onditions inside the human body such as blood glucose levels must be controlled carefully for the body to function effectively, this is known as homeostasis (BBC Bitesize, 2018). Homeostasis is how the body keeps conditions the same, there are many roles involved in homeostasis one being the regulation of blood sugar. Insulin and glucagon are the two hormones used during homeostasis. The main source of energy in the body is glucose, this is produced by the hormone insulin. It allows cells to absorb glucose from the blood, giving the body energy (Parker, S, 2007). Insulin is produced in the pancreas, it controls the amount of sugar in the body. Without insulin, the body breaks down fat and muscle, which then results in weight loss and weakness (NHS Inform, 2018). Glucose comes from digested food which then enters the bloodstream, insulin moves the glucose into cells where it is broken down to produce energy for the body. Carbohydrate foods contribute towards the body’s main source of energy, therefore it is important that regular meals are eaten and spread out during the day. This helps energy levels maintain without blood sugar levels increasing. Blood sugar control is important in general for most people. If the blood glucose level is too high, the pancreas produces the hormone insulin that causes glucose to move from the blood into the cells. When the blood sugar levels decrease the body will send signals to release glucagon from the pancreas which is then converted into glucose. During exercise blood sugar levels can be decreased, glucose is delivered to the muscles for energy and as the blood flow to muscles increases so does the energy supply reducing the amount of glucose in the blood. When the glucose levels in the blood are low the body starts to use stored sugars, which are then converted to glycogen to produce the body with more energy (CYR, B, 2017). Excess glucose is stored in the liver and muscle cells and is converted into glycogen, this will be stored and used when the blood level is low (BBC, Unknown).
If an individual has a condition such as diabetes it is vital that blood sugar is controlled (Virtual Medical Centre, 2007). Diabetes is a condition in which the glucose in the body is too high. This is caused by the inability of the hormone insulin to be produced resulting in high blood sugar. High blood sugar levels can seriously damage the body’s organs due to blood vessels and nerves resulting in impaired function in the organs. Having high blood sugar can cause health problems such as kidney disease, heart disease and vision problems (Diabetes.Co.Uk, Unknown). Glucose is unable to be broken down into energy due to the body not having enough insulin or the insulin being produced isn’t working properly (NHS, 2016). There are two types of diabetes, type 1 and type 2. Type 2 usually affects people over the age of 40 and is a lot more common than type 1. Type 1 diabetes is often known as insulin-dependent diabetes and can also be known as juvenile diabetes or early-onset diabetes this is because it usually develops before the age of 40, often during teenage years. Diabetes cannot be cured but the treatment given allows blood glucose level to stay controlled within range.
Type 1 diabetes is caused by the pancreas not being able to produce insulin resulting in high blood glucose levels. It can be detected at any age but usually develops before the age of 40, it is the most common type of childhood diabetes (NHS Inform. 2018). Insulin injections will be given to help control glucose levels and will have to closely monitor this. Individuals will need to pay special attention to certain aspects of their lifestyle and health to ensure blood glucose levels stay balanced, this can be down to eating a healthy diet and carrying out regular blood tests (NHS, 2016).
In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas can produce insulin, but the insulin can’t work properly due to the body cells not being able to respond to it causing blood sugar levels to increase. This can be controlled by diet and exercise but cannot be treated. Many studies show that there is links between obesity and type 2 diabetes. Obesity is believed to account for 80-85% of individuals at risk of developing type 2 diabetes, while recent research suggests that obese people are up to 80 times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than those with a BMI of less than 22 (Diabetes.co.uk, 2018). Reducing body weight to prevent obesity can help improve the body’s insulin sensitivity.