Refrence 1


1. Idris et al. 1998, Nichter et al. 2004). Idris, A. M., Ibrahim, S. O., Vasstrand, EN.,Johannessen, A. C., Lillehaug, J. R., Magnusson, B., Wallstro¨m, M., Hirsch, J. M. & Nilsen, R. The Swedish snus and the Sudanese toombak: are they different? Oral Oncology 1998;34,558–566.
2. V Fant, Jack E Henningfield, Richard A Nelson,Wallace B Pickworth, Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of moist snuff in humans Reginald. Tobacco Control 1999;8:387–392.
3. Peng Li , Jie Zhang , Shi-Hao Sun *, Jian-Ping Xie and Yong-Li Zong , A novel model mouth system for evaluation of In Vitrorelease of nicotine from moist snuff, Chem Cent J. 2013; 7: 176
4. Holm, H., Jarvis, M. J., Russell, M. A. & Feyerabend, C. (1992) Nicotine intake and dependence in Swedish snuff takers. Psychopharmacology 108, 507–511
5. Arun Kumar MS, Mythri S, Shashikanth Hegde, Rajesh KS, Effect of chewing gutkha on oral hygiene, gingival and periodontal status, Journal of Oral Health Research, Volume 3, Issue 3, July 2012.
6. Frithiof, L., Anneroth, G., Lasson, U. & Sederholm, C. (1983). The snuff-induced lesion. A clinical and morphological study of a Swedish material. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 41, 53–64.
7. Laura A. Ciolino*, Heather A. McCauley, Diane B. Fraser, and Karen A. Wolnik, The Relative Buffering Capacities of Saliva and Moist Snuff: Implications for Nicotine Absorption, Journal of Analytical Toxicology, Vol. 25, January/February 2001
8. Ciolino, L. A., McCauley, H. A., Fraser, D. B. & Wolnik, K. A. The relative buffering capacities of saliva and moist snuff: implications for nicotine absorption. Journalof Analytical Toxicology 2001; 25, 15–25.
9. Bergstro M J, Keilani H, Lundholm C, Radestad U. Smokeless tobacco (snuff) use and periodontal bone loss . J ClinPeriodontol 2006; 33: 549–554. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2006.00945.x.
10. Laura A. Ciolino, Heather A. McCauley, Diane B. Fraser, and Karen A. Wolnik. The Relative Buffering Capacities of Saliva and Moist Snuff, Journal of Analytical Toxicology; January 2001. 25,1,15–25.
11. Hirsch, J.M., Heyden, G., and Thilander, H. 1982. A clinical, histomorphological and histochemical study of snuff-induced lesions of varying severity. J. Oral Pathol. 11:387-398.
12. Mörnstad, H., Axéll, T., and Sundström, B. 1989. Clinical picture of snuff dipper’s lesion in Swedes. Community Dent. Oral Epidemiol. 17:97-101.
13. Andersson, G., Axéll, T., and Larsson, A. Clinical classification of Swedish snuff dippers lesions supported by histology. J. Oral Pathol. Med. 1991;20:253-257.
14. Axéll, T. A prevalence study of oral mucosal lesions in an adult Swedish population. Thesis. Odontol. Rev. Suppl. 1976; 27:1-103
15. Andersson, G., Axéll, T., and Larsson, A. 1989b. Histologic changes associated with the use of loose and portion-bag packed Swedish moist snuff: A comparative study. J. Oral Pathol. Med. 18:491-497.
16. Larsson, A. Andersson, G., Axéll, T., 1991b. Clinical classification of Swedish snuff dippers lesions supported by histology. J. Oral Pathol. Med. 20:253-257.
17. Rolandsson, M., Hellqvist, L., Lindqvist, L. ; Hugoson, A. (2005) Effects of snuff on the oral health status of adolescent males: a comparative study. Oral Health Prev Dent 3, 77–85.
18. Monte´n U, Wennstro¨m JL, Ramberg P. Periodontal conditions in male adolescents using smokeless tobacco (moist snuff). J Clin Periodontol 2006; 33, 863–868. doi:10.1111/j.1600-051X.2006.01005.x.

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19. Mavropoulos, A. Aars, H. ; Brodin, P. (2001) The acute effects of smokeless tobacco (snuff) on gingival blood flow in man. Journal of Periodontal Research 36, 221–26

20. Berna Alpar, Gabriele Leyhausen, Angela Sapotnick, Hüsamettin Günay, W. Geurtsen. Nicotine- induced alterations in human primary periodontal ligament and gingiva fibroblast cultures. Clinical Oral Investigation 1998; 2, 40–46.


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