Crystal Group is a Multinational Group which was established by Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth Lo in 1970 in a workshop with a few stitching appliances and knitting looms creating sweaters. Today, Crystal group has 20 self-operating manufacturing services spanning crossways five countries. With a labor force of approximately 70,000. Crystal group deliver about 350 million pieces of apparel a year to the best-in-class apparel products in the world, presenting them the accurate manufactured goods at the correct time at the exact cost. Crystal groups broad series of apparel manufactured goods contains standard of living wear, denim, close, sweater and sportswear and open-air apparel.
Crystal groups co-creation business model is critical to achieving and enhancing industry leading position as supported by the influential mixture of almost five decades of manufacturing skill, long-standing joint ventures with internationally most important apparel trade names, a expanded manufactured goods selection, and a multi-country industrializing stage, which have driven our ability to launch new commercially successful products for customers continuously.
We have developed based on Crystal Group corporate culture of caring “For The Greater Good” — where the good of customers, colleagues, society and the global environment are Crystal groups priorities. Crystal Groups believe sustainability allows us to create “shared value” for shareholders and stakeholders through business process. To this end, we take a holistic approach to sustainability using the five pillars: Surroundings, Modernism, Product honesty, Employee concern, and Community appointment.
Crystal International Group was established in Hong Kong by Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth Lo in 1970. There life style business was introduced in 1976 also established factories in Malaysia ; Mauritius at the same year. In 1978 established a joint venture Sinotex with Mast industries. Crystal group started woven business in 1982, foothold expanded to China, Jamaica and Sri Lanka. In 1988 implemented advance industrial engineering and computerization programs. In 1990 customer based expanded to Japan following US and Europe, also established production base in Madagascar and Jiangsu Province, china.
In 2005 and 2008 Crystal group established new factories in Vietnam and Bangladesh with T-Shirt division and running with successfully. Acquired Martin International Holdings and started their intimate division. Also in 2009 Crystal groups woven business transformed into a denim-focused business. Implemented SAP enterprise resource planning (ERP) system with a huge budget invested every year. Crystal group achieved Manufacturing Gold Award-Hong Kong Outstanding Corporate Citizen Award in 2010, awarded by Hong Kong Productivity Council. Gold Award 2010/2011 Hang Seng Pearl River Delta Environmental Grand Rewards China Life Style Wear Factory and award selected by Hang Seng Bank. In 2011 Manufacturing Gold Award-Hong Kong Awards for Environmental Excellence China Denim Factory and selected by Environmental Campaign Committee.
Crystal group expanded their business in Cambodia with established a new factory in 2012. The year of 2012 Crystal group renowned for Manufacturing Gold Award-Hong Kong Awards for Environmental Excellence China Lifestyle Wear Factory and award nominated by Environmental campaign Committee. Crystal Group Head Quarters nominated for Platinum Label-Low Carbon Office operation Programme and nominated by WWF Hong Kong. Productivity and Quality Grand Award for Lifestyle Wear Division selected by Hong Kong Productivity Council. Import and export trade Gold Award-Hong Kong Awards for Environmental Excellence Manufacturing Sectoral Award Crystal Group and award nominated by Environmental campaign Committee China.
In 2013 Crystal Group Headquarters awarded for Carbon Reduce 17% certificate-Hong Kong Rewards for Surroundings Excellence and honored by Environmental Campaign Committee. In 2013 and In 2015 Crystal group positioned 17th in the Fortune Magazine’s “Change the World” directory. Acquired Vista, further expanded product portfolio into sportswear and outdoor apparel products. In 2014 Crystal group awarded for Touching CSR Award 2014 by The Association of Distinguished Corporation. In 2015 Crystal group again awarded for Platinum Label-Low Carbon Manufacturing Programme (LCMP) China Lifestyle Wear Factory and China Sweater Factory also awarded by WWF Hong Kong.
In 2016 Crystal group obtained 10 Years Plus Caring Company award by Hong Kong Council of Social Service. According to Fortune Magazine Crystal group 17th Place-Fortune “change the World List”. In 2017 Crystal Group awarded by Hong Kong Quality Assurance Agency for HQAA CSR Index Plus Mark award. Hong Kong Committee of Social Service selected Crystal group for 15 Years Plus Caring Company award.
1.2Entering and Contracting Process
The primary set of movements in planned modify concerns entering and contracting. They occupy describing in a beginning way the organization’s difficulties or opportunities for development and establishing a collaborative relationship between the OD consultant and associates of the client structure about how to work on those matters. Entering and Contracting set the preliminary limits for taking out the successive stages of OD : Diagnosing the organization, mapping and applying alters and appraising and institutionalizing them. They assist to classify what matters will be speak to by those actions, who will take them out and how they will be achieved.
Entering and contracting can differ in multifaceted and procedure depending on the condition. In those case where the manager of a work group or department serves as his or her own OD practitioner, entering and contracting typically involve the manger and group members meeting what issues to work on and how they will jointly accomplish that. Here entering and contracting are relatively simple and informal. They involve all relevant members directly in the process without a great number of formal procedures. In situations where managers and administrators are considering the use of professional OD practitioners, either from inside or outside the organization, entering and contracting tend to be more complex and formal. OD practitioners may need to collect preliminary information to help define the problematic or development issues. They may need to meet with representatives of the client organization rather than with the total membership; they may need to formalize their respective roles and how the change process will unfold.
1.3Entering Crystal Group as an OD Consultant
An OD process generally starts when a member of an organization or unit contacts an OD consultant about potential help in addressing an organizational issue. The organization member may be a manager, staff specialist or some other key participant and the consultant may be an OD professional from inside or outside of the organization. My friend who worked in Crystal group as a General Manager of Human Resource Department. He discussed with me about the Crystal Group facing inside Employee well-being at work problem and also request me to advise them as a consultant of Crystal Group. After determining two parties we inter into an OD relationship typically involves clarifying the nature of the organizations current functioning and the issue’s “Employee well-being at work”, the relevant client system for that issue and the appropriateness of the particular OD Consultant.
In helping assess these issues me (OD Consultant) collect all the necessary preliminary data about the Crystal Group. Similarly Crystal Group gather information about my consultancy competence and experience. This knowledge help both of us to be determined we should proceed to develop a contract for working together or not?
1.4Clarifying the Organizational Issue
When organization seeking from OD consultants, organization typically starts with a pre-setting problem-the issue that has caused them to consider an OD process. It may be specific or general. The presenting problem often has an implied or stated solution. In many cases the presenting problem is only a symptom of an underlying problem. The issue facing the organization or department must be clarified early in the OD process. So that subsequent diagnostic and intervention activities are focused correctly.
Gaining a clearer perspective on the organizational issue may require collecting preliminary data. OD Consultants often examine company records and interview a few key members to gain an introductory understanding of the organization, its context and the nature of the presenting problem. Those data are gathered in a relatively short period of time, typically over a few hours to one or two days. They are intended to provide enough rudimentary knowledge of the organizational issue to enable the two parties to make informed choices about proceeding with the contracting process.
The diagnostic phase of OD involves a far more extensive assessment of the problematic or development issue than occurs during the entering and contracting stage. The diagnosis also might discover other issues that need to be addressed or it might lead to redefining the initial issues that was identified during the entering and contracting stage. This is a prime example of the emergent nature of the OD process, where things may change as new information is gathered and new events occur.
In the WHO’s definition, dimensions of health are connected to the term well-being. Wellness and well-being are not synonyms, but the differences are very subtle. Well-being as a concept involves total life experience, happiness, and prosperity. Wellness refers mainly to the individual feeling of one’s body/mind/spirit. Today, corporations talk about employees’ well-being; spas offer tranquility and relaxation, but the concept of wellness is beyond physical health and fitness. Wellness is considered an integration of states of physical, mental, social, and spiritual well-being. Because it is difficult to differentiate between these concepts, it is necessary to discuss the dimensions of health, well-being, and wellness together.
Employee wellbeing is a key issue that companies are striving to address to ensure that their employees remain happy and motivated at work. After all, a happy workforce is a productive workforce. We’ll take you through how to incorporate wellbeing practices into your office design or fit out project.
Figure : Employee Well-being
Workplace wellbeing covers both your physical and mental state. Physical wellbeing covers biophilic elements, such as access to natural daylight and temperature control – essentially, things that have a direct impact on your body. Equally important is support for mental wellbeing, through providing adequate breakout areas to relax, or have an informal catch up with a colleague. Supporting both physical and mental wellbeing through office design can help create a healthy, productive workforce.
1.6Symptoms and Problems
Stress, anxiety and sleep problems are signs that all is not well. Naturally, such issues can easily extend into the workplace and mean that many working days are lost every year. The Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health cites symptoms such as poor concentration, low motivation and tiredness as frequent causes of reduced productivity and sickness absence. There is a spectrum of mental health which is linked to individual performance and ultimately to organizational performance. This extends from more serious, less common conditions, through to mild and moderate states such as anxiety and depression with optimum physical, psychological and social well-being at the other end of the scale. It is the combination of the disposition of the individual and the characteristics of the environment which can facilitate well-being and fulfillment.
Generally employees regret failures and mistakes; this makes it difficult for them to rise up and be confident at work. Conversely, resilient people view errors and mistakes as great learning experience, milestone to growth, improve on their performance efficiencies and increase their quality of work gradually.
In the work situation such as specified in the job characteristics model are positively related to employee well-being, particularly job satisfaction (Fried and Ferris 1987). Among these job characteristics, job control plays an important role. Job control is not only directly related to employee well-being but also acts as a buffer in the stress process. This buffer effect implies that in work situations with high-control stressful working conditions have a less negative impact on employee well-being than in work situations with low control. However, unlike depressive symptoms or anxiety, burnout seems to be unrelated to job control (Lee and Ashforth 1996).
Employee well-being are social support and group process characteristics, particularly a positive team climate and high cohesiveness within the team (Lee and Ashforth 1996, Sonnentag 1996). Persons who receive a high level of high social support from their supervisors and co-workers and also persons who experience a good team climate and a high cohesiveness within their teams enjoy a better well-being than persons who lack social support and who suffer from an unfavorable group process.
Heavy work load also creates job stress and pressure, because employees loses confidence front of the new situation. Research has shown that employees fail to make maximum contributions until they feel a sense of belonging. (Cullen 2001, 140-141.) Stress will occur when employee feels that they can’t cope with demands that are expected from them. Unethical behavior can also lead to stress at work, which has link to well-being factor. Ethically unhealthy environment can also lead to a stress. (Giacalone ; Promislo 2013, 7.).
Stress can lead in to physical or mental illness, if employee can’t cope with demands. Different reasons causes stress at the work place, which most common reason is unrealistic expectations, customer demands and tight schedules. Also boring job can lead to a stress, if person feels meaningfulness at work. Lack of management support, job insecurity and challenging relationships at work place will usually give stress symptoms to employee. (Macdonald 2005, 18-20).
1.7Determining the Relevant client
A second activity in entering an OD relationship is to define who is the relevant client for addressing the organizational issue. Generally, the relevant client includes those organization members who can directly impact the change issue, whether it is solving a particular problem or improving an already successful organization or department. Unless these members are identified and included in the entering and contracting process, they may withhold their support for and commitment to the OD process. In trying to improve the productivity of a unionized manufacturing plant, for example, the relevant client may need to include union officials as well as managers and staff personnel. It is not unusual for an OD project to fail because the relevant client was inappropriately defined.
Determining the relevant client can vary in complexity depending on the situation. In those cases where the organizational issue can be addressed in a specific organization unit, client definition is relatively straightforward. Members of that unit constitute the relevant client. They or their representatives must be included in the entering and contracting process. For example, if a manager asked for help in improving the decision-making process of his or her team, the manager and team members would be the relevant client. Unless they are actively involved in choosing an OD practitioner and defining the subsequent change process, there is little likelihood that OD will improve team decision making.
Determining the relevant client is more complex when the organizational issue cannot readily be addressed in a single unit. Here, it may be necessary to expand the definition of the client to include members from multiple units, from different hierarchical levels, and even from outside of the organization. For example, the manager of a production department may seek help in resolving conflicts between his or her unit and other departments in the organization. The relevant client would extend beyond the boundaries of the production department because that department alone cannot resolve the issue. The client might include members from all departments involved in the conflict as well as the executive to whom all of the department’s report. If that interdepartmental conflict also involved key suppliers and customers from outside of the firm, the relevant client might include members of those groups.
In such complex situations, OD consultants need to gather additional information about the organization to determine the relevant client, generally as part of the preliminary data collection that typically occurs when clarifying the issue to be addressed. When examining company records or interviewing personnel, practitioners can seek to identify the key members and organizational units that need to be involved. For example, they can ask organization members such questions as Who can directly impact the organizational issue? Who has a vested interest in it? Who has the power to approve or reject the OD effort? Answers to those questions can help determine who is the relevant client for the entering and contracting stage, although the client may change during the later stages of the OD process as new data are gathered and changes occur. If so, participants may have to return to and modify this initial stage of the OD effort.
1.8Selecting an OD Consultant Process
The last activity involved in entering an OD relationship is selecting an OD consultant who has the expertise and experience to work with members on the organizational issue. Unfortunately, little systematic advice is available on how to choose a competent OD professional, whether from inside or outside of the organization. A client may not like the consultant’s work, but it is critical to know the reasons for both pleasure and displeasure. One important consideration is whether the consultant approaches the organization with openness and an insistence on diagnosis or whether the practitioner appears to have a fixed program that is applicable to almost any organization.
1.9Proposal’s of Organization’s Employee Well being
This formal and informal activities is designed to improve the health and well being of all employees and reduce or eliminate personal problems affecting employee health and work productivity.
Objectives of this Proposals
Primary Goal The organizations Employee Wellness Plans will strive to increase the well-being and productivity of all employees, through the enhancement of all aspects of health. The plan seeks to increase awareness of positive health behaviors, to motivate employees to voluntarily adopt healthier behaviors and to provide opportunities and a supportive environment to foster positive lifestyle changes.
Measurable Outcome/Impact Objectives for FY
Employee Wellness Plan Objectives for FY 2018 By the end of FY 2018, 65% of 100 employees returning surveys will report they are aware that the Wellness Plan is available at the organization.
By the end of FY 2019, 70% of employees returning surveys will report that having the Wellness Plan available contributes to a more positive work climate.
By the end of FY2020, 80% of employees returning surveys will report that they have participated in at least one wellness activity.
By the end of FY2021, at least 95% of employees who have participated in “Awareness” activities will report that the activities increase their knowledge about healthy lifestyle behaviors.
By the end of FY 2022, at least 98% of employees who have participated in “Awareness” activities will report that the activities increase their motivation to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviors.
Survey of Employee Needs
Employees were surveyed to gather data on the interest in wellness activities, types of events, topics of interest, and preferred cost and times for activities.
All employees are eligible for participation in the well being activities. Family members are eligible to participate per guidelines set by the organization.
Use of Facilities
Well being program activities will take place in designated space. This may include conference rooms and other available onsite indoor and outdoor areas as well as off site locations.
Providers of Instruction
Providers of instruction or services for the well being program will include (health educators, nutritionists, mental health professionals, certified fitness instructors, qualified yoga instructors, and registered massage therapists.)
Only persons with accepted degrees or recognized training/certification will be selected. All providers’ qualifications will be reviewed by the Wellness Coordinator to ensure the highest standards are met.
All leaders of vigorous exercise will meet all required criteria including current CPR certification, personal liability insurance, and certification from an appropriate fitness instructor-certifying agency.
In the case that an employee meets the requirements for becoming a provider of services, that employee will perform those services at no cost if delivered during normal working hours, or may charge a fee if the services are delivered during non-working hours such as lunch or after work. In no case will employees receive compensation for providing services during the time they are being paid by the state.
The Wellness Program will consist of activities which include awareness, lifestyle change, and supportive environment. Depending on availability of funds and personnel support, the activities in each area may include, but not be limited to
• Wellness bulletin boards
• Periodic coverage of activities in employee newsletters
• One-time events, such as Great American Smoke out and National Employee Health and Fitness Day
• Occasional education events
? Lifestyle change:
• Aerobics classes
• Use of Fitness Rooms
• Yoga classes
• Chair Massages
• Referral to services by Employee Assistance Programs
? Supportive Environment:
• Continued encouragement for cafeteria/vending machines to offer healthy food options
• Smoke-free environment policy
• Policies and physical facilities that encourage physical activity
? All employees who participate in vigorous exercise must complete the Participation in Physical Fitness Program informed consent form, and the Physical Fitness Readiness Questionnaire before beginning classes. These forms are distributed by, and returned to the Wellness Coordinator or their representative, to be kept on file.
? Personnel costs
? Facilities modification
? Providers of instruction/services, awareness, lifestyle change, supportive
? Equipment and supplies
? Costs may be allowed for items such as memberships in health clubs,
sports leagues/team registration or medical screening services.
? For ongoing lifestyle change activities hosted on-site, such as aerobics, massage therapy or yoga classes, employees will pay all costs associated with the instruction directly to the instructor.
? Employee Assistance Program.
Wellness activities may be scheduled during the following normal work times:
? before work
? during work
? between work (lunch)
? after work.
? Flexible schedules are allowed in order to provide adequate time to participate in wellness activities.
? A Wellness Coordinator has been designated
? A Wellness Committee has been established to plan, direct and implement wellness activities.
? It is expected that employees will report that the availability of wellness activities contributes to a positive work environment and healthier behavior.
? Methods for monitoring and evaluating the programs will include at least the following:
? Periodic employee-wide surveys to assess awareness of, participation in, and satisfaction with the program.
? Reports of participation in the various lifestyle and awareness activities offered throughout the year.
? Monthly reports on types and numbers of programs offered.
? Employee focus groups, surveys, and suggestion boxes for obtaining quantitative and qualitative employee input into program activities.
? Session evaluation forms will be completed by participants for educational events.
? Employees may complete a health risk appraisal periodically to assess adoption of healthy behaviors.
Diagnosis is the procedure of understanding how the organization is presently working, and it provides the information essential to plan modify interventions. It usually follows from successful entry and contracting, which set the step for successful diagnosis.
They help OD consultants and client members together decide organizational issues to spotlight on, how to gather and examine data to recognized them, and how to work jointly to build up exploit steps from the diagnosis.
Unluckily, the word diagnosis can be ambiguous when functional to organizations. It advices a model of organization change equivalent to medicine: an organization (patient) gathering problems looks for help from an OD consultant (doctor); the consultant analyzes the organization, discovers the reasons of the problems, and fixes an explanation.
Diagnosis in organizational growth, however is much more joint than such a medical viewpoint involves and does not agree to the understood supposition that something is incorrect with the organization.
First, the principles and moral thinking that motivate OD advise that both organization members and alter agents should be concerned in determining the determinants of recent organizational successfulness.
Correspondingly, both should be engaged energetically in expanding suitable involvements and realizing them. For example, a manager might seek OD assist to decrease non-attendance in his or her section.
The manager and an OD consultant together might make a decision to analyze the reason of the problem by analyzing company non-attendance evidences and by consulting elected employees about potential causes for non-attendance.
On the other hand, they might analyze employee faithfulness and find out the organizational fundamentals that encourage people to continue.
Study of those data could expose determinants of non-attendance or devotion in the section, thus serving the manager and the consultant to build up a suitable involvement to deal with the matter.
The option about how to move toward the issue of non-attendance and the results about how to deal with it are made together by the OD consultant and the manager.
Second, the medical model of diagnosis also implies that something is wrong with the patient and that one requires to expose the reason of the unwellness. In those reasons where organizations do have exact problems, diagnosis can be problem sloping, seeking causes for the problems.
On the other hand, as advised by the non-attendance example above, the consultant and the client may decided to enclose the matter absolutely. Moreover, the client and OD consultant may be appearing for methods to enhance the organization’s accessible purposing.
Many managers engaged with OD are not knowledge exact organizational problems.
Here, diagnosis is expansion oriented. It reviews the present purposing of the organization to find out areas for potential growth. For example, a manager might be noticed in using OD to get better a section that already appears to be performing well.
Diagnosis might consist of an in general appraisal of together the task-concert capabilities of the section and the effect of the section on its individual members. This procedures looks for to expose exact areas for future growth of the section’s successfulness.
2.1 Need for Diagnostic Models
Entry and contracting processes can result in a need to understand a whole system or some part, process, or feature of the organization. To diagnose an organization, OD practitioners and organization members need to have an idea about what in-formation to collect and analyze. Choices about what to look for invariably depend on how organizations are perceived. Such perceptions can vary from intuitive hunches, to scientific explanations of how organizations function. Conceptual frameworks that people use to understand organizations are referred to as diagnostic models.1
However, all models represent simplifications of reality and therefore choose certain features as critical. Focusing attention on those features, often to the exclusion of others, can result in a biased diagnosis. For example, a diagnostic model that relates team effectiveness to the handling of interpersonal conflict would lead an OD practitioner to ask questions about relationships among members, decision-making processes, and conflict resolution methods.
Potential diagnostic models are everywhere. Any collection of concepts and relationships that attempts to represent a system or explain its effectiveness can potentially qualify as a diagnostic model. Diagnostic models can be derived from that information by noting the dimensions or variables that are associated with organizational effectiveness.
Another source of diagnostic models is OD consultants experience in organizations. That field knowledge is a wealth of practical information about how organizations operate. Unfortunately, only a small part of that vast experience has been translated into diagnostic models that represent the professional judgments of people with years of experience in organizational diagnosis.
2.2Open System Model
This section introduces systems theory, a set of concepts and relationships describing the properties and behaviors of things called systems—organizations, groups, and people, for example. Systems are viewed as unitary wholes composed of parts or subsystems; the system serves to integrate the parts into a functioning unit. For example, organization systems are composed of departments such as sales, operations, and finance. The organization serves to coordinate behaviors of its departments so that they function together in service of a goal or strategy.
2.2.1Organizations as Open Systems
Open systems, such as organizations and people, exchange information and resources with their environments. They cannot completely control their own behavior and are influenced in part by external forces. Open systems display a hierarchical ordering. Each higher level of system comprises lower-level systems: systems at the level of society comprise organizations; organizations comprise groups (departments); and groups comprise individuals. Al-though systems at different levels vary in many ways in size and complexity. Open systems are described below: inputs, transformations, and outputs; boundaries; feedback; equiflnality; and alignment.
Any organizational system is composed of three related parts: inputs, transformations, and outputs.
Inputs consist of human or other re-sources, such as information, energy, and materials, coming into the system. Inputs are acquired from the system’s external environment.
Transformations are the processes of converting inputs into outputs. In organizations, a production or operations function composed of both social and technological components generally carries out transformations. The social component consists of people and their work relationships, whereas the technological component involves tools, techniques, and methods of production or service delivery. Transformation processes also can take place at the group and individual levels.
Fig : The Organization as an Open System
Outputs are the results of what is transformed by the system and sent to the environment. Thus, inputs that have been transformed represent outputs ready to leave the system. Group health insurance companies receive premiums, healthy and unhealthy individuals, and medical bills, transform them through physician visits and record keeping, and export treated patients and payments to hospitals and physicians.
The idea of boundaries helps to distinguish between systems and environments. Closed systems have relatively rigid and impenetrable boundaries, whereas open systems have far more permeable borders. Boundaries—the borders, or limits, of the system are easily seen in many biological and mechanical systems. Defining the boundaries of social systems is more difficult because there is a continuous in-flow and outflow through them. The emergence of the information super high way and worldwide information networks will continue to challenge the notion of boundaries in open systems.
Feedback is information regarding the actual performance or the results of the system. Not all such information is feedback, however. Only information used to control the future functioning of the system is considered feedback. Feedback can be used to maintain the system in a steady state.
In closed systems, a direct cause-and-effect relationship exists between the initial condition and the final state of the system: when a computer’s “on” switch is pushed, the system powers up. The idea of equifinality suggests that similar results may be achieved with different initial conditions and in many different ways. This concept suggests that a manager can use varying degrees of inputs into the organization and can transform them in a variety of ways to obtain satisfactory outputs.
A system’s overall effectiveness is determined by the extent to which the different parts are aligned with each other. This alignment or fit concerns the relationships between inputs and transformations, between transformations and outputs, and among the subsystems of the transformation process. Alignment refers to a characteristic of the relationship between two or more parts. It represents the extent to which the features, operations, and characteristics of one system support the effectiveness of another system.
2.2.2 Diagnosing Organizational Systems
When viewed as open systems, organizations can be diagnosed at three levels. The highest level is the overall organization and includes the design of the company’s strategy, structure, and processes. Large organization units, such as divisions, subsidiaries, or strategic business units, also can be diagnosed at that level. The next-lowest level is the group or department, which includes group design and such de-vices for structuring interactions among members as norms and work schedules. The lowest level is the individual position or job. This includes ways in which jobs are designed to elicit required task behaviors.
Diagnosis can occur at all three organizational levels, or it may be limited to is-sues occurring at a particular level The key to effective diagnosis is to know what to look for at each level as well as how the levels affect each other.
Below Figure presents a comprehensive model for diagnosing these different organizational systems. For each level, it shows: (1) the inputs that the system has to work with, (2) the key design components of the transformation subsystem, and (3) the system’s outputs.
A. Organization Level
Inputs Design Components Outputs
B. Group Levels
Inputs Design Components Outputs
quality of work life, performance.
C. Individual Levels
Absentism, personal development
Significance about Results
Inputs Design Components Outputs
Fig: Comprehensive Model for Diagnosing Organizational Systems
3.0Planning and Implementing Change
In this period, organization members and consultants together plan and implement OD interferences. They plan interferences to get the organization’s vision or targets and create action maps to apply them. There are a lot of criteria for planning interferences, including the organization’s willingness for modify, its present change ability, its civilization and power sharing’s, and the change agent’s expertise’s and skills. Depending on the results of diagnosis, there are four main types of interferences in OD:
1. Human procedures interferences at the individual, group and total system levels.
2. interferences that change an organization’s formation and technology.
3. Human resource interferences that seek to develop member presentation and
4. Strategic interfernces that engage managing the organization’s rapport to its outside surroundings and the internal formation and procedures essential to support a business strategy.
Applying interferences is worried with managing the change procedures. It contains motivating change, making a wanted future vision of the organization, expanding political support, managing the evolution toward the vision, and maintaining momentum for change.
4.0Evaluating and Institutionalizing Change
The final step in designed change engages estimating the results of the interference and managing the organizational of successful change programs.
Criticism to organization members about the interferences consequences presents information about whether the changes should be carry on, customized, or balanced.
Institutionalizing successful changes engages reinforcing them through criticism, recompenses, and training.
It shows how traditional designed change activities, such as entry and contracting, survey feedback, and change planning, can be together with modern techniques, such as large-group interventions and high levels of contribution.
4.1Different Types of Planned Change
The universal model of diagrammed change explains how the OD procedures typically open outs in organizations. In real practice, the various stages are not close to as arrange as the model implies. OD consultants be likely to change or correct the steps to fit the requires of the state. Stages in designed modify may be apply in a multiplicity of ways, depending on the client’s requires and targets, the change agent’s abilities and charges, and the organization’s background. Thus, planned change can differ hugely from one circumstances to another. To appreciate the differences better, planned change can be compared crossways conditions on three key dimensions: the magnitude of organizational change, the degree to which the client system is organized, and whether the setting is domestic or international.
4.1.1Magnitude of Change
Planned change attempts can be naturalized as dropping along a continuum ranging from additional changes that engage fine tuning the organization to quantum changes that involve basically changing how it works. Additional changes be liable to engage restricted measurements and stages of the organization, such as the decision-making procedures of work groups. They happen within the circumstance of the organization’s surviving business plan, arrangement, and culture and are planned at advancing the rank quo. Quantum changes, besides that, are straighter at importantly changing how the organization works. In current years, OD has been worried growingly with quantum change. The better competitiveness and uncertainty of today’s environment have led a growing number of organizations to alter drastically the way in which they operate. In such situations, planned modifies is more multifaceted, wide, and long term than when related to additional change. Because quantum change engages most characteristics and levels of the organization, it is typically driven from the top, where corporate strategy and values are set.
Change agents help senior managers make a vision of a preferred future organization and strengthen movement in that direction.
They also help executives expand arrangements for managing the change from the current to the future organization and may include, for example, a variety of extend beyond direction-finding committees and redesign teams.
Staff specialists also may preplan many features of the firm, such as recital measures, recompenses, planning procedures, work plans, and information systems.
Because of the compound and wideness of quantum change, OD experts frequently work in groups including members with different yet balancing areas of skill.
The consulting relationship perseveres over comparatively long time stages and comprises a great deal of renegotiation and testing among consultants and managers.
The boundaries of the change effort are more doubtful and spread than in additional change, thus making diagnosis and change seem more like detection than like problem solving.
Organizations may radically change their strategic direction and way of working without importantly expanding their ability to solve difficulties and to achieve both high concert and excellence of work life.
Besides that, organizations may take on quantum change from a expansion standpoint. They may look for make themselves more spirited by expanding their human resources; by receiving managers and workers more engaged in problem solving and improvement; and by endorsing flexibility and direct, open communication.
4.1.2Degree of Organization
Planned change attempts also can vary depending on the degree to which the organization or client system is organized. In below organized organizations, alternatively, there is too little restraint or directive for successful task concert. Leadership, formation, job design, and policy are badly defined and be unsuccessful to control task performances efficiently. Communication is disjointed, job responsibilities are uncertain, and employees’ energies are breezy because they lack direction.
In over organized circumstances, where much of OD perform has historically taken place, planned change is usually aspired at releasing restraints on behavior. Changes in leadership, job plan, construction, and other features are planned to release repressed energy, to increase the flow of related information between employees and managers, and to promote effective conflict resolution.
The association between the OD consultant and the management team efforts to model this movably process. The consultant shares leadership of the modify procedures with management, give confidences open communications and argument of disagreement, and keeps flexibility in connecting to the organization.
When applied to organizations facing problems in being under organized, planned change is aimed at increasing organization by explaining leadership regulations, structuring communication between, managers and employees, and identifying job and departmental responsibilities.
These activities require a modification of the traditional phases of planned change and include the following four steps-
Identification- This stage identifies the related people or groups who need to be engaged in the change program. In many below organized conditions, people and sections can be so separated that there is uncertainty about who should be included in the problem-solving process.
Convention-In this step the related people or departments in the company are brought jointly to begin organizing for task concert.
Organization- Different organizing instruments are makes to structure the newly involved interactions among people and sections.
Evaluation- In this final step the outcomes of the organization stage are reviewed. The evaluation might indication the need for regulations in the organizing procedures or for further identification, reunion, and organization activities.
4.1.3Domestic Vs. International Settings
Expanded in western societies, the exploit research model reproduces the underlying worthies and statements of these geographic settings, including equal opportunity, participation, and short-term time horizons. Under such situations, the exploit research model functions quite well.
When OD is useful outside of the North American or European context (and sometimes even within those settings), the exploit research process must be adjusted to fit the educational context.
Diagnosis can engage many organization members or comprise only senior managers; be expressed from the top, performed by an outside consultant, or performed by inside consultants; or involve face-to-face interviews or organization documents.
Performing OD in international settings is highly stressful on OD consultants.
To be successful, they must expand a keen consciousness of their own cultural biases, be open to seeing a diversity of matters from another viewpoint, be effortless in the costs and suppositions of the host country, and understand the financial and political background of business there.
Most OD consultants are not able to meet all of those criteria and take on a “cultural guide,” often a member of the organization, to assist find the way the cultural, operational, and political nuances of change in that society.
4.1.4Critique of Planned Change
In spite of their carry on modification, the models and perform of planned change are still in a determining step of growth, and there is significant room for development.
Planned alter has characteristically been characterized as connecting a series of actions for moving out efficient organization growth. Although present models outline a common set of stages to be followed, considerably more information is needed to direct how those stages should be executed in exact situations. In an wide review and critique of planned change theory, Porras and Robertson argued that planned change activities should be directed by information about (1) the organizational features that can be changed, (2) the planned results from making those changes, (3) the fundamental instruments by which those outcomes are achieved, and (4) the possibilities upon which successful change depends.