In this assignment I will be writing about the talking therapies’ historical development and explore their benefits on helping the public’s health and well-being. The three main talking therapies that I will be writing about are psychodynamic, humanistic and cognitive and behavioural therapy. I will be comparing the three therapies and the development of counselling and psychotherapy. The definition of counselling and psychotherapy is umbrella phrase that involves different types of talking therapies. The therapies are done by people who are professionals and have knowledge. The professionals work with people for a while to help them bring effective recovery.
Psychodynamic- psychodynamic therapy focuses on the unconscious processes that manifested in people on their past and present behaviour. The aims of this is to help people to improve serious psychological disorders and patient’s self-awareness and understand the influence on their behaviour from past and present which links to emotion development. The psychodynamic is the oldest therapy in the modern therapies. The psychodynamic was discovered by Sigmund Freud in early centuries. He believes that people behave on mixture of unconscious sexual and aggressive, defence mechanism therefore his theory and practise was known as psychoanalytic therapy. The ego psychology came from Freud theory. The ego psychology focuses on the patient capacity for adaption and defence. And was divided into three components which are superego, ego and the ID. The id represents the simplest part of our mind and our sexual drive and aggressive comes from the id. Id has no contact with reality and operates separately from outside world. As toddlers we are into the sexual drive and aggressive. And as we are getting older, we can contact the environment and the world which develops our mind and our ego and super ego. The superego represents an ethical sense of right and wrong. As a result, the id a super ego is in conflicts. The ego is the part of ourselves which could take a step back, compare information and make rational decisions for our quality interest. For that reason, we have come to accomplice the ego with the true self, with identity. The objected relation, according to the theory humans always shaped in relation to the other surroundings which means our struggling and goals in life concentrated on maintaining relation with others. The internal presentation of our self and others acquired in childhood are later played out in adult relation. The objected theory came from Heinz Klein, W.R.D. Fairbairn, d.w. winning and harry guntrip. The self-psychology was founded by Heinz kohut which was in Chicago. He observed that the self refers to a person perception in his experienced is lack of self-esteem. The self is perceived in relation to the establishment of limits having difference from others.
The humanistic approach was developed in the 1960s and 70s. It brought in a new perspective believing that the study of psychology shouldn’t only focus on purely mechanistic aspect of cognition, not because of the impact of environment on behaviour rather it should have more emphasis of psychological study should be on human experience. Which meant that the humanistic goal was not much on total understanding of human’s behaviour but rather have ability to tackle with life more successfully.
The one if the first major study was Abraham Maslow. He attempted to develop a theory which could explain the diversity of human needs and motivation to keep them going and leading them to successful life which then he came up with hierarchy of needs, which explained that what people needed the most. In this study he came up with the first thing what humans need in order to reach to state was self-actualization in which all their needs are met then they would be happy. However, the base of the pyramid shows that psychological needs of person such as food and house should be Met. If they are not met, then the higher happiness would not be achieved. After this the third thing the humans need is the safety should be met and then they have love from family and friends. After this they must have self validation and feeling of self worth and self esteem. If, however someone does not meet any of them then they won’t have the happiness that they need.
Carl Rodger was another of the important figure in early humanistic psychology. Carl Rodger was first one to mention the importance of unconditional positive regard. For Carl Rodger this was essential to psychological development.