NAME

NAME : MUHAMMAD NAZIM BIN ALI
STUDENT ID : DOSHM18070020
BATCH/CLASS : 46 (G1)
LECTURER : MADAM FARAH HAMIZAH
CAUSES AND EFFECT OF INTERNET ADDICTION
Nowadays, in this globalization era, internet becomes a most important things to all people in this world because more simple to find information with friend know abaout news and easy to tell everything only through their fingers so it easier for using all time. Mostly in the world are using the internet but some human is not use properly. Everything in this world almost use internet, but certain people in this world abuse of the facility and sometimes a certain people become addicted to internet. if you use internet correctly you will get a benefits of using internet. Besides, the teenagers usually use the internet for unuseful act like watching pornographic, video games and social media by using their phone, computer or laptop. This is one of the reason why people always using internet by searching and watching unuseful video. Therefore three causes of internet addiction will be explain which are, social causes, variety activities on the internet, and depression
Firstly, causes of internet addiction is, social causes certain people become addicted to the internet because of social connections, people nowadays almost have a relationship and always contact each other by using internet through online chat, or anything convenience have in this world because of that, some people has been addicted to the internet, many people have relationship but certain people become addicted to the internet because of that they use internet to contact each other. The long distance relationship usually they use internet for contact each other, this is one of easy way to keep in touch and that why they has been addicted to the internet. Sometimes internet is good for them when they use wisely. Some people receive advice from internet or some applications for relax their mind. But when a person has many close online friends and no one to count on in the real world, problems can develop. The effect of social causes is when someone addicted to the internet they will lack of sleep caused they just use internet by phone or computer, this effect will affected to our health and will get eye damage.
Secondly, causes of internet addiction is, variety activities on internet many useful things to use in the internet but not at all is beneficial in internet. Many causes that people today become addicted to the internet as an example of addicted to pornographic, online games, gambling, shopping or anything else. As a result they will waste their time because they always spend their time with internet. For example Michigan State University’s Olin Health Centre reported in 2006 that 18.5 percent of students admitted their academic performance suffered because of excessive Internet use. Because of addicted to the internet students will not pay attention to their studies. Furthermore the students will ignore their studies and keep playing games or so on till they lack of sleep, when they lack of sleep that is not good for brain. They will sleepy in class.

Last but not least, causes of internet addiction is depression in some cases people become addicted to the internet because of depression, just a certain people depressed turn to drug or alcohol, a lot of fun experiences that help someone in depression become happy they will use internet to their self to be happy they will search anything what can give happiness to them. When a depressed person turns to the Internet to socialize, I’m not at all surprised that they use it for social interaction in chat rooms and on social networking websites. People who are depressed do not want to socialize, but the Internet makes it so much easier to do it. It may make a depressed individual feel more “connected” and help them make it happy through every day with their depression. For example, a child has a problem and her parents cannot give attention to her and she will find friends via the internet. Actually this is not a great way to use the internet if not using the internet properly it will give worse effect to internet users. People in depression must be guide. We should not to ignore them because they need a listener to listen about the problem or the stories.

The conclusion of all this topic, we as a user internet in this world should know how to use internet correctly because if use internet wrongly it will give a worse effect to user. Other than drug or alcohol addiction, internet addiction is also danger to those who are addicted, as a user we must avoid the causes that will give someone addicted to internet such as, social causes, variety activities in the internet and depression this causes also make someone has been addicted, internet addiction also can give effect to human health like eye damage, obesity, body fitness or anything else because when someone who are addicted will spend their time with internet than spend their time with family or exercise. If use internet correctly you will get a benefits of using internet
REFERENCES :
PhychGuides.com. (n.d) . computer / internet addiction symptoms causes and effects . Retrieved from https://www.psychguides.com/guides/computerinternet-addiction-symptoms-causes-and-effects/Hinders . D. (2017). What causes internet addiction . livestrong.com . Retrieved from , https://www.livestrong.com/article/135346-what-causes-internet-addiction/Chait. J. (n.d) causes of internet addiction . Lovetoknow . Retrieved from , https://addiction.lovetoknow.com/wiki/Causes_of_Internet_AddictionDonald. S. (2017) . facts about internet addiction . livestrong.com . Retrieved from , https://www.livestrong.com/article/121871-internet-addiction/Cocke. A. (2017). internet addiction & health effects . livestrong.com . Retrieved from , https://www.livestrong.com/article/134688-internet-addiction-health-effects/

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NAME

NAME: JUSTINA ADDAI
I.D: 10446047
NAME: FRANK BOACHIE-MENSAH
I.D: 10277652
GEOG619: MEDICAL GEOGRAPHY- ASSIGNMENT.

NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASE IN GHANA (RABIES)

TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE NUMBER
Background of Study ………………………………………………
Symptoms of Rabies…………………………………………………

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Spatial Variation of Rabies in Ghana………………………………
Maps and Tables Interpretation…………………………………….

Treatment of Rabies…………………………………………………

Government Policies ………………………………………………
Recommendation and Conclusion………………………………….

Refernces……………………………………………………………

NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES IN GHANA (RABIES)
Background
Rabies is an infectious viral disease with an almost 100% case fatality rate in humans. (Takayama N. 2008). Rabies virus is a single stranded RNA from a family Rhabdoviridae and genus Lyssavirus which come from the Greek word lyssa which means ‘violent’ and Rabies which means ‘madness’ (Bourhy et al., 2008; Jackson, 2013). Rabies is caused by lyssavirus which causes an acute viral encephalomyelitis. It is spread when an infected animal bites or scratches another animal or human. Saliva from the infected animal can also transmit rabies when it comes into contact with the eyes, nose or mouth (WHO, 2013). The disease was confirmed in dogs for more than 4000 years (Both et al., 2012). In 1885 Luis Pasteur was able to develop a vaccine which treated a nine years old boy who was having deep bitten wound; the nature of virus at that time was still unknown (Bourhy et al., 2010).
Species such as dogs, cats, cows, bats, horses, monkeys among other mammals are mostly the reservoirs of the virus. Species vary depending on country and continent (WHO, 2013). In Asia, India has the highest rate of human rabies in the world because of stray dogs since a 2001 law forbade the killing of dogs (Gardiner, 2012). Africa has Democratic Republic of Congo leading rabies cases. In North America, rabies is common among bats, raccoons and foxes which accounts for almost all reported cases in the United States. Rabid bat bites are attributed to most cases (CDCP, 2011). Australia, Europe and South America have very few cases or no case reported each year; cases are contracted during travels on ecotourism trips, cave exploration, etc. Antarctica is the only continent free of rabies (CDCP, 2011).

Globally, about 15.69million people are exposed to the rabies virus annually with an estimated 59,000 human deaths. (Depani S.J. et al. 2012). Rabies remain a public health treat particularly in developing countries like Africa and Asia, which accounts for more than 95% of all human rabies cases. (Fooks AR et al. 2014).

Symptoms
Rabies is clinically diagnosed when person who is suspected to have had a contact with a rabid animal develops one or more of the following: headache, neck pain, nausea, fever, fear of water, anxiety, agitation, abnormal tingling sensations or pain at the wound site (Punguyire et al., 2017). The symptoms are divided into two forms; which are dumb (paralytic) form and furious/prodromal (encephalitic form). Dumb form is characterized by flaccidity muscle weakness where there is ascend paralysis and duration of illness is longer within 14 days compared to the furious form (Both et al., 2012; Jackson, 2013)
Rabies is a neglected tropical disease of the poor and vulnerable population, especially children between the ages of 4-15years, and death normally occurs due to rabies often not reported. About 99% of rabies transmission to humans is through the bite or scratch of infected dogs. Rabies has been in the dog population of Ghana for decades. (Belchar et.al 1976). In Ghana, rabies is endemic, and cases of human rabies are under reported as in other developing countries. (WHO 2013).

It is also believed that some of the virus of rabies entered Ghana from some West Africa countries and again rabies viruses from Ghana clearly from two lineages. Africa 1 (49viruses) Africa 2 (27viruses). Africa 2 viruses appear to have been present within the dog population of West Africa including Ghana for decades. Due the historical dominance of Africa 1 viruses in the Northern, Eastern and Southern parts of Africa, there is a belief that Africa 1 viruses have entered Ghana from those regions and that transmissions has not been from Ghana to those regions.
Between 1970 and 1974, an average of 72cases of canine rabies was reported annually throughout the country. (Blechar et.al 1976). Between 1977 and 1981, the number increased to over 100cases annually with an incidence of human rabies cases rising to 27 in 1981.After, there have been no further published reports of rabies in Ghana. Despite this, 123 clinically-confirmed human cases were recorded by public health officials between 2000 and 2004 (unpublished results).

In 1993, when Ghana had anti-rabies vaccination campaign there were only 5 outbreaks as against 41 in 1994, where there was no mass vaccination the outbreak cases rose to 108. In 2002, 56 rabies positive cases were diagnosed in the laboratories, 2003 61cases, 2004 72cases, 2005 78cases, and 2006 84cases. The increase is in the incidence of rabies in several parts of Ghana lately has been blamed on the unwillingness of pet owners to vaccinate their animals and the continuous presence of too many stray pets whose owners cannot be identified.

Spatial Variation of rabies in some selected areas across Ghana
In Greater Accra region, human rabies and dog bite reported from 2010 to 2014 were; 22 cases of human rabies from korle-bu teaching hospital and 233 dog bites from ridge hospital. The lowest number of dog bites was observed in 2011 and for human rabies was year 2013. The male-child (54.5%) less than fifteen years were more affected with dog bites than adult, while more adult 50% were affected by human rabies regardless of their age. In 2017 last year out of 39cases of human rabies recorded, Greater Accra recorded 6 cases.
In the Eastern region of Ghana, within the period of three years from 2013 to 2015, 4821 dog bites were reported; most of the cases were in children aged less than 10years. Fifteen cases of rabies were recorded in seven out of the 26 municipalities and districts, translating into rabies to dog bite ratio of 3:1000. 26 cases in 2013, 2,360 in 2014, 2,435 in 2015. Kwahu West district recorded the highest of 625cases followed by New Juaben municipality 380 cases; Kwahu North district recorded the lowest: 39 cases.

A total of 15cases of rabies were reported in the region from 2013-2015. In 2013, five cases were reported, seven cases in 2014 and three cases in 2015 and was reported in seven districts as follows; three each in New Juaben, Suhum, and West Akim, two each in Lower Manya Krobo, East Akim and one each in Akuapim North and Upper West Akim.
In the Ashanti Region, 24 cases of rabies were recorded in 2014 as compared to 13 cases in 2013, and the same time dog bites rose from 400 to 690. Clearly you can see that between 2013 and 2014 the incidence of dog bites and rabies was high in the Ashanti Region. Again 15 people died from rabies in the region in 2015 and as at September 2016, 15cases have been reported and out of it three deaths were also recorded.
In the Western region of Ghana, 12 cases of dog bites were recorded in 2017, out of this 11 of them died. Tarkwa-Nsuaem recorded 4 deaths, Ellembele had two cases, Ahanta West and Prestea Huni-Valley had a case each, whiles Sekondi/Takoradi had three.

In Brong Ahafo Region, specifically Techiman, in all 13 cases of human rabies were recorded at the holy family hospital from 2011 to 2016. Age was between (3-80yrs), out of it majority were males representing 60%. Out of the 13 cases recorded, data was available for 10, 8 of them came from rural communities. Four cases recorded in 2012 and 4 cases in 2014. 8 of the cases had previous history of dog bite ranging from two weeks to five months before onset of rabies symptoms. Out of the 8 cases 6 were domestic bites whiles 2 were from stray dog bite. In all 2012 recorded the highest number of suspected rabies dog bites and the lowest bites were recorded in 2015.

In Central region, in 2014, eight rabies cases were recorded. A total of 48dog bites cases were recorded, which eight rabies cases were confirmed with one death. In 2015, 10 dog bite with two rabies cases confirmed.

In Upper West region, fifteen people died of rabies in two years, out of which 9 of the deaths were recorded in 2015. In general, in the year 2017, 39 rabies cases were recorded, Upper East recorded 9 cases, Ashanti 8 cases, Greater Accra recorded 6 cases, Central Region 6 cases, Upper West recorded 3cases and Brong- Ahafo 2 cases.

THE TABLE BELOW SHOWS CASES OF RABIES, DOG BITES AND DEATHS IN GHANA, 2010-2017
REGION YEAR DOG BITE RABIES CASES NUMBER OF DEATHS
GREATER ACRRA 2010-2017 233 28 EASTERN 2013-2015 4821 15 ASHANTI 2013-2017 1090 52 18
BRONG-AHAFO 2011-2017 8 15 WESTERN 2017 12 12 11
CENTRAL 2014 & 2017 14 1
UPPER WEST 2014-2017 18 15
-619912490703Upper West No Data
Northern No Data
Brong Ahafo 8
Ashanti 1090
Upper East No Data
Eastern 4821
Central No Data
Volta No Data
Greater Accra 233
Western 12
00Upper West No Data
Northern No Data
Brong Ahafo 8
Ashanti 1090
Upper East No Data
Eastern 4821
Central No Data
Volta No Data
Greater Accra 233
Western 12

321213527407Upper West 18
Northern No Data
Brong Ahafo 15
Ashanti 52
Upper East No Data
Eastern 15
Central 14
Volta No Data
Greater Accra 28
Western 12
00Upper West 18
Northern No Data
Brong Ahafo 15
Ashanti 52
Upper East No Data
Eastern 15
Central 14
Volta No Data
Greater Accra 28
Western 12

-438460193725Fig 1. Map showing number of dog bites in Ghana (2010-2017)
00Fig 1. Map showing number of dog bites in Ghana (2010-2017)
3255264175031Fig 2. Map showing number of Rabies cases in Ghana (2010 – 2017)
00Fig 2. Map showing number of Rabies cases in Ghana (2010 – 2017)

2667635-491185Upper West 15
Northern No Data
Brong Ahafo No Data
Ashanti 18
Upper East No Data
Eastern No Data
Central 1
Volta No Data
Greater Accra No Data
Western 11
00Upper West 15
Northern No Data
Brong Ahafo No Data
Ashanti 18
Upper East No Data
Eastern No Data
Central 1
Volta No Data
Greater Accra No Data
Western 11

9287765314Fig 3. Map showing number of deaths in Ghana (2010-2017)

00Fig 3. Map showing number of deaths in Ghana (2010-2017)

Fig. 1, Shows the dog bites in Ghana in the year under review, which shows Ashanti Region experience more of the dog bites followed Eastern Region, Greater Accra and others. In other regions there was no data on dog bites.

Fig 2, Shows the number of rabies cases in Ghana in the same year. Clearly you can see that there were rabies cases in the entire regions under study.

Fig 3, Also shows the number of deaths in some of the regions. This shows that rabies can be treated if the victims are sent for treatment as early as possible.

Treatment of Rabies
Post –exposure prophylaxis is the immediate treatment after rabies exposure. This prevents the virus from entering the central nervous system which can result to death. These include extensive washing of wound for a minimum of 15 minutes with soap and water, detergent or iodine, effective rabies vaccines and administration of rabies immunoglobin (WHO, 2018).
Government of Ghana Policies on Rabies
Government of Ghana is trying its best to eradicate neglected tropical diseases from the society by the year 2020. There a lot of policies by the government as far as neglected tropical diseases are concern including rabies.
In terms of policy or initiative of elimination or eradication of these neglected tropical diseases which includes rabies, the government of Ghana through the Ministry of Health and its supporting partners in 2013 brought up a programme called Ghana Neglected Tropical Disease Masterplan 2013-2017. This was a five year strategic plan to work towards the prevention, control, elimination or even eradication of these diseases including rabies by 2020.
In the document on rabies, the national goals is to reduce morbidity and mortality from rabies to a level of no public health significance, the objectives is to determine the magnitude of rabies, to reduce the incidence of rabies, to strengthen collaboration with wildlife and strategies are to advocate for the control of rabies, strengthen the policy environment for the prevention and control of human rabies.
Another government policy was the setup of Veterinary Service which is under the Ministry of Food and Agriculture. Their mission is to ensure a stable animal health situation through the provision of quality animal health care services by both public and private sector Veterinary practitioners to enhance livestock, poultry and companion animal’s production and productivity. And one key objective is to protect public health by controlling animal diseases communicable to human beings, which basically talk about human rabies. And key function is to ensure that all animals coming into the country are quarantined and only those found healthy are allowed passage into the country, which also check transmission of rabies from animals like dogs to human beings.
The establishment of 30centers by veterinary service directorate which is backed by five private facilities to efficiently handle dog bites. Example is at the Ashanti Region.
We can also talk about the policy of government, by training of Veterinary doctors.

Recommendation and Conclusion
In conclusion, we can say that lack of regular vaccination of dogs in communities poses high risk of infection of dogs and its associated dangers to the populations and public health. Clearly from the articles, we saw that the year 1993 due to free vaccination for dogs reduced the spread of the diseases to a minimal figure.
So if the government can re-introduce free vaccination for dogs, and again dog owners must be force to inject their dogs every month to help check the disease. We also realised that slay dogs also play major role in spreading the diseases, so if dogs can also be banned from the streets, it can also help to minimise the spread of the disease if not total eradication.
Rabies is a vaccine preventable disease where dog vaccination is the most cost-effective strategy and human rabies vaccines exist for pre-exposure immunization as well (WHO, 2018).

REFERENCES
Anthony OT, et.al. (2017). Level and pattern of human rabies and dog bites in Techiman
Municipality in the middle belt of Ghana: A six year retrospective records
review. Journal. Published online.

Boakye YA, et.al. (2018). Dog bite and rabies in the Eastern Region of Ghana in 2013-2015:
A call for a one –Health Approach. Published online
Both, L., Banyard, A. C., van Dolleweerd, C., Horton, D. L., Ma, J. K.-C., ; Fooks, A. R.
(2012). Passive immunity in the prevention of rabies. The Lancet. Infectious
Diseases, 12(5), 397–407. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(11)70340-1
Bourhy, H., Dautry-Varsat, A., Hotez, P. J., ; Salomon, J. (2010). Rabies, still neglected
after 125 years of vaccination. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 4(11), e839.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000839.

Belcher, D. W, Wurapa, F.K, Atuora, D.O (2011). : Endemic rabies in Ghana. Epidemiology
and control Measures. Am J Trop Med Hyg (1976). 25: 724-9. Centre for
Disease Control and Prevention. Rabies Surveillance Data in the U.S.

Retrieved September 28, 2018.
Depani, S.J, Kennedy, N., Mallewa, M., Molyneux, E.M. (2012).): Evidence of rise in rabies
cases in Southern Malawi- better preventative measures are urgently required.
Malawi Med J 24 (3): 61-4.

Fooks AR, Banyard AC, Horton DL, Johnson N, McElhinney LM, Jackson, A.C. (2014):
Current Status of rabies and prospects for elimination. Lancet 384 (9951): 1389-99.

Gardiner, H. (2012), “Where Streets Are Thronged With Strays Baring Fangs. New York
Times. Retrieved from Wikipedia.com
Jackson, A. C. (2013). Current and future approaches to the therapy of human rabies.
Antiviral Research, 99(1), 61–7. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2013.01.003
Punguyire, D., Osei-Tutu, A., Aleser, E. & Letsa, T.(2017)Level and pattern of human rabies.

and dog bites in Techiman Municipality in the Middle Belt of Ghana: a six year
retrospective records review.

Takayam, N. (2008). Rabies: preventable but incurable disease. J Infect Chemother 14(1):
8-14. doi: 10. 1007/510156-007-0573-0
World Health Organization. (2013) World Health Organization Expert consultation on Rabies
Second report
World Health Organization. Rabies (2016): Key facts. Available from: http://
www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs099/en/

World Health Organization. (2018). Expert Consultation on Rabies, third report. (Technical
Report Series, No. 1012)

Name

Name: Richmore Matereke
Student Number: 60657502
Assignment 07
Sustainability: My Ecological Footprint
When I took ecological footprint, the lifestyle I am living occupies 3.9 hectares of the Earth’s productive land and should be improved by a capacity of 2.1 planets per year. If everyone lived the same lifestyle, it will need about 2.1 planets yearly to provide for the human population. I contribute towards the environment up keep by purchasing organic food, I take less red meats and by means eat seasonal foods. I drive a carpool to work every weekly to save on fuel, regularly serviced, and the tyres properly inflated driving within the speed limit. Low energy saving appliances at my home and minimum use of power equipment, and yet my footprint results say I need 2.1 earths at least to sustain the human population. I wanted the results to be much lower and in deed results were a wakeup call on environmental protection.

This does not change immediately, it can also be of help creating awareness that could make people more aware and being considerate in use of the environmental resources at their disposal. The quiz challenged the way I think and what it means to be more environmental friendly.

Considering our ecological footprint can change the world. Therefore, I see it necessary to create awareness to the crisis we find ourselves in. It is a responsibility of every citizen to collectively act all over the world. This assessment opened my eyes of the things we did not pay attention to and I believe we should create awareness.

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“It’s all in the outcome – Consequentialism”
The rapid rate of the population growth in the world for the past has simultaneously increased and that has caused panic about the future. The amount of resources needed for human satisfaction on basic needs is very big. Conformity, the satisfaction for basic needs cannot be only the purpose of good life. Humans needs already is over the long-term carrying capacity of the planet. The glob is in an ecological overshoot, we turn resources into waste quicker than waste can be reversed back into resources. To have an ecological sustainable community need a virtual transformation in the values and beliefs, that govern our relationships with natural resources and nature. The world should admit to the human behavioral and address those attributes to appropriate a mutual understanding. As stated in the learning unit that one possible solution is a wipe out to bring the available footprint up to the current consumption, reducing the number of people on planet Earth, to sustain various consumption levels. By killing, or as mentioned in assignment 3, “by the act of letting 20 000 children die every day is justified on the basis of the good of the whole species” would be wrong from my angle. A utilitarian view, there is no moral between killing and letting die, and not when death can be easily avoided by our actions. Utilitarianism is described as a tradition in which actions are judged as good or bad based on the aggregate good or bad which that act would lead to. We should try to reach for a zero-population growth and this can only be achieved by having several different approaches, e.g. avoiding early parenting, this will slow down the population growth. Marriage age could be raised to drop the percentage fertility required to achieve zero population growth etc.

“Fair’s Fair – Distributive Justice”
Increase Production technology to increase yield of food, thus not increase total land used or finding another planet.

We would think it to be wrong or unfair delaying childbirth, as mentioned, what will be wrong with nature? To delay conception might bear a better world or a world with higher levels of overall well-being. By producing a small number of children which could have a higher quality of life rather than having a large number of children whose lives are barely worth living. It might be utilitarian to think that morality requires acting for the impersonal aggregate good, the world can be a better place where people decide to delay conception, rather to have a world where people reproduce many children.

For this generation to preserve the opportunity to grow and sustain social institutions, and this what should gain a level of each primary goods on a person’s list, enough to provide basic human needs to secure enough beyond minimum. We should save enough amount of our resources as guarantee to the economic future generations. If I am to pull on the veil of ignorance, not knowing whether my children would have a high-quality life, or a life that is barely worth living, would I accept the fact that we must preserve our resources and the economic value they have, to reap the benefits for my children? My personal answer is yes. If not, then there will be no resources left for future generations to live a high-quality life.

“Greenies – Environmental Ethics”
” Granting a tree, a mountain and a bird intrinsic value is the first step towards an ecocentric world and a better planet.” Humans are the carriers of intrinsic value and, therefore, all other living things are there to sustain human’s existence. It resulted from human’s greediness and led to greater changes in nature, as humans, we have a responsibility on all biological life existence, because we can think and perceive. We have a huge responsibility to innate of all living beings, regardless of their worthiness to humans. Our anthropocentric perception is the reason for the environmental crisis we are in, from water problems and lack of biological diversity. People cut down trees for houses and furniture and inborn and its value is ignored. Deforestation means less absorption of carbon dioxide, leading to more greenhouse gases trapped in the atmosphere. Making environmental decisions to satisfy both anthropocentrism and ecocentrism is not easy. As humans, we should always consider the consequences of our actions when it comes to our natural resources that have been subjected for us for our benefit. Our natural resources should always be a priority.