solate microbial and chemical pollution of groundwater. Sources of pollution of groundwater can be industrial enterprises and communal facilities. With microbial contamination of groundwater, some pathogenic bacteria and viruses retain their vital functions for a long time (100 or more days).
Microbial pollution is more often exposed to groundwater. Foci of pollution are formed in the presence of fields of sewage and filtration, cattle yards, cesspools, through which direct filtration of contaminated water. And if the soils in the aeration zone lose their purifying properties, groundwater contamination begins. Especially dangerous foci of contamination in places of well permeable fissured or coarse clastic rocks. In such cases pollution with atmospheric precipitation can penetrate into groundwater. Pollution of groundwater can also occur when waste water is discharged into absorbing wells, pits, wells.
Pollution of artesian waters can occur when wastewater is discharged into absorbing wells, as well as when contaminated groundwater flows through corroded pipes and the annular space of abandoned wells that have defects. Pollution of groundwater by chemicals can go through contaminated surface water, through which the supply of underground water.
In industrial plants, sewage ponds use settling ponds, slurry ponds, storage ponds, evaporation ponds, tailings ponds, ash dumps, etc. In some cases, they can also be a source of groundwater pollution. When using agricultural irrigation fields and filtration fields for wastewater treatment, groundwater contamination with harmful chemicals is also not excluded.
Surface-active substances (surfactants) can enter the groundwater. Pollution of surfactants is observed when using soil methods of wastewater treatment containing surfactants when replenishing groundwater reserves from surface water sources containing surfactants.
The source of pollution of groundwater can be atmospheric precipitation, polluting in the territories occupied by industrial waste, salt removal, in the areas of storage of petroleum products, raw materials and finished products of chemical industry enterprises, warehouses of pesticides and fertilizers.