In the article “Placement Discontinuity for Older Children and Adolescents Who Exit Foster Care Through Adoption or Guardianship

In the article “Placement Discontinuity for Older Children and Adolescents Who Exit Foster Care Through Adoption or Guardianship: A Systematic Review,” Kevin R. White explains how youth who withdrew from the foster care system are unable to find homes that help them have a sense of self and secureness that helps the youth. The article makes note that the most important things for the youth is that they are placed in permanent homes that are stable. For these homes to be permanent the youth need to be connected through adoption or guardianship. The main focus for many of those who work with in the foster care system was ways to ensure, improve and increase the number of youths who are connected through adoption and guardianship. White however, there is little to no attention and over sight paid to risk and protective factors for the children who have been placed after the case is closed after the legal finalization. In addition, there appears to be some issues that have limited studies that have set out to determine what types of services or changes that may be needed for these former foster children and youth. Kevin White attempts to conduct a study that will investigate and provide peer reviewed research literature that will address both the risk and protective factors for older youth. White writes this article to detail his systematic search to find 18 studies that are quantitative and quasi-experimental that can be published in peer-reviewed journals and then they can be implemented in various methods. This review finds that the quality of the research evidence is mostly is non-existent, however there are some other older studies that indicate there may be generally weak, but previous studies do suggest several risk and protective factors for stopping post-permanency, including child, family, and service.

The well-being of the nuclear family of parents, their children and extended family, which may include grandparents, cousins, and other relatives—has long been a focal point of many of the social, political, and economic policies in America. The rate of pregnancy long with actual childbirth rates are the focus for many of these policies. These policies have really grown and evolved over the history of America. Many of the federal policies that will govern how states set up their frames work and policy models that agencies will have to follow when working within child welfare. The foster care system that has placed abused children in these home with temporary families until they are adopted, reunified with their original families, or turn 18; has faced criticism for incidents of abuse and neglect. Many of the idea that the only way to parent is with patience and acceptance, while there are others who insist that strictness and aggressive means are needed to help push their children to succeed. This style or model of parenting has been referred to as extreme parenting. Americans frequently debate the use and implementation of “safe-haven” laws. These laws were started to allow parents especially women to leave their unwanted babies in the care of the state without criminal prosecutions.
Issues connected to family, pregnancy, and childbirth have long proved controversial, as they have profound moral, social, and economic implications. The extent of the government’s involvement in these matters—and when it should intervene—continues to spark debate across American society.

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Youngmin Yi and Christopher Wildeman “Can Foster Care Interventions Diminish Justice System Inequality?” The Future of Children. 28.1 (Spring 2018): p37+.COPYRIGHT 2018 PrincetonUniversity-WoodrowWilsonSchoolofPublicandIntern Affairs http://www.futureofchildren.org/ ACADEMIC RESEARCH
In the article ” Can Foster Care Interventions Diminish Justice System Inequality?” According to Yi and Wilderman , children and youth who have had involvement with the US foster care system are a greater risk of having contact with the criminal justice system. Both Yi and Wilderman believe these children will have contact with this criminal justice system while in their youth and as adults. And Although there has been some good improvement with the foster care system there has not been a lot of oversight into some of the inequalities these children experience. This article was written to try and explain and give a overview of the experience children in foster care have had and how their placement may make them more a risk for involvement with the criminal justice system.
Yi and Wildeman reviewed the process in which children come to the attention of many how Child Protective Services (CPS) agencies and are placed in foster care. They go on to detail how these children then become at risk while they are in the foster care system. They take time to to give a critical look at how the foster care system and the criminal justice system overlap. Yi and Wilderman sheds light on how these two systems have large disparities along racial and ethnic lines. The authors examine the methods that can be used to help reduce inequality in criminal justice in two different stages. The first stages in foster care placement and the second stage after these same children age out of the foster care system at age 18.

United States, Department of Human Resources, National Conference of State Legislatures. EXTENDING FOSTER CARE BEYOND 18, July 2017. \ http://www.ncsl.org/research/human-services/extending-foster-care-to-18.aspx
This website details recent statics of exploited youth who have been involved with the foster care system. The website states that approximately 26,000 youth who leave the foster care system or age out at the age of 18 have many issues meeting the basic needs. The site found out that these youth lack health care, education, employment, housing and emotional support. Many states appear to have laws that states these youth are to receive services called independent living to help them transition into adult, however there is an increasing number of states that will let the youth remain or they are able to return to the foster care system after the age of 18. The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 was signed on Oct. 7, 2008, this law gives states the right to get money from the federal Title IV-E reimbursement. States can get these for paid back to them for the cost that come with support for youth who remain in the foster care system until they are 21 years old.
The Fostering Connections Act states that any state that provides Title IV-E funds for foster care, adoption, or guardianship assistance payments in most cases until the youth is 21 years old. In most cases the must complete a secondary educational program or one that provides the same equivalent credential. The youth must have been enrolled in an institution that have either a post-secondary or a vocational educational program. The youth can also participate in a program that has been designed to promote employment or remove any barriers for employment. The last requirement that a youth can have is they can be employed for at least 80 hours per month to remain a part of the program.

F. Hinacapie, Nelson “Voices for Children Is Making a Difference for Foster Children.” Miami Herald, 15 April. 2018, https://www.miamiherald.com/opinion/op-ed/article208973119.html
According to the Nelson F. Hincapie’s article “Voices for Children Is Making a Difference for Foster Children” gives various opinions about the mission the project of the program Voices for Children foundation. This program helps to provide a Guardian ad Litem to every child who, unfortunately, ends up in foster care. At Voices for Children, Hincapie discusses how the program has been have investing in the lives of the young men and women who deserve an opportunity and simply need someone in their corner to speak for them. He also uses key information like how “Guardians ad Litem currently represent 87 percent of the children in foster care, the highest rate of representation in the past 10 years”. There is a new desire to renew housing and impact the lives of children in foster care and the goal for the child welfare system is to encourage more people that have been withdrawn from the system can own their story and break the cycle of abuse. Overall Hincapie provides vital information about ‘Voices’ challenging a summer campaign within the next few years to embark “the now adults who have aged out of foster care, whether they are successful contributors to our society or they are homeless or in prison as most statistics now suggest”.