6. Poor communication and coordination from contractor / consultant
7. Slowness in decision making process
8. Conflicts between consultant / client & contractor / client
9. Technology changes & modification from client
10. Difficulty in requirement of supervisors and site engineers
11. Stop work orders because of infringements of government regulations by client
12. Poor selection of contractor / consultant
13. Poor scheduling and co-ordination
14. Mode of financing and payment for completed work
15. Long waiting time for approval of drawings
16. Late supply of information and late decision making
17. Routine of government authorities and approvals
18. Irregular attending of weekly meetings
19. Duration is not enough for constructing the project
20. Project objectives are not very clear
(b) Contractor Related issues for construction delays: (write root cause of the delay and solution you have taken in past project, you can add extra subhead of delay in this list also):
1. Difficulties in financing the project by contractor
2. Conflicts in sub-contractor’s schedule in execution of project
3. Rework due to workers mistakes
4. Conflicts between contractor and other parties
5. Poor communication and coordination of labor6. Low efficiency & shortage of equipment.

7. Improper construction methods & implementation
8. Delays in sub-contractor’s work
9. Poor qualification of the contractor and technical staff
10. Delays in site mobilization
11. Administration problem during work
12. Inadequate contractor’s work
13. Frequent change of sub-contractor
14. Understanding and study of site drawings & execution method
15. Delays in material delivery & procurement
16. Shortage of Technical, managerial and supervisory personnel
17. Lack of responsibilities & Contract Management
18. Improper equipment delivery
19. Labour Un availability And Absenteeism at Worksite
20. Lack of labour
21. Congested work area
22. Construction planning errors & equipment failure
23. Mistakes and discrepancies in contract documents
24. Supply of poor quality material
25. Price level changes of material in market
26. Centralization with top management
27. Unexpected weather conditions Inadequate site investigation
28. Preparing the method statement for each work activity & Work permits
(C) Consultant Related issues for construction delays:
(write root cause of the delay and solution you have taken in past project, you can add extra subhead of delay in this list also)
1. Changes in design & drawings
2. Poor communication and coordination of staff members / client / contractor
3. Poor leadership in drawing preparation by design engineer/ consulting engineer
4. Lack of multi-disciplinary team involvement
5. Lack of senior management support and commitment
6. Poorly defined project requirements
7. Delay in performing inspection and testing
8. Inadequate experience of consultant
9. Mistakes in design documents
10. Delays in producing design documents
11. Unclear & inadequate details in drawing
12. Insufficient data collection & survey before design
13. Poor use of advanced engineering design software
14. Lake of interest in the project
15. Delays of payment from client
16. Lack of consultant experience in construction projects
17. Defective architect/engineers supplied drawings
18. Conflicts between consultant and design engineer
19. Inadequate project management assistance
20. Insufficient data collection and survey before design
21. Unclear and inadequate details in drawings
22. Improper maintenance and process of Quality assurance/Control procedures and standards
23. Delayed approval of drawings and BOQ for construction
24. Incompetent technical staff
25. Lake of mistakes by design engineer
4.6 Outcome from case studyFour case studies done from the construction consultancy firms and construction company in Kolkata and Delhi. The outcome from case study are follows:
4.6.1 Case Study 1A. COMPANY AND RESPONDENT PROFILE:
1. Organization/Company Name: PACE CONSULTANTS, Kolkata
2. Name of the person contacted: DEBMALYA GUHA
3. Type of job/position: PRINCIPLE ARCHITECT
4. Yours experience in construction field: 18 YEARS
5. company experience in building and construction business: 35 YEARS
2. Questionnaire form Part-II:
Project: G+4 Residence at New Town Rajarhaat.

Total Built-up area 10,000 sq. Ft approx.

Owner: Mr. Samar Ghosh DastidarDescription: Second home for an affluent client, project started in 2012 and completed in 2016. A project of this scale should have been completed in 18 months. Instead it took 48 months. The primary causes of delay were:
(a) Client Related issues for construction delays:
1. Delay in progress of payments to contractor / consultant
Root Cause – Since it was a second home there were no urgency and fund allocation were done very gradually and intermittently. In fact, the project construction was on hold several times due to lack of fund.

Solution- Persuasion by contractors who were making loss due to idle manpower helped in moving the project ahead.

2. Change orders by client during construction
Root Cause – Frequent changes were made in both planning and material choices. This resulted in several demolitions and rework.

3. Slowness in decision making process
Root Cause – Decision making was slow specially during the finishing stage when the family members got involved in choosing wall paint colours, tiles and other items.

4. Difficulty in requirement of supervisors and site engineers
Root Cause – Client did not engage any supervisor or site engineer thus there were no coordination. Project was solely dependent on contractors.

5. Poor scheduling and co-ordination
Root Cause -Since there were no independent site supervisor, the project lacked coordination and scheduling. Resulting in extreme delay.

(b) Contractor Related issues for construction delays: –
1. Rework due to workers mistakes
Root Cause – Piling contractor made a major mistake and one pile got misaligned. Resulting in major rework.

Solution- structural design had to be redone for the pile cap.

2. Low efficiency & shortage of equipment.

Root Cause – Only one piling rig was used.

Solution- one more was added later which expedited the piling work.

(c) Consultant Related issues for construction delays: –
1. Changes in design & drawings
Root Cause – Too many changes in design was initiated by the owner making the consultant reluctant and slow.

Solution- Additional payments were finally agreed upon which helped in expedite the work of making the revisions.

2. Poor communication and coordination of staff members / client / contractor
Root Cause – Since there were no project coordinator, communication with several contractors suffered.

3. Lack of senior management support and commitment
Root Cause – Due to severe project over run, the senior management lost interest in the project.

4. Poorly defined project requirements
Root Cause – Project requirements kept changing resulting in extreme delay.

Solution- Cost implication (additional charges) for rework needs to be agreed upon and well documented in the contract at the very onset.

4.6.2 Case Study 2A. COMPANY AND RESPONDENT PROFILE:
1. Organization/Company Name: Systra, Delhi
2. Name of the person contacted: Subhasish Sarkar
3. Type of job/position: Structural Engineer
4. Yours experience in construction field: 6 months
5. company experience in building and construction business: 60 +
B. Questionnaire form Part-II:
(a) Client Related issues for construction delays:
1. Delay in progress of payments to contractor / consultant
Root Cause – Improper financial management.

Solution- Proper Flow chart should be prepared and followed from the beginning.

2. Conflicts between joint-ownership (among owners)
Root Cause – Different visions for the same project.

Solution- Conflicting matters should be discussed and settled at early stage.

3. Change orders by client during construction
Root Cause – Lack of knowledge on site-based problems.

Solution- Site inspection should be held.

4. Delay in revising and approving design documents by client (working and structural drawing)
Root Cause – Lack of knowledge on site-based problems.

Solution- Site inspection should be held
5. Delay in approving shop drawings and sample material by client
Root Cause – Improper work management.

Solution- Proper work management.

6. Poor communication and coordination from contractor / consultant
Root Cause – Incompatible project manager.

Solution- Project manager must be responsible.

7. Slowness in decision making process
Root Cause – Lack of experienced employees.

Solution- All the parties should have employees with good experience in relavent field.

8. Conflicts between consultant / client & contractor / client
Root Cause – Lack of proper vision.
Solution- All the parties should know the project properly from the very beginning.

9. Technology changes & modification from client
Root Cause -Rare case.

Solution- Should be solved mutually.

10. Difficulty in requirement of supervisors and site engineers
Root Cause – Lack of communication skills.

Solution- Supervisors with good project management skills should be deployed.

11. Stop work orders because of infringements of government regulations by client
Root Cause – lack of supervisors skilled in construction management and its laws.

Solution- Skilled supervisors should be deployed.

12. Poor selection of contractor / consultant
Root Cause – Compromise by client just to save money/ personal relationship.

Solution- Client should never adhere to quality compromise.

13. Poor scheduling and co-ordination
Root Cause – Lack of skilled and smart workers
Solution- Deploy smart and skilled workers.

14. Long waiting time for approval of drawings
Root Cause – lack of communication.

Solution- contractor and consultant should communicate properly.

15. Late supply of information and late decision making
Root Cause – lack of communication.

Solution- contractor and consultant should communicate properly.

16. Routine of government authorities and approvals
Root Cause – Govt. officials often take things for granted.

Solution- They should be more professional.

17. Irregular attending of weekly meetings
Root Cause – irresponsibility.

Solution- being responsible.

18. Duration is not enough for constructing the project
Root Cause – Miscalculation or improper management.

Solution- proper management should be done from beginning to end.

19. Project objectives are not very clear
Root Cause – Improper communication between the parties.
Solution- Objectives should be clearly discussed in meetings.

(b) Contractor Related issues for construction delays:
1. Difficulties in financing the project by contractor
Root Cause – Improper management.

Solution- Deploy manager with proper management skills.

2. Conflicts in sub-contractor’s schedule in execution of project
Root Cause – Improper management.

Solution- Deploy manager with proper management skills.

3. Rework due to workers mistakes
Root Cause – unskilled man power/workers.

Solution- deploy skilled man power/ workers
4. Conflicts between contractor and other parties
Root Cause – Monetary issues.

Solution- Proper management.

5. Poor communication and coordination of labour.

Root Cause – Unskilled project manager.

Solution- Project manager should be able to make things clear.

6. Low efficiency & shortage of equipment.

Root Cause – Equipments are not well maintained.

Solution- Maintenance of equipments should be done a regular interval of time.

7. Improper construction methods & implementation
Root Cause – Unskilled worker.

Solution- Skilled worker.

8. Delays in sub-contractor’s work
Root Cause – Lack of right number of workers/ lack of cash flow.

Solution-Right number of workers should be deployed.

9. Poor qualification of the contractor and technical staff
Root Cause – Quality compromise.

Solution- minimum quality should always be maintained.

10. Administration problem during work
Root Cause – Govt. officials often take things for granted.

Solution- They should be more professional.

11. Inadequate contractor’s work
Root Cause – Quality compromise.

Solution- right number of skilled labours should be deployed under a skilled supervisor.

12. Frequent change of sub-contractor
Root Cause – bad decision in the first place.

Solution- decisions should be made wisely from the beginning.

13. Understanding and study of site drawings & execution method
Root Cause – Lack of skilled as well as experienced people.

Solution- Skilled and experienced site engineer must be acquired.

14. Delays in material delivery & procurement
Root Cause – improper management.

Solution- proper management.

15. Shortage of Technical, managerial and supervisory personnel
Root Cause – Monetary issue/ Quality compromise.

Solution- Contractor selection for the project should be wisely done.

16. Lack of responsibilities & Contract Management
Root Cause – irresponsible employees.

Solution- Strict action against such employees should be taken, if required.

17. Improper equipment delivery
Root Cause – lack of good supervisor.

Solution- Presence of good supervisor.

18. Labour Un availability And Absenteeism at Worksite
Root Cause – Improper work-hour management/policy.

Solution- Proper work-hour policy should be followed.

19. Lack of labour
Root Cause – Financial issue.

Solution- Proper management.

20. Congested work area
Root Cause – Improper labour management
Solution- proper labour management.

21. Construction planning errors & equipment failure
Root Cause – Lack of skilled supervisor.

Solution- Deploy skilled supervisor & site-engineer.

22. Mistakes and discrepancies in contract documents
Root Cause – Irresponsibility.

Solution- Become more responsible.

23. Supply of poor quality material
Root Cause – Quality compromise.

Solution- Proper inspection should be done by supervisor& also client.

24. Price level changes of material in market
Root Cause – Uncertain.

Solution- meetings should be held to discuss such issues.

25. Unexpected weather conditions Inadequate site investigation
Root Cause – Improper management.

Solution- Should be aware of site conditions from the beginning
26. Preparing the method statement for each work activity & Work permits
Root Cause – improper timing.

Solution- Statements should be prepared on time.

(c) Consultant Related issues for construction delays:
1. Changes in design & drawings
Root Cause – Sudden changes from site office.

Solution- Site investigations should be done properly and accurately.

2. Poor communication and coordination of staff members / client / contractor
Root Cause – Improper management
Solution- Team leads should be a good manager.

3. Poor leadership in drawing preparation by design engineer/ consulting engineer
Root Cause – unskilled engineer.

Solution- Quality should never be compromised.

4. Lack of senior management support and commitment
Root Cause – Lack of proper man power.

Solution- Proper team should be chosen.

5. Delay in performing inspection and testing
Root Cause – Irresponsible employees
Solution- Strict actions against such employees.

6. Mistakes in design documents
Root Cause – Irresponsible/ unskilled engineer.

Solution- Hire responsible/skilled engineer.

7. Delays in producing design documents
Root Cause – Irresponsible/ unskilled engineer.

Solution- Hire responsible/skilled engineer.

8. Unclear & inadequate details in drawing
Root Cause – Irresponsible/ unskilled engineer.

Solution- Hire responsible/skilled engineer.

9. Insufficient data collection & survey before design
Root Cause – lack of communication.

Solution-proper communication between site and office.

10. Poor use of advanced engineering design software
Root Cause – Unskilled engineers.

Solution- Hire skilled engineers.

10. Lake of interest in the project
Root Cause – improper selection of consultant.

Solution- select proper consultant with good experience in the required field.

11. Lack of consultant experience in construction projects
Root Cause – Unavailability of such projects.

Solution- Deployment of highly skilled engineers.

12. Defective architect/engineers supplied drawings
Root Cause – Unskilled engineers/architect.

Solution- Hire skilled engineer/architect
13. Conflicts between consultant and design engineer
Root Cause – Different mindsets.

Solution- Should be discussed in a meeting.

14. Inadequate project management assistance
Root Cause – No project assistant hired.

Solution- Required number of project assistants should be hired.

15. Insufficient data collection and survey before design
Root Cause – improper management.
Solution- proper communication between site and design office.

16. Unclear and inadequate details in drawings
Root Cause – unskilled engineer and architect.

Solution- hire skilled engineer and architect.

17. Delayed approval of drawings and BOQ for construction
Root Cause – Improper time management
Solution- proper time management has to be done.

18. Incompetent technical staff
Root Cause – Quality compromise.

Solution- Hire competent people.

19. Lake of mistakes by design engineer
Root Cause – unskilled engineer.

Solution- hire skilled engineer.

4.6.3 Case Study 3A. COMPANY AND RESPONDENT PROFILE:
1. Organization/Company Name: Systra India Private Limited, Delhi
2. Name of the person contacted: Avirup Sarkar
3. Type of job/position: Structural Engineer
4. Yours experience in construction field: 1 year
5. company experience in building and construction business: Huge
6. Respondent sign & seal:
B. Questionnaire form Part-II:
(a) Client Related issues for construction delays:
1. Delay in progress of payments to contractor / consultant
Root Cause – Lack of satisfaction on behalf of client
Solution- Regular monitoring of work and regular payment
2. Conflicts between joint-ownership (among owners)
Root Cause – Lack of professional attitude
Solution- Proper professional behaviour and attitude
3. Change orders by client during construction
Root Cause – Lack of planning at onsite of project
Solution- Proper planning at start of project
4. Delay in revising and approving design documents by client (working and structural drawing)
Root Cause – Lack of manpower in client team
Solution- Proper team building on client side for checking and approval
5. Delay in approving shop drawings and sample material by client
Root Cause – Lack of manpower in client team
Solution- Proper team building on client side for checking and approval
6. Poor communication and coordination from contractor / consultant
Root Cause – Lack of proper communication skill
Solution- Proper management team on contractor/consultant side
7. Slowness in decision making process
Root Cause – Lack of confidence and experience
Solution- Proper team with experience and confidence
8. Conflicts between consultant / client & contractor / client
Root Cause – Lack of agreement
Solution- Professional attitude and handling of issues
9. Technology changes & modification from client
Root Cause – Improper planning at start
Solution- Proper planning at start
10. Stop work orders because of infringements of government regulations by client
Root Cause – Lack of Proper engineers with deep knowledge
Solution- Proper team
11. Poor selection of contractor / consultant
Root Cause – Bad decision while bidding
Solution- Proper team on client side
12. Poor scheduling and co-ordination
Root Cause – Lack of proper planning
Solution- Proper planning
13. Mode of financing and payment for completed work
Root Cause – Not decided during contract preparation
Solution- All to be included in contract
14. Long waiting time for approval of drawings
Root Cause – Lack of proper team
Solution- Proper team preparation
15. Late supply of information and late decision making
Root Cause – Lack of proper planning and team
Solution- Proper team preparation
16. Irregular attending of weekly meetings
Root Cause – Unprofessional team
Solution- Proper team building
17. Duration is not enough for constructing the project
Root Cause – Time analysis not done
Solution- Proper time analysis
(b) Contractor Related issues for construction delays:
1. Difficulties in financing the project by contractor
Root Cause – Lack of funds received from client
Solution- Money received in instalment.

2. Conflicts in sub-contractor’s schedule in execution of project
Root Cause – Lack of Proper management by contractor
Solution- Proper management by contractor
3. Rework due to workers mistakes
Root Cause – Lack of proper skilled labour
Solution- Proper inspection.

4. Conflicts between contractor and other parties
Root Cause – Inability of contractor
Solution- Proper management by client
5. Poor communication and coordination of labour
Root Cause – Lack of proper team
Solution- Proper team selection
6. Low efficiency & shortage of equipment.

Root Cause – Lack of proper Technical team
Solution- Proper team
7. Improper construction methods & implementation
Root Cause – Lack of proper Technical team –
Solution- Proper team
8. Delays in sub-contractor’s work
Root Cause – Lack of management by contractor
Solution- Proper team
9. Poor qualification of the contractor and technical staff
Root Cause – Lack of proper Technical team –
Solution- Proper team
10. Delays in site mobilization
Root Cause – Lack of management by contractor
Solution- Proper team
11. Administration problem during work
Root Cause – Lack of management by contractor
Solution- Proper team
12. Inadequate contractor’s work
Root Cause – Lack of management by contractor
Solution- Proper team
13. Frequent change of sub-contractor
Root Cause – Lack of management by contractor
Solution- Proper team
14. Understanding and study of site drawings & execution method
Root Cause – Lack of proper team
Solution- Proper team
15. Shortage of Technical, managerial and supervisory personnel
Root Cause – Lack of proper team
Solution- Proper team
16. Improper equipment delivery
Root Cause – Unprofessional behaviour
Solution- Professional attitude
17. Labour Un availability And Absenteeism at Worksite
Root Cause – Unprofessional behaviour
Solution- Professional attitude
18. Lack of labour
Root Cause –Improper payment
Solution-Proper payment on time
19. Construction planning errors & equipment failure
Root Cause – Improper planning
Solution– proper planning
20. Mistakes and discrepancies in contract documents
Root Cause – Lack of proper inspection
Solution- Proper document checking
21. Supply of poor quality material
Root Cause – Corruption by contractor
Solution- Strict client
22. Unexpected weather conditions Inadequate site investigation
Root Cause – Improper planning
Solution- Proper planning
(c) Consultant Related issues for construction delays:
1. Changes in design & drawings
Root Cause – Improper design in first revision
Solution- Proper time and design first time
2. Poor communication and coordination of staff members / client / contractor
Root Cause –Improper management
Solution- Regular meetings
3. Poor leadership in drawing preparation by design engineer/ consulting engineer
Root Cause – Proper time, skill and knowledge lacking
Solution- Proper time taken by skilled engineer
4. Lack of senior management support and commitment
Root Cause – Lack of proper management
Solution- Proper team
5. Inadequate experience of consultant
Root Cause – Improper selection
Solution- proper selection
6. Mistakes in design documents
Root Cause – Improper checking of work before submission
Solution- Improper checking of work before submission
7. Delays in producing design documents
Root Cause – Lack of proper team
Solution- Proper team selection
8. Unclear & inadequate details in drawing
Root Cause –Lack of proper skill and checking
Solution- Proper designer selection
9. Insufficient data collection & survey before design
Root Cause – Improper work by contractor
Solution- Proper laying out of work by client
10. Poor use of advanced engineering design software
Root Cause – Unskilled designer
Solution- Proper designer selection
11. Lake of interest in the project
Root Cause – Lack of proper payment
Solution- Proper timely payment
12. Lack of consultant experience in construction projects
Root Cause – Improper selection of consultant
Solution- Proper selection of consultant
13. Defective architect/engineers supplied drawings
Root Cause – Improper selection of consultant
Solution- Proper selection of consultant
14. Inadequate project management assistance
Root Cause –Lack of proper team
Solution- Proper team
15. Improper maintenance and process of Quality
Root Cause – Bad contractor selection
Solution- Strict client
16. Delayed approval of drawings and BOQ for construction
Root Cause –Improper team for client
Solution-Proper experienced team in client
17. Incompetent technical staff
Root Cause – Improper team selection
Solution- proper team selection
18. Mistakes by design engineer
Root Cause –Improper design team selection
Solution- Proper team selection.

4.6.4 Case Study 4A. COMPANY AND RESPONDENT PROFILE:
1. Organization/Company Name: Neer consultancy, Kolkata
2. Name of the person contacted: Banasree Sarkar
3. Type of job/position: Principal architect
4. Yours experience in construction field: 25 + years
5. company experience in building and construction business: 35 + years
B. Questionnaire form Part-II:
(a) Client Related issues for construction delays:
1. Delay in progress of payments to contractor / consultant
Root Cause – Nom compliance of contract, loan problem, dis-satisfaction.

Solution – Further relook contract or check of source of fund, re-think the requirement of client.

2. Conflicts between joint-ownership (among owners)
Root Cause – Conflicting in in interest, difference in opinion & views.

Solution- Primary, secondary, tertiary meeting. Contract among the owners, make a leader among the owners.
3. Change orders by client during construction
Root Cause – Not stand in the contract.

Solution- Make the sanction plan bench mark for construction, bound to maintain the same contract.

4. Poor communication and coordination from contractor / consultant
Root Cause – Better profit another project, avoiding and not responsible, not communicative.

Solution- Check profile and past record of the contractor, contract revision.

5. Slowness in decision making process
Root Cause – Fund problem, conflict between consultant and contractor, change in plan.
Solution- Rectify, meeting in close interval.

6. Conflicts between consultant / client & contractor / client
Root Cause – Difference in views, ego and politics
Solution- Maintain the position of client, consultant and contractor, consultant can’t be agent of the contractor but adviser to the client and should be unbiased.

7. Technology changes & modification from client
Root Cause – Money making.

Solution- Alternation provision of technology should be in the contract. Add or deduct percentage from the contract.

8. Difficulty in requirement of supervisors and site engineers
Root Cause – Site remote, accommodation problem, food-transport-weather problem.

Solution – Check supporting system.

9. Stop work orders because of infringements of government regulations by client
Root Cause – Change in amendment.

Solution – law enforcement, time frame, joint petition.
10. Poor scheduling and co-ordination
Root Cause – Wrong bar-chart, incompetency experience.
Solution – Competent employer recruitment, good jury.

11. Mode of financing and payment for completed work
Root Cause – Problem as per specification, time frame mismatched, consultancies awareness in material.
Solution – Time frame maintain monthly.
12. Late supply of information and late decision making
Root Cause – Waiting for expert comment from other, influence from other, market influence.

Solution – Time to time track client, looking at the project and materials.
13. Duration is not enough for constructing the project
Root Cause – Profit making to contractor.

Solution – In meeting feasibility report approved, case study of previous projects, change in terms and conditions.
(b) Contractor Related issues for construction delays:
1. Conflicts in sub-contractor’s schedule in execution of project
Root Cause – Deferent interest, money problem- black market
Solution – Auditor review time to time.

2. Rework due to workers mistakes
Root Cause – Intentional mistake for money problem.

Solution – Awareness of whole project, moral training – motivational class, proper training.

3. Conflicts between contractor and other parties
Root Cause – Don’t know about other trade, awareness of new material.

Solution – Quality control.

4. Improper construction methods & implementation
Root Cause – Lack of knowledge, made short cut for the profit.

Solution – Consultant should be judicious.

5. Delays in sub-contractor’s work
Root Cause – Fund problem from main contractor, Equipment- labour problem, interest in another project.

Solution – Training of sub-contractor about the site, proper money-flow.

6. Delays in site mobilization
Root Cause – Transportation problem, clearance problem.

Solution – Tracking and advanced looking towards the project.

7. Delays in material delivery & procurement
Root Cause – Transportation problem if site is remote, staking and count problem.
Solution – Backup in transportation, proper check-up folder for procurement.

8. Improper equipment delivery
Root Cause – Quotation/ order detail is incomplete, lack of knowledge, checking problem- comply with the specimen.
Solution – Direct talk to the project management, advance order to the materials and equipments.

9. Lack of labour
Root Cause – Wage not satisfy, less availability of the specific job
Solution – Advance money, awareness, training of labour, expert advice.
10. Construction planning errors & equipment failure
Root Cause – Problem in planning, lack of knowledge & experience, maintenance problem, cheap quality of equipment.

Solution – Employ maintenance staff and equipment engineer, Fishbone planning.

11. Centralization with top management
Root Cause – Problem with opinion, lack of benefit thinking to company, ego, negative politics.

Solution – Listen to the leader, meeting for solving, orderly keeping of the official documents.

(c) Consultant Related issues for construction delays:
1. Changes in design & drawings
Root Cause – Not obeying rules-regulations, unsatisfied with the drawing.
Solution – Complete awareness of terms and conditions & clauses of contract, no one is above the authority.
2. Poorly defined project requirements
Root Cause – Programming problem, lack of experience.

Solution – Study of project, meeting with the contractor.

3. Mistakes in design documents
Root Cause – Office stuff problem, careless/irresponsible, awareness of project.

Solution – Principal architect should check all the drawings, details should be read-out.

4. Insufficient data collection & survey before design
Root Cause – Don’t know about survey, lack of knowledge about different project.

Solution – Make detail survey map, stuff-education should be done before design.

5. Delays of payment from client
Root Cause – Giving the drawing in phase, COA act should obey, fail in domain fund and work.

Solution – Cash flow should be maintained.

6. Conflicts between consultant and design engineer
Root Cause – Architect & civil engineering, concept problem.
Solution – Structure should be known, market and material awareness.

7. Improper maintenance and process of Quality assurance/Control procedures and standards
Root Cause – Casual in quality control, fund problem, time management.

Solution – Regularity in quality management.

8. Delayed approval of drawings and BOQ for construction
Root Cause – administration problem, vendor problem, don’t know about govt. rate analysis.

Solution – Proper knowledge of site, skill labour recruitment.

9. Lake of mistakes by design engineer
Root Cause – Architect not look-up, experience in definite problem.

Solution – Co-ordination regarding implementation of project.
4.7 Case study analysisThis four case studies gave the different delay factors in each category. But at the same time some factors are the same for each case study. For farther survey analysis the common factor can detect by using of the ‘Tree’ analysis process. Where all the common factors are selected from the wide range of factors given by the respondents.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 4 Analysis of questionnaire for surveyProbable questionnaire is formed by the common delay factors answered by the respondent. One delay factor chooses in the basis of how many respondents give the same answer.
Here ‘Y’= Yes or answer given and ‘N’= No or answer not given and in probable questionnaire survey ‘Y’= yes for question taken and ‘N’=no for question is not taken for survey.

4.8 Questionnaire generation for surveySo, the probable questionnaire for the survey analysis are for the residential construction projects:
(A) Client Related issues:
1.Delay in progress of payments to contractor / consultant
2.Change orders by client during construction
3.Poor communication and coordination from contractor / consultant
4.Slowness in decision making process
5.Conflicts between consultant / client & contractor / client
6.Technology changes & modification from client
7.Difficulty in requirement of supervisors and site engineers
8.Poor selection of contractor / consultant
9.Long waiting time for approval of drawings
10.Irregular attending of weekly meetings
(B) Contractor Related issues
1.Conflicts in sub-contractor’s schedule in execution of project
2.Rework due to workers mistakes
3.Conflicts between contractor and other parties
4.Low efficiency & shortage of equipment
5.Improper construction methods & implementation
6.Delays in sub-contractor’s work
7.Delays in site mobilization
8.Improper equipment delivery
9.Lack of labour
10.Construction planning errors & equipment failure
(C) Consultant Related issues
1.Changes in design & drawings
2.Poor communication and coordination of staff members / client / contractor
3.Poor leadership in drawing preparation by design engineer/ consulting engineer
4.Lack of senior management support and commitment
5.Poorly defined project requirements
6.Mistakes in design documents
7.Delays in producing design documents
8.Insufficient data collection & survey before design
9.Delayed approval of drawings and BOQ for construction
10.Mistakes by design engineer
4.9 SummeryIn this chapter delays are categorising into major stakeholder in construction like client, contractor and consultant related. All the delay factors explained in this chapter are categorised in that three types which were happened in the construction field. So, in case studies respondents were asked about the delays happening in the residential project among the all delays happened in the construction project. Analysing the case studies, ten delay factors are selected for each stakeholder stated before for further survey for statistical analysis.

Chapter 5: Statistical analysis5.1 GeneralIn this chapter, selected survey questionnaire was asked by Google form survey to the experienced architects, contractor and those who are experienced in construction field. 30 respondents answered the questionnaire and later analyzed with the help of two statistical methods named, Relative Important index and Mean score. Two types of process gave the different answer. So, Spearman’s rank co-relation formula used to see the agreement of two types of methods. Here all the analysis is tried to answer the questions of what the top delays in behalf of respective stakeholders are, what the overall major delays are in the residential construction project in India.
5.2 Data Analysis
Survey questionnaire is requested to the experienced architects, contractor and those who are experienced in construction field for filling up the form. 30 respondents gave their online responses by filling up the Google form. All the respondents answered all the 30 questions of delay factors in residential project which is found by the case studies in chapter 4. They complete the questionnaire survey by giving values to factors which are ranged from 5 (very high important) to 1 (very low important) considering their relative importance. The survey respondents evaluated the 30 organized delay factors based on their professional judgment considering consultant related delays, contractor related delays and client related delays. The following sub-heads are now giving the results of the two-statistical data analysis.

5.2 Result of Relative Index MethodThe method used to analyse data aimed at finding the relative importance of the delay factors, effects of delays and methods of minimizing residential construction delays. The contribution of each factors to overall delays is examined and the ranking of the delay factors in terms of their criticality as judged by the respondents is done by Relative Importance Index (RII) which is calculated using equation and the results are shown in Tables 5 to 7. To find the ranking of different delay factors to the perspective from contractors, consultants and clients. The Relative Importance Index (RII) was calculated by using RII Equation.

REF _Ref512620978 h * MERGEFORMAT Equation 1 RII = ? (Xi x Yi) ÷ (Zi x 5)
Where, RII – relative importance index; Xi – number of responses of the factors; Yi – the value of rating; Zi – total number of responses to the factors.

5.2.1 Client related delay
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 5 Client related delay ranking by RII
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 7 Graphical representation of client related delayIn case of client related delay factors (Table 5) the RII showed that change order by client during construction is rank top (RII= 0.773), conflicts between consultant/ client and contractor/ client is rank two (RII=0.766), delay in progress of payments to contractor/ consultant is rank three (RII=0.733). These are the top three delay factor by client. Consequently, long waiting time for approval of drawings, difficulty in requirement of supervisors and site engineers and technology changes & modification from client are the lowest three delay factors which are affecting the residential project. Figure 6 giving the graphical representation of ten delay factors and their respective rankings.

5.2.2 Contractor related delay
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 6 Contractor related delay ranking by RII
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 8 Graphical representation of contractor related delayIn case of contractor related delay factors (Table 6) the RII showed that conflicts in sub-contractor’s schedule in execution of project is rank top (RII= 0.72), lack of labours is rank two (RII=0.713), rework due to worker’s mistake is rank three (RII=0.706). These are the top three delay factor by contractor in residential projects in India. Consequently, delays in site mobilization, improper equipment delivery & improper construction methods and implementation are the lowest three delay factors which are affecting residential project. Figure 7 giving the graphical representation of ten delay factors and their respective rankings.

5.2.3 Consultant related delay
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 7 Consultant related delay ranking by RII
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 9 Graphical representation of consultant related delayIn case of consultant related delay factors (Table 7) the RII showed that changes in design and drawings is rank top (RII= 0.753), poor leadership in drawing preparation by design engineer/ consulting engineer is rank two (RII=0.726), Poorly defined project requirements is rank three (RII=0.7). These are the top three delay factor by client in residential projects in India. Consequently, insufficient data collection & survey before design & equipment failure, improper equipment delivery & Poor communication and coordination of staff members / client / contractor are the lowest three delay factors which are affecting residential project. Figure 8 giving the graphical representation of ten delay factors of client and their respective rankings.

5.3 Mean Score Method
In the second statistical process data is analyzed by using mean score method. In this method weighting scale of 1 to 5 is adopted in respect of its suitability and simplicity for evaluating each delay factor. The significant of score is based on the respondent’s judgment and experience in construction field. This five-point scale is for calculating the mean score for each factor which is used to find the relative ranking of every factor by assigning ranking to mean score, where low mean score means low ranks and high scores means high ranks and the results are given in Table 8 to 10. The mean score (MS) for each delay factor is calculated by using the following formula:
REF _Ref512725554 h Equation 2 Mean score = ? (f * s)/N
Where, f is frequency of the respondent, s is score given by the respondent (i.e. in between 1 for lowest possibility to 5 for highest possibility), N is total numbers of respondents.

5.3.1 Client related delay
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 8 Consultant related delay ranking by Mean Score
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 10 (MS) Graphical representation of client related delayIn case of client related delay factors (Table 8) the Mean score showed that Change orders by client during construction is rank top (MS=3.87), Conflicts between consultant / client & contractor / client is rank two (MS=3.83), Delay in progress of payments to contractor / consultant is rank three (MS=3.67). These are the top three delay factor by client in residential projects in India. Consequently, long waiting time for approval of drawings, difficulty in requirement of supervisors and site engineers and Technology changes & modification from client are the lowest three delay factors which are affecting residential project. Figure 9 giving the graphical representation of ten delay factors of client and their respective rankings.

5.3.2 Contractor related delayTable SEQ Table * ARABIC 9 Contractor related delay ranking by Mean Score
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 11 (MS) Graphical representation of contractor related delayIn case of client related delay factors (Table 9) the Mean score showed that conflicts in sub-contractor’s schedule in execution of project is rank top (MS=3.60), Lack of labour is rank two (MS=3.57), rework due to workers mistakes is rank three (MS=3.53). These are the top three delay factor by contractor in residential projects in India. Consequently, delays in site mobilization, improper equipment delivery and Improper construction methods & implementation are the lowest three delay factors which are affecting residential project. Figure 10 giving the graphical representation of ten delay factors of client and their respective rankings.

5.3.3 Consultant related delay
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 10 Consultant related delay ranking by Mean Score
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 12 (MS) Graphical representation of consultant related delayIn case of client related delay factors (Table 9) the Mean score showed that conflicts in sub-contractor’s schedule in execution of project is rank top (MS=3.60), Lack of labour is rank two (MS=3.57), rework due to workers mistakes is rank three (MS=3.53). These are the top three delay factor by contractor in residential projects in India. Consequently, delays in site mobilization, improper equipment delivery and Improper construction methods & implementation are the lowest three delay factors which are affecting residential project. Figure 10 giving the graphical representation of ten delay factors of client and their respective rankings.

5.4 Overall analysisIn case of RII ranking if it is summarised it shows that the top 10 delays in residential projects in India. The top 10 delays in case of relative important index is following:
1. Change orders by client during construction (0.773) – Client related delay
2. Conflicts between consultant / client & contractor / client (0.766) – Client related delay
3. Changes in design & drawings (0.753) – Consultant related delay
4. Delay in progress of payments to contractor / consultant (0.733) – Client related delay
5. Poor leadership in drawing preparation by design engineer/ consulting engineer (0.726) – Consultant related delay
6. Conflicts in sub-contractor’s schedule in execution of project (0.72) – Contractor related delay
7. Lack of labour (0.713) – Contractor related delay
8. Rework due to workers mistakes (0.706) – Contractor related delay
9. Conflicts between contractor and other parties (0.700) – Contractor related delay
10. Poor communication and coordination with contractor / consultant (0.693) – Client related delay
So, it easily found that 40% (4 out of 10) cause of delay in residential projects are client related delay having rank – 1,2,4 etc. Then again 40% delay are caused by contractor but having a low ranking – 6,7,8 etc. finally in case of consultant related delay it is only 20%( 2 out of 10) but in delay it has great effect because it stands in 3 and 5 ranking.
In case of Mean score ranking if it is summarised it also shows the top 10 delays in residential projects in India. The top 10 delays in case of relative important index is following:
1. Change orders by client during construction (3.866) – Client related delay
2. Conflicts between consultant / client & contractor / client (3.833) – Client related delay
3. Changes in design & drawings (3.77) – Consultant related delay
4. Delay in progress of payments to contractor / consultant (3.666) – Client related delay
5. Poor leadership in drawing preparation by design engineer/ consulting engineer (3.63) – Consultant related delay
6. Conflicts in sub-contractor’s schedule in execution of project (3.6) – Contractor related delay
7. Lack of labour (3.566) – Contractor related delay
8. Rework due to workers mistakes (3.533) – Contractor related delay
9. Conflicts between contractor and other parties (3.5) – Contractor related delay
10. Poor communication and coordination with contractor / consultant (3.466) – Client related delay
So, it easily found that 40% (4 out of 10) cause of delay in residential projects are client related delay having rank – 1,2,4 etc. Then again 40% delay are caused by contractor but having a low ranking – 6,7,8 etc. finally in case of consultant related delay it is only 20%( 2 out of 10) but in delay it has great effect because it stands in 3 and 5 ranking.
So, the two-statistical process giving the identical overall ranking which shows that the agreement of rankings is 100%.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 13 Percentage distribution of major delay factors in residential project5.5 Degree of agreement of two statistical methodsThe Spearman rank correlation is used for knowing whether there is agreement or disagreement between the outcome of two statistical process. This test is to compare how well the relative important index and mean score agree on the ranking of consultant, contractor and client. A perfect positive correlation (rs = +1) indicates that the two-statistical process rank identically, but a perfect negative correlation (rs = -1) indicates that the ranks of the two statistical processes have an inverse relationship. It might be said then that sample estimates of correlation close to ‘1’ in magnitude imply good correlation, but values near 0 indicate low correlation CITATION MPV12 l 16393 (M. P. Venkatesh, 2012).

To determine significant correlation of the ranking of each statistical processes the Spearman’s Rank correlation coefficient was calculated as following equation 3 and the results of the analysis are presented in Table 4
Equation SEQ Equation * ARABIC 3
rs = 1 – (6 ? d²)/ (N³– N)
rs = Spearman’s Rank correlation coefficient
d = the difference in ranking between the contractors and consultants
N = the number of variables
5.6 Analyze and OutcomeThe two separate statistical processes gave different rankings of client related delay factors, contractor related factors and consultant related delay factors. So, to find the agreement of the two statistical processes, need to calculate Spearman rank co-relation. This formula applied to the same stakeholder related ranking which was calculated by the RII and Mean Score. The client, contractor and consultant related delay factors rankings are calculated by rank co-relation process which is showed in Table 11 to 13 and analysis of outcome is done in Figure 12.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 11 Rank co-relation of client related delay rankingTable 11 shows that the client related delay ranking done by RII and mean score process, was 0.9515 agreed out of 1. So, 95% of the rankings are same and it defines that the answer given by two statistical processes are tends to identical in case of client related delay.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 12 Rank co-relation of contractor related delay rankingTable 11 shows that the contractor related delay ranking done by RII and mean score process, was 1.0 agreed out of 1. So, 100% of the rankings are same and it defines that the answer given by two statistical processes are moderately identical in case of contractor related delay.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 13 Rank co-relation of consultant related delay rankingTable 13 shows that the consultant related delay ranking done by RII and mean score process, was 1.0 agreed out of 1. So, 100% of the rankings are same and it defines that the answer given by two statistical processes are identical in case of contractor related delay.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 14 Co-relation between RII and Mean ScoreSo, Spearman’s co-relation is showing that the co-relation between two statistical process are nearly identical. The RII and MS are agreed to each other.

5.7 SummeryThe two statistical processes named, relative important index and mean score are used here to find the major delay factors occurring in the residential projects in India. It shows that if a project manager or stakeholders take a preventive action from the beginning of the project which are the top delay factors in the list, a project can reduce the delays. The probable recommendation and findings to solve the delay in residential project are discussed in chapter 6.
Chapter 6: Conclusion6.1 GeneralThis seminar’s final objective is to discuss and suggest possible solution for delays for residential construction projects. Since there are major ten delay factors in the residential project, if we mitigate these delays the overall delay must come down. This chapter also give the inter dependency of these delay factors so that if in construction one delay factor mitigate at the first stage then the other dependent delays also come down. At last some recommendations and solution are given to reduce the delays in residential construction projects in India.
6.2 Dependency analysisThe major delays come out after analysis are: 1. Change orders by client during construction (Client related delay) 2. Conflicts between consultant / client & contractor / client (Client related delay) 3. Changes in design & drawings (Consultant related delay) 4. Delay in progress of payments to contractor / consultant (Client related delay) 5. Poor leadership in drawing preparation by design engineer/ consulting engineer (Consultant related delay) 6. Conflicts in sub-contractor’s schedule in execution of project (Contractor related delay) 7. Lack of labour (Contractor related delay) 8. Rework due to workers mistakes (Contractor related delay) 9. Conflicts between contractor and other parties (Contractor related delay).

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 15 Dependency MatrixThis dependency matrix is showing the interdependency of the factors which are affected each other’s occurrence in the residential construction projects in India. In the Figure 15 dependency matrix showing that each stakeholder’s factors are dependent to other stakeholders delay factors.

The following came up after dependency matrix analysis:
Contractor related delay “Conflicts in sub-contractor’s schedule in execution of project”, “Rework due to workers mistakes”, consultant related delay “Changes in design & drawings” and “Poor leadership in drawing preparation by design engineer/ consulting engineer” dependent on the client related delay “change orders by client during construction”. If this client related delay reduced, then these four delays can be reduced.
“Change orders by client during construction” delay can be reduced by site inspection should, lack of planning at onsite of project, making the sanction plan bench mark for construction, bound to maintain the same contract.

Client related delay “delay in progress of payments to contractor / consultant” and “poor communication and coordination with contractor / consultant” are dependent on client related delay “conflicts between consultant / client & contractor / client”. If this client related delay factor reduced, then other two shall reduce also.

“Conflicts between consultant / client & contractor / client” delay can be reduced by conflicting matters should be discussed and settled at early stage, professional attitude and handling of issues, maintain the position of client, consultant and contractor, consultant can’t be agent of the contractor but adviser to the client and should be unbiased.

Contractor related delay “conflicts in sub-contractor’s schedule in execution of project” and “lack of labor” are dependent on client related delay “delay in progress of payments to contractor / consultant”. If this client related delay factor reduced, then other two shall reduce also.

“Delay in progress of payments to contractor / consultant” delay can be reduced by contractors who were making loss due to idle manpower helped in moving the project ahead, proper flow chart should be prepared and followed from the beginning, regular monitoring of work and regular payment, further relook contract or check of source of fund, re-think the requirement of client.

Contractor related delay “conflicts between contractor and other parties” and consultant related delay “changes in design & drawings” are dependent on client related delay “poor communication and coordination with contractor / consultant”. If this delay factor reduced, then other two shall reduce also.

“Poor communication and coordination with contractor / consultant” delay can be reduced by checking profile and past records of the contractor, contract revision, proper management team on contractor/consultant side, project manager must be responsible.

Contractor related delay “Rework due to workers mistakes” and “conflicts between contractor and other parties” are dependent on contractor related delay “lack of labour”. If this delay can be reduced in construction then, other two construction delays shall reduce.

“Lack of labour” delay can be reduced by giving advance money, awareness and training of labour, expert advices, proper payment on time, proper management.

Contractor related delay “rework due to workers mistakes” is dependent on consultant related delay “changes in design & drawings”.

“Changes in design & drawings” delay can be mitigated by complete awareness of terms and conditions ; clauses of contract, no one is above the authority attitude, first time giving proper time for design, Additional payments should have agreed upon which helped in expedite the work of making the revisions.

All the major delays solution can be found in chapter 4 for further interest.

The main reason behind all these delay is lack of coordination and commitment within the project stakeholders. The project stakeholder’s commitment is hugely affects the quality and progress of the construction projects.

6.3 Cause of major delays1. Client related delay
The major three client related delay factors are change orders by client during construction, conflicts between consultant / client & contractor / client and delay in progress of payments to contractor / consultant.
The probable solutions are discussed in 6.2 portion of this chapter.

2. Contractor related delay
The major three contractor related delays are Conflicts in sub-contractor’s schedule in execution of project, lack of labor, rework due to workers mistakes.

The probable solutions for conflicts in sub-contractor’s schedule in execution of project are auditor review time to time, proper schedule management by contractor, deployment of manager with proper management skills.

The probable solutions for lack of labor is discussed in 6.2
The probable solutions for rework due to workers mistakes are awareness of whole project, moral training – motivational class, proper training of labour, proper inspection of site, deployment of skilled man power/ workers, sometimes structural design had to be redone for change in scope.

3. Consultant related delay
The major three consultant related delays are changes in design & drawings, poor leadership in drawing preparation by design engineer/ consulting engineer, poorly defined project requirements.

The probable solutions for changes in design & drawings is discussed in 6.2.

The probable solutions for poor leadership in drawing preparation by design engineer/ consulting engineer are adequate time should take by skilled engineer, quality should never be compromised as per the client’s needs.

The probable solutions for poorly defined project requirements are study of project, meeting with the contractor, cost implication (additional charges) for rework needs to be agreed upon and well documented in the contract at the very onset.

6.3 Approximate solution for multi-stakeholderThe appropriate solution for the cause of delay should be solved and measure should take for delay causes. The solution should have technical bases. Some of the recommendation are follows:
The probable solution for overall delays in residential construction are follows:
1. Client decisions
Client should take decisions as quickly as possible so as not to prevent projects from delay and taking extra time for completing.

2. Communication and coordination
Proper communication and coordination between the various stakeholders should be established during different phases of construction. Problems with coordination and communication result in misunderstandings which delays in the completion of the project.

3. Change order
A change order is work deleted or added to from the original scope of project of a contract, which may alter the original contract amount or completion date. Contract conditions corresponding to change orders should be carefully understood.

4. Subcontractors problem
Generally, large residential projects may entail having many subcontractors working under main contractors. If the subcontractor under performs because of inadequate capability or experience, the project may be delayed. The use of many subcontractors may cause of high risk of delays.

5. Supervision in phases
Testing and inspection by the consultants is an important thing during construction because poor inspection may result lower quality of work.

6. Changes in design
Client may demand design changes during construction, but only to the extent that no big effects occur with respect to mission- critical activities.

7. Planning and scheduling
Contractors should pay more attention to preparing effective planning and scheduling. During construction, planning and scheduling may be revised if necessary.

8. Grouping and redistribution of work force
The proper grouping of work force throughout the organization is necessary; if any task needs 25 labours and there is provision of 20 or 22 labours then there is probability of delay occurrence. And for that the proper distribution of work force of relative tasks should be adopted. The exact allocation of suitable work force on different types of work is needed.

9. Training and improvement programs
The training program should be provided as per the requirement of improvement required. The training should include the solutions about current problems facing by the project progress, i.e. if in any case delay occurred due to lack of communication then there should be training program for improving the communication and coordination.

10. Improving the communication:
For drawing details and drawing changes the proper communication system should be adopted in case if communication of drawing details is the cause of the delay. The computerized system can be adopted for fast communication of drawing, drawing details and changes. So, misguidance about drawing cannot be adopted. Now days mailing the document are very common, cheap and fastest source of communication. If in any case, there is less communication with clients then there should be one authority for handling the client-side communications. So, it will reduce time for decision by client.

6.4 SummeryThe probable points are the key solution of the residential construction delays. By the dependency matrix one can understand the interdependency of delay occurred in the projects. The solution always should take from the all the stakeholder not only one party because preventive measures of every parties makes a project successful. If a contractor, client and consultants know the delays which must come to the projects as per the statistical analysis the delays can be mitigate accordingly.

6.5 Future scope of workSimilar studies could be performed in specific types of construction projects, such as commercial projects, institutional projects and other projects in India. In future, more perfect outcome can be calculated if someone take more case study from overall India. The other statistical process can be used (not the same one which is used here) to know about the different outcome and rankings also.
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