Since the advent of human civilization

Since the advent of human civilization, human beings quickly realized to live together and accept certain rules of conduct to satisfy their economic and social needs. The utilisation of resources became the most common and complex human activity. A small group of people or a team can arrive at a decision by way of informal decision-making. These decisions are self-executed and those who make the decision execute it by themselves. However, such informal arrangements are inappropriate when the group is large or for a unit as large as a state or a country. A need for institution was felt to enforce rules of conduct, observe discipline and exercise authority in allocation of resources to society. This institution formed for this purpose of decision-making is called as government. Government is one of the most important and oldest institutions of contemporary society.
The word ‘government’ has its origins in old French word ‘governer’, which is derived from Latin word ‘gubernare’ (meaning to direct, rule, guide), which in turn comes from the Greek word kybernan (meaning to steer or pilot a ship, direct). (Hislope, & Mughan, 2012). Government is a formal structure, established by the constitution, which is responsible for the mobilisation of laws, money and employees and the conversion of these resources into programme outputs (Rose , 1984). The purpose for which people live together cannot be realized nowadays unless they are properly organized and accept certain rules of conduct. The agency created to enforce such rules of conduct and to ensure obedience, therefore is called government. Government can be defined as the institutions and processes that make and implement authoritative decisions for a society
To govern, therefore, is to pilot the ship of state (nation/country), and government is control. Government consists of all organisations that are endowed with decision-making and execution of same for the community or unit of administration. In its broadest sense, government refers to a body that has the authority to make and the power to enforce laws within a civil, corporate, religious, academic and other organization. The government unit can be a city, county, state, regional, national, or international government. The decisions, which include laws, regulations, and other public policies, are authoritative in the sense that individuals and organizations are legally obligated to obey the decisions or face some kind of sanction.