Nowadays

Nowadays, translation plays an important role in life. We do communication in daily life. Through translation, people are able to communicate in this multilingual world. It can help people share information, knowledge, ideas, and lots of things to each other. Not only exchanging information, translation enables people to exchange cultures as well. We can learn cultures from other countries in many ways. By watching movies, reading books, or even talking to the natives directly. In doing such thing, translation is very crucial.
According to Hatim and Mason (1997) “translation is defined as an act of communication which attempt to relay, across cultural and linguistic boundaries, another act of communication (which may have been intended for different purposes and different readers/hearers)”(p.1). Newmark (1988) states that translation is rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended the text. From those definition, it can be concluded that translation is not only about exchanging meaning from SL to TL, but also carrying the meaning to the TL so that the readers/hearers understand the text. Yuliasri (2015) stated that translator, in his/her task of translating, must be able to comprehend the source text in the source language, and then render the text in the target language for comprehension by the target readers.
There are many differences found in both source language (SL) and target language (TL), such as in the form of structure, culture and style. Therefore, translation is very useful for people who do not have good ability in understanding SL. They are able to translate the SL to the TL to be understood. However, translation is not an easy thing to do. It might be difficult to establish its equivalence. The different structure and system in both languages might become the obstacles in establishing the equivalence. The enhancement of the technology has also provided some translation tools; however, the technology itself, such as google translate, sometimes is not able to understand the contexts of the texts beyond the sentences which provides miss information for the target readers (Hartono & Ismail, 2016).
In this present time, there are many bilingual storybooks that can be found in our surroundings. Children’s storybooks have significant role in language learning. They are mostly in the form of fables and fairy tales. Bilingual storybooks are created to facilitate children in learning their first language as well as the foreign language. The most common form of bilingual children’s storybook in Indonesia is English – Indonesia or Indonesia – English version. In translating a storybook, a translator should be able to choose the proper diction since the readers of the books are mostly children and their parents. Storybooks can give implicit impact to children, especially in relation to the moral values stated in the story. Thus, the translators should be smart in choosing the proper and correct diction so that it does not change the intended meaning.
In this study, the writer aims at investigating the translation techniques used in a bilingual storybook entitled “What Makes Me Brave” and figuring out the dominant technique and the reason why the dominant technique of translation is used in the storybook. The storybook is written by Heidi Howarth and is translated by Maria M. Lubis. The translation techniques used in this study is the techniques proposed by Molina and Albir (2002).

Translation Techniques
According to Molina and Albir (2002), a technique in translation is the result of a choice made by a translator, its validity will depend on various questions related to the context, the purpose of the translation, audience expectations, etc. Then, they define translation techniques as procedures to analyse and classify how translation equivalence works (p.509). There are five basic characteristics of translation techniques. They are as follows:
1. They affect the result of the translation
2. They are classified by comparison with the original
3. They affect micro-units of text
4. They are by nature discursive and contextual
5. They are functional
There are many classifications of translation techniques proposed by some experts. In this study, the writer used the translation techniques proposed by Molina and Albir (2002). There are 18 translation techniques that are described below:
1. Adaptation
To replace a source text (ST) cultural element with one to target text (TT) from the target culture.
ST : He likes to play baseball.
TT : Dia suka bermain kasti.
2. Amplification
To add detailed informations that are not formulated in the ST namely explicit paraphrase. It occurs when the TT uses more signifiers to cover syntactic or lexical gaps.
ST : You’re early today.
TT : Kamu datang lebih cepat hari ini.
3. Borrowing
To take a word or expression straight from another language. It is a very simplest procedure among others. In this technique, a word or an expression is taken from the source language and used in the target language. It can be pure (without any change) or naturalized (to fit the spelling rules in the TL).
ST : My sister likes to download music from the internet.
TT : Saudara perempuanku suka mendownload musik dari internet.
4. Calque
Literal translation ofa a foreign word or phrase; it can be lexical or structural.
ST : Directorate General
TT : Direktorat Jendral.
5. Compensation
To introduce a ST element of information or stylistic effect in another place in the TT because it cannot be reflected in the same place as in the ST.
ST : a pair of scissors
TT : sebuah gunting
6. Description
To replace a term or expression with a description of its form or/and function.
ST : panettone
TT : kue tradisional Italia yang dimakan pada saat malam tahun baru.
7. Discursive Creation
To establish a temporary equivalence that is totally unpredictable out of the context.
ST : Husband for a year
TT : Suami sementara
8. Established Equivalence
To use a term or expression recognized (by dictionaries or language in use) as an equivalent in the TL.
ST : effective and efficient
TT : efektif dan efisien
9. Generalization
To use a more general or neutral term in the TL.
ST : penthouse, mansion
TT : tempat tinggal
10. Linguistic Amplification
To add linguistic elements in the translation of ST to the TT. This is often used in consecutive interpreting and dubbing.
ST : just kidding
TT : Cuma main-main saja, bukan beneran.
11. Linguistic Compression
To synthesize linguistic elements in the TT. This is often used in simultaneous interpreting and in sub-titling.
ST : yes, then?
TT : lalu?

12. Literal Translation
To translate a word or an expression word for word. It focuses on form and structure without any addition or reduction into target text.
ST : where are you?
TT : dimana kamu?
13. Modulation
To change point of view, focus or cognitive category in relation to the ST; it can be lexical or structural.
ST : Nobody doesn’t like it.
TT : Semua orang menyukainya.
14. Particularization
To use a more precise or concrete term. It is the opposite of generalization.
ST : vehicle
TT : mobil
15. Reduction
To suppress a ST information item in the TT by reducing unnecessary words.
ST : Her house is by The Thames.
TT : Rumahnya disebelah sungai Thames.
16. Substitution
To change linguistic elements for paralinguistic elements (intonation, gestures) or vice versa.
ST : the Arabic gesture; putting your hand on your chest.
TT : Thank you.
17. Transposition
To change a grammatical category. It often appears in case of grammatical change between ST and TT.
ST : A disease victim
TT : seorang korban wabah penyakit

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18. Variation
To change linguistic or paralinguistic elements (intonation, gestures) that affect aspects of linguistic variation: changes of textual tone, style, social dialect, geographical dialect, etc.
ST : That’s the idea!
TT : Itu asiknya!

Bilingual Storybook
A storybook is a book containing a story or collection of stories intended for children (https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/storybook). Noerjanah (2017) defines bilingual books as books with two different languages written either on the same page or facing pages. From bilingual storybooks, children are able to get knowledge of other languages and they learn other cultures as well. By reading the bilingual storybooks, children are also able to find out some new vocabularies that they might not get from their surroundings. In bilingual children’s storybooks, translation plays a crucial role in delivering the message of source language (SL) to the target language (TL) naturally, accurately and readable (Newmark, 1988). In translating the text, translators should take into account the diction that they will choose. The translators should choose the correct and appropriate diction regarding the readers of the storybooks are mostly children and their parents.
In this study, the writer aims at investigating the translation techniques used in a bilingual storybook entitled “What Makes Me Brave” and figuring out the dominant technique and the reason why the dominant technique of translation is used in the storybook. The storybook is written by Heidi Howarth and is translated by Maria M. Lubis.
METHOD
The design of the study is descriptive qualitative. This design is applied to obtain detailed information about a phenomenon and describe what was going on with it without influencing it. This study aims at explaining the translation techniques used in a bilingual storybook entitled “What Makes Me Brave” and figuring out the dominant technique and the reason why the dominant technique of translation is used in the storybook. The source of data is a bilingual storybook entitled “What Makes Me Brave”, written by Heidi Howarth and translated by Maria M. Lubis. The book is published by Little Kaifa Publisher, PT. Mizan Pustaka Bandung in 2014. The genre of the book is fable. The object of the study is a word, phrase, clause or sentence in the storybook. The storybook consists of 95 clauses from 52 sentences. The full source of data is presented in Appendix 1. The method of collecting data is documentation method. In documentation method, reading every sentences and taking notes are the crucial aspects. The technique for analyzing the data consists of (1) reading the Indonesian and the English text, (2) identifying the translation techniques used in the storybook, (3) classifying the techniques based on Molina and Albir’s classification, (4) calculating the occurrences of each technique, (5) finding the most dominant technique of translation used in the storybook, and (6) interpreting the result as well as drawing conclusion. In analyzing the data, the writer used the translation techniques proposed by Molina and Albir (2002).

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
This study aims at investigating the translation techniques used in a bilingual storybook entitled “What Makes Me Brave” and figuring out the dominant technique and the reason why the dominant technique of translation is used in the storybook. The source of data is a bilingual storybook entitled “What Makes Me Brave”, written by Heidi Howarth and translated by Maria M. Lubis. The book is published by Little Kaifa Publisher, PT. Mizan Pustaka Bandung in 2014. The storybook consists of 95 clauses from 52 sentences. In 95 clauses, the writer found that there were 13 translation techniques used by the translators. The result of the analysis is presented in the table below:

Table 1. The number and percentage of the translation techniques
No. Translation techniques Number of occurrence Percentage
1 Amplification 20 21%
2 Literal Translation 15 16%
3 Transposition 13 14%
4 Modulation 11 12%
5 Compensation 10 10%
6 Reduction 9 9%
7 Linguistic Compression 6 6%
8 Established Equivalence 4 4%
9 Adaptation 2 2%
10 Generalization 2 2%
11 Particularization 2 2%
12 Linguistic Amplification 1 1%
13 Borrowing 1 1%
Total 95 100%

Table 1 shows the number and the percentage of the translation techniques used in the storybook. From the table above, the most dominant technique is amplification, 20 times of usage (21%). The next technique is literal translation with 15 times of usage (16%). The lower percentage of the technique are linguistic amplification and borrowing with 1 time of usage (1%).
1. Amplification
This technique is used 20 times (21%). The translator adds detailed information which does not exist in the source text. For example:
Clause no. 36
ST : The water is warm and calm here.
TT : Akhirnya, disini, airnya hangat dan tenang.
The translator adds the word akhirnya that does not exist in the ST to emphasize that finally the character in the story found the place as what it wants.
2. Literal Translation
This technique occurred 15 times (16%). The translator translates the text word by word. For example:
Clause no.33
ST : He must swim.
TT : Dia harus berenang.
In translating the text “he must swim”, the translator translates the text word by word. It is translated into “dia harus berenang”.
3. Transposition
This technique is used 13 times (14%). The translator changes the grammatical category in translating the ST to the TT. For example:
Clause no. 3
ST : The sound of new lives beginning.
TT : Suara hidup-hidup baru dimulai.
In translating the text, the translator change the word class of beginning as a noun in the ST into dimulai as a verb in the TT.
4. Modulation
This technique occurred 11 times (12%). The translator changes the point of view, focus or cognitive category in relation to the source language. For example:
Clause no.23
ST : he is focused on the ocean
TT : matanya tertuju ke samudera
In translating the text, the translator changes the point of view of the word “he is focused” into ” matanya tertuju”.
5. Compensation
This technique is used 10 times (10%). The translator introduces a ST element of information or stylistic effect in another place in the TT because it cannot be reflected in the same place as in the ST. For example:
Clause no. 8
ST : He knew deep inside
TT : Dalam hatinya dia tahu
Here, the translator introduces the words “deep inside” in the ST to be translated into “dalam hatinya” to suit the context in the TT.
6. Reduction
This technique occurred 9 times (9%). The translator reduces unnecessary words in the TL. For example:
Clause no.72
ST : shark lurk in the deep
TT : ikan hiu mengintai
In translating the text, the translator omits the word in the deep from the ST. However, it will not impact author’s intention since the point of the text has been conveyed.
7. Linguistic Compression
This technique is used 6 times (6%). The translator synthesizes linguistic elements in the TL. For example:
Clause no. 75
ST : When he is fully grown,
TT : Setelah dewasa,
Here, the translator synthesizes the linguistic element of the ST to make the words shorter in the TT without changing the meaning.
8. Established Equivalence
This technique occurred 4 times (4%). The translator introduces a term or expression recognized (by dictionaries or language in use) as an equivalent in the TL. For example:
Clause no. 18
ST : no Mummies or Daddies are there to help them.
TT : tak ada Ibu atau Ayah yang bisa membantu mereka.
In the text, the words Mummies and Daddies in the SL are equivalent in the TL as Ibu dan Ayah.
9. Adaptation
This technique is used 2 times (2%). The translator replaces a source text cultural element with one from the target culture. For example:
Clause no. 64
ST : They swim many miles,
TT : Mereka berenang sangat jauh,
Here, the translator replaces the words many miles in the SL with the words sangat jauh in the TL since the words many miles do not exist in the TL culture.
10. Generalization
This technique is used 2 times (2%). In this technique, the translator uses a more general or neutral term. For example:
Clause no. 79
ST : He will find a wife,
TT : Dia akan menemukan pasangan,
In the text, the translator uses the more general term of wife. The translator translates the word “wife” in the SL into “pasangan” in the TL instead of the word “istri”. It might be because storybook is for children and it is better to use the word pasangan instead of istri.
11. Particularization
This technique is used 2 times (2%). The translator translates the ST in a more precise or concrete term in the TT. For example:
Clause no. 26
ST : the Sea Gulls call
TT : burung-burung camar yang berkaok-kaok
Here, the translator uses a more precise term in translating the word call. The literal meaning is memanggil but in this context, the translator uses the word berkaok-kaok to make it more precise in describing how the Sea Gulls call.
12. Linguistic Amplification
This technique is used 1 time (1%). The translator adds linguistic element in the translation from source to target language. For example:
Clause no. 93
ST : playing nearby
TT : yang bermain didekatnya
In the text, the translator adds the word yang instead of using the same number of words bermain didekatnya.
13. Borrowing
This technique is used 1 time (1%). The translator takes a word or expression from the source language without translation. For example:
Clause no. 87
ST : A cheeky anemone
TT : Seekor anemon lucu
Here, the translator takes the word anemone from the SL into anemon in the TL.
Based on the findings, it can be seen that there are thirteen translation techniques used in translating the bilingual storybook entitled “What Makes Me Brave”. The dominant translation technique is amplification with 20 occurrences (21%). The possible reason why the translator used more amplification technique is that the translator might want to get the texts easily to be understood. Thus, the translator adds some detailed information related to the context. This finding is also in line with the study conducted by Afifah, Hartono & Yuliasri (2018) that amplification technique is used by the translator in order to make the text easily to be understood.

CONCLUSION
This study focuses on investigating the translation techniques used in a bilingual storybook entitled “What Makes Me Brave” and figuring out the dominant technique and the reason why the dominant technique of translation is used in the storybook. The storybook consists of 95 clauses from 52 sentences. From the findings and discussion, it can be concluded that there are 13 translation techniques used by the translators. They are amplification with 20 occurrences (21%), literal translation with 15 occurrences (16%), transposition with 13 occurrences (14%), modulation with 11 occurrences (12%), compensation with 10 occurrences (10%), reduction with 9 occurrences (9%), linguistic compression with 6 occurrences (6%), established equivalence with 4 occurrences (4%), adaptation with 2 occurrences (2%), generalization with 2 occurrences (2%), particularization with 2 occurrences (2%), linguistic amplification with 1 occurrence (1%) and borrowing with 1 occurrence (1%).
The dominant translation technique used in translating the storybook is amplification with 20 occurrences (21%). The possible reason why the translator used more amplification technique is that the translator might want to get the texts easily to be understood. Thus, the translator adds some detailed information related to the context.
Overall, studying translation technique is always challenging. By studying translation technique, we will be able to figure out what techniques translators usually used in various texts, e.g. storybook, song lyric, subtitling, etc. Other researchers are suggested to explore more about translation techniques in different texts.

Nowadays

Nowadays, social media is the most influences and has a big role in our daily lives.This means that social media also changed the way we communicate by using social media such as Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and etc.However, I must admit that social media also can give negatives or positive impacts to our society but it depends on how we use it whether it is good or conversely. In addition, social media have a good impact like we also can expand our business by using online plus it also can attract more people to buy it that who is in need or interest.

Nowadays

Nowadays, we live in a society that obsessed with beauty. From the moment each of us sets foot on this earth to the day we die, we are taught by the culture around us that beauty means lives happily ever after, while the hideous witch or ogre is doomed to meet a grisly end. We grow older and the princesses of our bedtime stories make way for shimmering Hollywood stars and carefully made-up models in magazines. The message, however, remains the same which is “beauty is everything”. But as we strive for this indefinable perfection, we must ask ourselves what it truly means to have beauty and how far we are willing to sacrifice to obtain it. With all the big brand launches their much projected products and some of them not being available in our countries, we tend to trust online shopping but is this safer? Shopping for cheap designer cosmetics might put you at risk and with social media playing a big role in this, many of these products are fake and more alarming could leave you with bad side effects. The beauty industry is exploding and with the youth trying to keep up with their beauty idols and catch up with trends, many are taking short cuts. These unregulated fakes can contain a lot of unregulated dangerous ingredients that we don’t know of and can cause massive damage.

Firstly, the thing that always show up are all about the reason for using cosmetic that can affect the skin. The effect to the skin by using cosmetic is one of the expectations that vary for the cosmetic user itself. The importance of cosmetic is usually to look more beautiful and be confident. It also plays a big role in the creation of an image or being presentable to others (DeLong and Bye, 1990). In a meanwhile, cosmetic usage gives a really big impact to the skin of users that come in good result and ineffective result. According to (Rodda, 2004) a beauty therapist, he revealed that a lot of products in the market are harsh on the skin. Moreover, without using a correct protection when using cosmetic product, it can lead to making the skin be more sensitive. The skin will go on defensive, thinking that it is being attacked. Many people say they have sensitive skin because skincare products, or household products that contact their skin, cause stinging, burning, redness, or tightness. Usually, people are concerned about the condition on the skin and not thinking about the effect to the skin. Cosmetic as a product that will ensure the changes on the skin turns out to be much demanded product that plays the part of fulfilling human needs. Cosmetic usage and the ingredients in the cosmetic product plays important role in safety. A 2006 study by Chemical Safe Skincare Research found that the average woman uses 12 toiletries per day, cumulatively containing up to 175 different chemicals. Because 60 percent of products applied to the skin are absorbed into the body, the average woman absorbs five pounds of chemicals per year through her cosmetics. Many products on the market are not safe and effective, including one of every eight high-SPF sunscreens that does not protect from UVA radiation as mentioned by (EWG, 2007).

Second, the sale of counterfeit cosmetics affects brands. Surely at some point in our life we have bought or at least thought about buying something that was not the real deal. They spend millions of dollars promoting their brand and doing all the right things with innovation and product development, only to have somebody create a substandard product with false branding. The loyal following created by heritage and start-up cosmetics brands alike have consumers seeking all avenues to get their hands on the latest products. Those seeking the enormously popular Kylie Cosmetic Lip Kits are undoubtedly barraged with deals from traditionally trustworthy channels. There are presently over 300 results on Amazon for Kylie Cosmetics, while the brand clearly states on their website that these products are sold exclusively on the company’s website. Looking at the reviews of these products, you’ll find comments stating that the products smell like gasoline or that the product caused their lips to burn or stick together. Third-party ecommerce retailers are having trouble preventing counterfeit products being sold on their sites, so manufacturers will need to step in to help. While manufacturers are doing their best to protect their consumers from dangerous knock-offs and their own brand equity from the effect these horror stories have on their business, consumers should not rely on 3rd-party retailers to guard against counterfeit product. These 3rd parties cannot guarantee a product is authentic, untampered, stored correctly, etc. Unfortunately, it is the manufacturer’s brands that get tarnished as negative consumer reviews on sites get attributed directly to the product listings and not the profiles of the sellers. Amazon is working to combat this issue and has strict anti-counterfeiting policies that can immediately shut down a seller operation. However, as identical operations pop up in place of the ones that are shut down.

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Lastly, the dermatologist added that the use of these fake products with at times unknown chemicals can lead to a lot of dangerous conditions like allergic reactions, heavy metal poisoning, arsenic poisoning, exposure to dangerous bacteria and skin cancer. Cosmetics are not a healthy choice, but one cannot stop using them. It is advisable to use the products in moderation though, and only when absolutely necessary. As Dr Javed said long term exposure can lead to the accumulation of toxic materials in the skin, which can cause skin cancer. The government should fulfil its responsibility to protect the public from harm by taking action against the sale and advertisement of counterfeit and cheaply made cosmetics. Skin Specialist Imtiaz Rao said that it was crucial to indicate the expiry date and provide other critical information on product packaging. Dr Rao advised adequate consuming conditions must also be clearly written on products together with the production dates. It is also crucial for buyers to read this information before purchasing and applying.

In conclusion, the effect of using counterfeit cosmetics are effect of skin, the sale of counterfeit cosmetics affects brands and chemicals can lead to a lot of dangerous conditions. Its offensively clear that using counterfeit products are dangerous. My advice to everyone buying fakes online is to do your research first and consider whether it is worth it. Because getting a reaction from a replica makeup brand which can cause acne, dermatitis, eczema or even scaling is not worth saving a few pennies in my opinion.