Poverty is a complex and multidimensional social phenomenon everywhere in the world and drawing the attention of the international community for global solution. Ethiopia is among the countries striving toward alleviating the inflammation of the problem for many years, however the problem still persisted.This study was carried out in Silte Wereda of South Nations Nationalities Regional State (SNNPRS);specifically the study aim at measuring rural poverty and also identifying determinants of rural household poverty. Thus to meet this objectives, primary data was collected by structured interview from 365 selected sample household and analyze, discussed applying, descriptive statistics and logit regression model. Therefore, identifying poor and non-poor households; examining the incidence, depth and severity of poverty; association of livelihood capital with poor and non-poor households and measurement of the dimensions of poverty have been made. In setting poverty line, cost benefit necessity approach was employed. This has been done by using basket of food items actually consumed by the households and converted to calories. Finally, the aggregate food calories adjusted in adult equivalent and multiply by local prices of acquiring them to estimate the food poverty line. Regard to non-food poverty line,it determined by using a simple linear regression developed by the World Bank. Accordingly regressing the share of total expenditure devoted to food of each household on a constant and the log of the ratio of consumption expenditures to the food poverty line. Based on this it found to be Birr 2989.50 for food poverty line where as birr 1553.57 for non-food per adult equivalent per year.
The results of the FGT poverty index shows that about 41.1 % of the sample rural households have lived below the poverty line, the total consumption needed to bring the poor households to the poverty line is 11.3% and poverty severity is 4.3%..
Regarding to the result of the binary logit regression econometric model, out of twelve variables included in the model, seven explanatory variables are found to be significant up to less than 5% probability level. Accordingly, off-farm and non-farm income , educational level, access to credit and contact of agricultural extension worker, ownership of livestock, cultivated land , were found as theoretical expectation statistically significant and had a strong negatively associated and the family size positive association with poverty status of rural households in surveyed area. Hence, promoting equitable economic growth, education, family planning, diversification, credit accessibility, rural-urban linkages, land productivity and promoting research extension-farmer linkage suppose to be indispensible policy interventions for targeting rural poverty.
Key words: Binary logit; Livelihood capitals; Rural poverty;Silte Wereda