This essay is going to discuss multiple topics that are included when understanding the organisational culture in hospitality organisations.
COME BACK AND REWORDDD
These topics are; how things are done or understanding the organisational culture, managing the culture and the interaction between organisational culture and strategy. The concept of organisational culture was first approached in the 1970s and soon became a strongly discussed topic in organisations in the hospitality industry. Chitkara and Davidson (2013) believe ‘culture is an organisation’s self-sustaining pattern of behaving, feeling, thinking and believing. It gives an organisation its personality and shapes both its internal processes and the way it is seen by the outside world’.
If people live and work together, culture will inevitable develop. According to (Needle, 2004), organisational culture represents the collective values, beliefs and principles of organisational members. Although culture is about policy, it is more to do with people, in the service-based hospitality business. It is important to define the business’s mission and values to create the culture the business wants. It is crucial to find people committed to these principles. Established in The Changing Culture of a Factory, Dr. Elliott Jaques, in his concept of requisite organisation are the list of entitlements or values that can gain full commitment from employees. There are seven main entitlements or values that are important.
• Fair treatment for all. This includes fair pay based on differential pay for the level of work undertaken.
• Interaction between managers and staff. This includes personal appraisal, feedback and training. Personal appraisal is vital for the employee to understand if their work is up to company standards.
• Clear authority to establish confidence and trust in all relationships in work.
• Clear vision of long-term vision for the organisation through communication from the top of the organisation structure.
• An opportunity for all members of staff to participate in the development on policy whether this be done individually or through a representative.
• Staffs job description is at their level of ability, values and interests.
• There is the opportunity to progress as staff’s ability matures, within the opportunities that become available.
Upon reading Jaques concept, the conclusion is that these seven entitlements or values are vital to ensure employees are happy in their work and feel their work is worthwhile. It is also needed to motivate employees to climb higher on the ladder of the company. Also, to maximise employee performance.
Developing organisational culture
Due to the fact hospitality employees work directly with people, customers get a flavour of how staff interact and what the business is about. Managing and developing the culture of the organisation is pivotal for providing the correct impression the organisation wishes to deliver every time.
From reading (Tiernan, et al., 2006), the organisation will develop over a period from a combination three interdependent factors. These factors are national culture, organisational culture and nature of the industry. An organisations culture is developed by the superior national culture within the organisation is based ‘such adaptation requires an understanding of culture, cultural diversity, views, stereotypes and values.’ (Matijevi?, et al., 2015). An example of this can be seen in organisations based in Ireland. Irelands cultural characteristics are very laid back and not punctual which manifests into their work culture. Their attitude towards work very lazy but somehow eventually get the work done. The national culture of a country is highly dominant and shapes the culture of organizations where they function (Lindholm, 2000). The characteristics of the industry influence the culture. An example of this is the behavioural differences between an air hostess working with a budget airline company and an air hostess from a luxury airline. Although they are in the same job their organisational culture would be very different. The organisational culture is shaped by the national culture and characteristics of the industry. The last factor that develop the organisations culture is the founder of the organisation. Founder members shape the organisation by incorporating their previous beliefs and their own cultural values. These aid the development of the organisations theories and beliefs in starting the organisation. Therefore, organisational culture is developed from the collection of three interdependent factors which help develop the beliefs, assumptions and values of the organisation.
The Understanding of Organisational Culture
An understanding of organisational culture is one of the most important ways for shaping employee behaviour, which could contribute positively to delivering organizational effectiveness (Lund, 2003).
For instance, Schein’s Model of Organizational Culture is enabling the reader to examine different elements of an organisational culture on three integrated levels, resembling the structure of an onion (Schein, 2016). The first level of Shein’s model is comprised of artefacts and symbols. These are the physical aspects of the organisation. This includes logos, structures, business clothing and architecture. The second level of Sheins model introduces the espoused values that the organisation is assumed to follow. This involves values, rules of conduct and standards. The values of the employees play a very important role in helping to determine the culture of the organisation. The attitude of an individual that is associated with any organisation influences the work place culture. This level is labelled espoused values because there might be a discrepancy between official values of the organization (i.e., value statements) and the actual manifestation of these values (i.e., observable behaviours) in the organization (Miller, 2014). The final level of the model is the assumed values of the employees. Unfortunately, these cannot be measured but impact the culture of the organisation. These are the core principles individuals live by or believe. The organisation follows practices which are unconsciously held that may not be discussed but are often understood on their own. These rules help form the third and final level of the organisational culture.
Organisational culture acts as the “glue” that elicits a unified effort from individual employees (Kokt ; Ramarumo, 2015). The main aim of organisational culture is to have a thriving work environment. A main concern is that ‘culture management aspires to intervene in and regulate being, so that there is no distance between individuals’ purposes and those of the organization for which they work’ (Grey, 2005). A healthy work environment is one of which people enjoy being there and respect the people around them. A healthy environment will cause revenues to go up and customer satisfaction. Also, innovation and the sharing of ideas will be evident if employees have job satisfaction. If there is an unhealthy environment revenue will decrease and there will be a high staff turnover. Customer complaints will increase. Expenses will decrease when able to build and maintain exceptionally good work environment. Organisational culture provides a sense of identity for members. As (Hatch, 1993) explains, identity involves how we define and experience ourselves and this is influenced by our activities and beliefs which are grounded in and justified by cultural assumptions and values. What we care about and do defines us to ourselves and thereby forges our identity in the image of our culture.
Enhances commitment to the organisations mission
Clarifies and reinforces standards of behaviour