The common problem language teachers faced in the classroom is the hesitation of learners to participate in discussions because they cannot express themselves in English. In this regard, this study aims to improve learner’s competence in English thru mastery of basic grammar skills. Likewise, it seeks to boost learners’ self-confidence in speaking toward better communication skills.

The study used the descriptive research and made use of pretest and post-test scores to determine the effectiveness of the project. From this, a significant increase or improvement in scores of learners has been noted.

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Meanwhile, this research focused on Grade 9 –Bunsen learners who got the lowest mean and MPS in the diagnostic test. They were given intervention worksheets and coaching for a month which resulted to favorable results. Hence, this recommends the continuous implementation of the project and to start it at the lowest secondary level to ensure mastery of basic language skills.

With this study, it will help the department to find solutions to old-time problem in English, thus develop better communicators of the language.

Keywords: interactive coaching, peer-parent assistance, basic grammar skill


The researchers would like to extend their deepest and sincerest gratitude to the following persons whose valuable assistance and fruitful ideas made this research possible.

To the teachers of English Department, who have been supportive and who worked actively in helping the researchers to pursue their goals. Their personal and professional guidance, and credible ideas have been great contributions in the completion of the research;

To Ms. Menchie M. Cepillo for sharing her pearls of wisdom during the course of this research. Without her precious support it would not be possible to conduct this research;

To the families of the researchers for their unending and unconditional love, understanding, financial and moral support, and encouragement which enable the researchers to accomplish this goal;

And above all, to our Almighty God for giving the wisdom, strength and knowledge in exploring things; for the guidance and help to surpass all the trials that researchers have encountered and for giving determination to finish and make this research possible.


The common problem language teachers faced in the classroom is the hesitation of learners to participate in discussions because they cannot express themselves in English. This is due to the fact that some learners perceive grammar matters only in school and not necessarily important in their daily life. However, this misconception of some students leads to poor performance in English because they cannot communicate well. Since grammar is the foundation of communication, correct grammar use is very important to easily understand the purpose and meaning of the message someone is trying to convey. Thus, in order to communicate, learners should know and have a good mastery of grammar skills. It is significant to be able to express themselves, and be able to be understood by others.

In the Philippines, learning the English language is of high significance in order for the citizens especially learners to be equipped and competent enough to meet the elevated expectations of this modern and demanding world. Since the Philippines is globally known as one of the largest English speaking nations with at least a degree of fluency in the language, this is one of its strengths that has helped drive the economy and even made it the top voice outsourcing destination in the world, surpassing India in 2012 as cited in Inquirer.net by Cabigon (2015). Clearly, English language as a global medium of communication is not only a key for personal development, but also for a country’s progress. A citizen’s feat is a nation’s victory, too.
Grammar plays a vital role to sustain the country’s current stature in the BPO industry, since language used in communication depends on it. According to a study in Jyvaskyla University in Finland, grammar guides how language should be written/spoken in a correct way. Hence, Saaristo (2015) highlighted that grammar is the heart of language and its role to effective communication is important.

Additionally, grammar has always been an important part of language learning. In the article, “Language Learning Difficulties among Malaysian Gifted Students” written by Yunus, et al., (2013), the results of interviews with the students on the subject of language learning difficulties are presented. Students are faced with difficulties when speaking in English. They explained it by insufficient knowledge of grammar. Thus, the lack of student’s ability in expressing initiative or his ideas verbally or in written, mainly due to lack of experience to understand the symbols and concepts, including mastery of grammar and mastery of sentence which good.

It is also evident in the findings in a study done by Barraquio (2015) among college students of Colegio de San Juan de Letran: Calamba where the students failed in the areas of structure, subject-verb agreement,and sentence construction. It was then recommended for the school to enroll all freshmen in remedial English as grammar was also found to be extremely important in writing and speaking.

In line with this, teachers need to be creative with the resources they have in helping students master the grammar skills. Understanding its significance, the Department of Education implemented guidelines in utilization of the 2016 Language Arts and Multiliteracies Curriculum (LAMC), a K to 12 Curriculum Guide in English which is anchored on language acquisition, learning, teaching and assessing principles. The ultimate goal of the Language Arts and Multiliteracies Curriculum is to produce graduates who apply the language conventions, principles, strategies and skills in interacting with others, understanding and learning other content areas, and fending for themselves in whatever field of endeavor they may engage in. The skills, grammatical items, structures and various types of texts will be taught, and revisited at increasing levels of difficulty and sophistication. This design allows students to progress from the foundational level to higher levels of language use.

Moreover, Department of Education also implemented the Every Child a Reader Program Funds for the Early Language, Literacy, and Numeracy Program: Professional Development Component under DepEd Order No. 18, s. 2017 which aims to develop the literacy and numeracy skills, and attitudes in Filipino children, which will contribute to lifelong learning and strengthening its reading program through the implementation of the Early Language, Literacy, and Numeracy Program.

Consequently, Anselmo A. Sandoval Memorial National High School as a public secondary school envisions to develop not only technically competent individuals but also globally competitive citizens as in lined in the DepEd programs. Likewise, the English Department believes that communication skills play a significant part to make this vision a reality. It is a fact that most Filipino applicants are not able to get their job for they fail to sell themselves to their prospected employers for their inability to express themselves well. Hence, the challenge to produce proficient communicators is such a gargantuan task of a language teacher. As such, the department decided to start from the core of a language. i.e. grammar.


Below are the significant innovations, interventions, and strategies proposed by the researchers in order to address the need of the students in terms of their mastery of the basic grammar skills.

DEAR Grammar. A five-sentenced journal where the students can narrate their daily learning and progress about the basic grammar. They must apply the key ideas or the rules learned in the sentences. These journals are intensively checked by language teachers weekly.

E-games. Localized interactive games about grammar skills designed after the popular television games. Students’ attention and interest in learning is sustained in the activity.

LODI (Learners of Distinguished Intelligence). They are called Big Brother and Big Sisters. They are select students from star or cream section of Grade 10 who assist the challenged students toward their mastery of the basic grammar skills. During this peer tutoring, these students render time and patience to teach and monitor the progress of their respective clients; in return, these Lodi’s are given incentive in their English subject.

MaBaGSIC Squad. A social media group utilized to disseminate information among the grammatically challenged students. It is also a good spot to upload lectures about grammar, and worksheets and the students’ answers. To let them realize their wrong answer/s, only the number of correct answers will be sent as response of the language teachers. And to master the skill, they are given chances to answer the same worksheet aiming to have get perfect score.

My PETMALU (Perfect Exercises toward Mastery and Acquisition of Language Use) Worksheets. Localized worksheets prepared by the language teachers. These materials include brief and concise explanations of the basic grammar lessons and rules, examples, and activities. The grammatically challenged student must learn and answer the proposed topic of the day. Each of them is given three chances to get a perfect score for a particular topic. If still not, they will be given a special take home worksheet.

Parents’ Assistance. The parents’ participation in this project is a big deal. Students who still need follow up reviews at home are given worksheets to answer.At this point, it is now the duty of the parent to monitor if their children do their take home activities. Aside from that, students’ worksheets are brought home from time to time after the checking and recording of the scores for the parents to monitor the development of their children.


This study aims to improve learners’ competence of Grade 9 students in English in Anselmo A. Sandoval Memorial National High School thru mastery of basic grammar skills. Likewise, it seeks to boost learners’ self-confidence in speaking toward better communication skills.
Specifically, the study sought answers to the following questions:
1.What is the level of basic grammar skills of Grade 9 students in English?
2.What are the root causes of students’ low mastery of the basic grammar skills?
3.What are the strategic interventions that can enhance the students’ mastery of the basic grammar skills?
4.Is there a significant difference between the students’ performance in English before and after the strategic interventions were applied?
5. Based on the findings of the study, what program may be proposed to enhance the learners’ competence in English grammar skills of Grade 9 students of Anselmo A. Sandoval Memorial National High School?


The study used the descriptive research and made use of pretest and post test scores to determine the effectiveness of the project. Forty-nine Grade 9-students of Anselmo A. Sandoval Memorial National High School served as the respondents of the study. No sampling was applied in determining the respondents. Focused group discussions and interview were also conducted. Frequency, percentage, ranking, weighted mean and t-test were the statistical tools used in quantifying the data gathered.


From the results of the study, the following were obtained.

1.Level of Grammar Skills of Grade 9 students of Anselmo A. Sandoval Memorial National High School

The level of grammar skills of Grade 9 students belong in 7 sections were determined in this study to identify and select the controlled group to be used in pilot testing of the project.

As reflected in the Table 1, the researchers find Grade 9 students has challenged grammar skills in English as reflected in its composite mean of 7.16 and MPS of 35.78 which is below mastery.

Table 1
Summary of Pretest Results in English Grammar among G9 Sections in AASMNHS
Grade 9 Sections Mean MPS Rank
(49) 6.52 32.60 7
(48) 6.61 33.04 6
(45) 6.78 33.90 4
(48) 9.09 45.44 1
(48) 6.76 33.82 5
(45) 7.20 35.98 2
(49) 7.14 35.69 3
Composite Mean 7.16 35.78

As cited, Grade 9-Bunsen obtained the lowest scores in the summary of pretest results in English grammar among Grade 9 sections. It obtained a weighted mean of 6.52 and MPS of 32.60 which ranked seven among the sections. This meant that the controlled group to be selected is Grade 9-Bunsen.

However, Grade 9 Garnett got the highest scores which considered as ranked one with the weighted mean of 9.09 and MPS of 45.44 among them. This implied that most of the students belong to the group were moving toward mastery and have enough knowledge in terms of grammar.

2.Root Causes of Students’ Low Mastery in Basic Grammar Skills Grade 9 students

The root causes of students’ low mastery in basic grammar skills were revealed in this study.

Table 2 revealed that four root causes of low mastery in basic grammar skills were identified by 49 respondents belong to Grade 9-Bunsen.

Table 2
Root Causes of Students’ Low Mastery in Basic Grammar Skills of Grade 9 Students
Root Causes No. of Responses Percentage Rank
1. Grammar rules are complex 17 33% 3.5
2. Social media applications are available for free in gadgets. 17 33% 3.5
3. There is insufficient time. 20 39% 2
4. Communication activities provide limited emphasis on grammar. 39 75% 1

Out of 49 respondents, 39 or 75% agreed that communication activities provide limited emphasis on grammar as shown as the primary root cause of students’ low mastery in grammar skills. As students engage in spoken and written communication, use of correct grammar is really important which allows our ideas or messages clearly understood. However, most topics in English 9 are about literature, and are limited emphasis on basics of grammar which leads to unpracticed skills which later results to incorrect grammar use; having unclear messages and meaningless sentences. According to Chin (2000), effective grammar instruction begins with what students already know about grammar, and it helps them use this knowledge as they write and speak. Therefore, as teachers, we must determine what the students already know about grammar and build upon that knowledge.

On the other hand, 17 respondents or 33% agreed that root causes of their low mastery in grammar were because of grammar rules are complex and social media applications are available for free in gadgets, respectively. Because of complex grammar rules, students were having a hard time to identify the specific rule to use whenever they were doing grammar drills. Likewise, on the study of Zuidema (2012), he emphasized that the challenge for language teachers was to create opportunities for grammar study especially focusing on grammar rules that were both rigorous and relevant, that prompts students to systematically explore the language in texts that are meaningful to them – both as readers and as writers. In addition, Ediger (2011) also stressed that teachers should make grammar instruction interesting and relevant to their students.

Furthermore, when students were given take-home enrichment activities and assignments, they did not answer it seriously because they tend to use their gadgets instead of doing their assignments. Their attention is diverted to playing games and chatting to their friend in social media sites. At the same time, with the students’ alleviating use of gadgets, as mentioned by Kemp (2014), grammar rules of conventional written language are often transgressed in textese that affects the literary skills of students. Also, from a survey conducted by Adams (2007), students also admitted that they do not put a lot of thought into their writing. They have a difficult time concentrating on the task at hand since they are so used to multitasking with what they do online. This is affecting their ability to complete full and thoughtful writing assignments.


I. Introduction
Sustainability is a development based on ecological and social balance, a sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the current generation without undermining the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (Hall, 2001). As related to agriculture, sustainability describes farming systems as systems that are able to maintain their productivity to society indefinitely. These systems should be socially supportive, resource-conserving, environmentally sound and commercially competitive (Weil, 1990). Achieving sustainability requires an efficient use of the available technology by relying on cultivation techniques, equipment management and constructive materials aimed to reduce agro-chemicals, energy and water consumption as well as waste generation (Acutt et al., 1998).
The sustainability of an agroecosystem is represented by its ability to maintain a given level of productivity over time and a given quantitative-qualitative level of environmental resources (Loucks, 1977). The greenhouse is a form of agroecosystem where, unlike other agroecosystems, the environment has been adapted to the crop in order to maximize its productivity.
Greenhouse cultivation is becoming very important due to its capacity to produce vegetables all year round. The greenhouse system inputs is represented by natural resources (soil, water, air, organisms) and anthropogenic resources (chemicals, materials). The greenhouse system output is represented by the useful product per covered soil surface unit (dry matter, energy, proteins, income). The output concept should also include modifications of environmental resources (landscape, soil, water, air, organisms) associated to the production system. The greenhouse productivity depends on its specific physical/ agronomic characteristics such as environmental isolation level, direct and indirect energy inputs, tendency towards maximizing production, control level of the greenhouse climatic and agro/biological parameters associated to the system’s complexity. Greenhouse production requires a lot of energy, water and agro-chemical, and generates enormous quantities of waste. In terms of sustainability, the greenhouse agroecosystem is best when it is able to produce high yields with low resource use intensity and when it is able to keep the production factors and defense mechanisms intact (Brydges, 2001).
II. Integrated pests and disease management and sustainability of greenhouse farming technology
The occurrence, development and control of pests and diseases under greenhouse structures are influenced by the fact that the crops are enclosed. Greenhouses are designed to maintain an ideal environment for the crop, both economically and physiologically. These conditions also provide a protected and a favorable environment for pests and pathogens (optimal humidity and temperature, no rain and no wind). Pests and pathogens may therefore be more prolific and cause more damage to their hosts in greenhouses than in open field conditions. Moreover, compared with open field cultivation, natural enemies may be scarce or entirely absent, unless accidentally or purposefully introduced, on the other hand the stability of the greenhouse environment allows natural enemies of pests to be used as an effective means of control (Hanafi, 2013).
The traditional method of pest and disease management is based on the use of pesticides. The sustainability of the greenhouse farming can be maximized by applying the integrated management of pests and diseases with a significant reduction of pesticides and chemical treatments that are damaging to the soil, ground water, farmer, and consumer. Integrated crop protection combines many sustainable crop protection methods such as cultural, physical and biological methods in order to avoid diseases and pests or to suppress them. Using supported climate control management is one of the method, pest and disease infection can be reduced and influence plant development (Vox et al. 2010). Another method is the hanging sticky paper which insects fly into, stick, and consequently die. Although the sticky paper works, it only decreases and does not eliminate the usability of pesticides. By integrating predatory insects or spiders that specialize in a particular pest or pests, integrated pest management can eliminate the necessity of pesticides. These insects arrive in packaged bags (Wolosin, 2008). Biological pest control relies on the conservation of natural enemies of insect pests in agroecosystems (Letourneaua, Andob, Jedlickac, Narwanid, ; Barbiere 2015). When comparing biological pest control with chemical control, biological control tends to be long-term. Low costs of the biological approach to pest control tend to be widely accepted by growers (Yang, Zang, Wang, Guo, Xu, Zhang, ; Wan 2014). An example of the natural enemy, Amblyseius swirskii is a predatory mite that breeds extremely quickly under warm and humid environmental conditions. It predates on whiteflies, thrips, and other pests. In the absence of prey, it can also survive on the plant, feeding on pollen or mold. Biological pollination via bumblebees is a popular addition to the integrated management system. Bumblebees, Bombus terrestris, are shipped to the greenhouse when pollinators are needed and live out their four to eight week cycle pollinating the crops. The introduction of biological pesticides has introduced a non-chemical or insect combatant to the repertoire of the Integrated Pest Management system. There is a biological pesticide that contains spores of a naturally occurring strain of the fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus. This fungus is highly efficient against the greenhouse whitefly and can infect all stages (egg, larva, pupa and adult) of this harmful insect. (Wolosin, 2008).
When farmers grow the same crop in a greenhouse over and over again without rotation, diseases and pests become a big problem, crop rotation prevents pests and diseases associated with any crop family to accumulate in the soil. Black and white plastic mulching is an important way of controlling weeds and some insect pests (thrips, leafminers etc.). Other sanitary measures during the growing period include removal by hand before the weeds set seed. Preventive measures may be taken at the end of the previous crop cycle, using solarization to reduce pest and disease inoculums in the soil. After several years of complete prevention, infestation becomes very low, and pest and pathogen inoculums in the soil decrease to manageable levels (Hanafi, 2013). Another integrated pest management tool is the use of insect proof net. These nets keep the insects out, without using any chemicals. Most vegetable greenhouses are sealed with insect-proof nets.
Integrating those method achieve an optimal environment to protect crop from pests and diseases and to harm the environment as little as possible. Chemical agents are only used to a very limited extent. Consumers have become more and more aware of the risk of pesticide residues in fresh plants and crops, a huge demand for non-chemical control methods is emerging in many countries. (Albajes et al. 2002) In the particular case of Morocco, IPM adoption in greenhouse vegetable farms has increased from 5 ha in 1999 to 4 230 ha in 2011. In terms of the percentage of greenhouse area adopting IPM in Morocco, tomato is by far the leading crop (61.4%), followed by pepper (22.4%), strawberries (10.6%) and green beans (2.6%). The biological control of insects and mites has resulted in a significant reduction (over 60%) in pesticide use. IPM has become the general crop protection policy in greenhouse crops, and is the wise answer to the overuse of chemical pesticides (Hanafi, 2013).
III. Energy source and sustainability of greenhouse farming technology
Majority of greenhouse farming systems depend on non renewable energy sources which has a high impact on the environment. For a sustainable greenhouse farming, greenhouse equipment such as fans, heaters, fertigation and lightning need to feed on electricity which can be generated from renewable energy sources in order to maximize crop production in terms of quantity and quality and thus to increase overall efficiency. One source of sustainable energy is the use of solar power which can be converted to electricity by means of photovoltaic systems (Knier, 2002). The high manufacturing cost and the rate of converting sunlight into electricity are the drawbacks of the solar panel application to the greenhouse usage (Bagher, 2014). The sun is a cleaner energy source than fossil fuel. The energy that the solar panels produce can power everything from water pumps to lighting systems, from electric fencing to greenhouse heating. The excess energy can be stored in a battery pack from which energy can be tapped during the night.
The solar panels consist of blackened tubes containing circulating water. During daytime, the sun heats up the water, which is then stored with a temperature of 500C in a buffer tank. The following morning, this warm water is pumped into the greenhouse pipes by the system. The heated air dries plants quickly, and mold has no chance. There is still a boiler installed for any cloudy periods, used to provide supplementary heat to the system.
The solar collectors are installed to heat the greenhouses. The heating prevents diseases and increases production. It is possible to run a greenhouse independent of local energy suppliers. Energy costs can be reduced by 40 percent. Production quantity and quality can be increased. The greenhouse climate can be more balanced. The use of pesticides can be reduced. Lower system maintenance is possible. The risks and costs resulting from power cuts can be lowered (Hoogerwert, 2013).
IV. Covering material and sustainability of greenhouse farming technology
Covering materials protect crops from weather conditions, influence greenhouse microclimate altering the growing conditions of the crops comparing to the external climatic condition (Vox et al. 2010). Glass, semi plastics and plastic films are the most common covering materials and are widely used. Nevertheless, those materials are rather unsustainable especially plastics since it is petroleum based and energy losses through those covering material are high. Even so replacing conventional plastics with biodegradable materials in agricultural applications does not reduce the amount of waste, but it does provide the opportunity to choose an alternative waste treatment strategy, i.e. organic recovery (Kapanen et al. 2008). To increase the sustainability in greenhouse, innovative covering materials should be applied along with effective heating and cooling systems. Biodegradable materials formed with raw materials from renewable origin have been developed in recent years to be used as environment ally friendly alternatives to petroleum based material.

V. Modern irrigation and sustainability of greenhouse farming technology
For greenhouse cultivation good water quality is vital. The plant material is always exclusive, and they cannot take any risks. Because water can only be re-used if it is clean, a reverse osmosis installation should be built, where water is fed into a special installation using membranes. This reduces water EC level and also removes any bacteria, viruses and mold. Reverse osmosis leaves re-used water just as clean as rainwater, and therefore fertilizers can be applied more precisely. By using a combination of different technologies, it is possible to reduce water consumption by sixty to eighty per cent. Hydroponic is a technology for growing plant in media other than soil (substrate culture) or in a nutrient solution (water culture) (Vox et al. 2010). Hydroponic system enriches the water with nutrient necessary for plants in a closed system, which protects the water from evaporating and prevents discharge to the outside environment (Roberto 2003). Hydroponic is necessary for optimization of water and nutrient delivery to the plants in order to reduce water and nutrient consumption and drainage with ground water and soil preservation. There are 6 basic types of hydroponic system which are wick, water culture, ebb and flow, drip, nutrient film technique and aeroponic. Hydroponics has many advantages, it eliminates soil borne pest and disease, increases yield, reduces crop maturation cycle and crop and plant are free of chemical traces (Roberto 2003; Vox et al. 2010). There are also disadvantages but the most important one is the high capital cost. However, hydroponics is worth investing it aims to increase the sustainability of the greenhouse.
Irrigation has been researched intensively since the early 1950s. It became clear that water use is much more efficient when pressurized irrigation is used as opposed to surface irrigation. Pressure irrigation systems enable better control and monitoring of irrigation that can be translated into higher water use efficiency. In recent years, approximately 25% of greenhouses with soilless substrates have switched to recycled irrigation systems. Recycling the water and nutrients by reusing water drainage either back to the same or nearby field appears to be the most efficient, environmental and economical solution: approximately 30% to 40% of water and fertilizer inputs are saved. Potential polluting of the aquifer by open irrigation systems is reduced. The switch to recycled irrigation systems increases yields. The water must be tested so the farmer may clear it of any organisms that can negatively affect the crop. The system has to be installed properly, otherwise leaks and water loss can occur and lead to crop failure; the crops will suffer from this and may die. The pipes connecting the tank to the plants can get clogged with residues from unclean water due to the filtration process, so maintenance is essential. At their early stage, crops require at least 0.75 to 1 liter per plant, per day and this increase at the blooming, fruiting, and harvesting stages (Smith, 2008). The availability of water is an essential requirement for greenhouse growing of high added value crops (Castilla ; Baeza, 2013).
VI. Technical training and sustainability of greenhouse farming technology
Working with modern technologies requires new skills. Agricultural extension service deals with three main fields: Instructing to provide updated agricultural knowledge for farmers, training to provide farmers with concentrated professional knowledge as a basis for adopting new and advanced technologies, and production of applied knowledge where agricultural extension service professional personnel conduct lots of experiments, observations and studies each year, with the aim of finding solutions to problems that emerge in the field and applying them in the field. This way, the agricultural extension service makes available to farmers the forefront of current information for use in the agricultural production process (Giacomelli, 2002). The fields of knowledge that the unit assists farmers in adopting include: efficient use of water , use of recovered and salty water, adoption of technologies and automations for personnel saving, improvement of agricultural produce quality to meet international standards, variety diversification, reduction in the use of pesticides, advancement of agricultural subjects related to environmental protection, improving the image of agriculture and training a young generation to continue to work in their parents farms (Hanks, 1983).
VII. Conclusion
The traditional greenhouse in the food production industry is very efficient when it comes to providing food for the majority of the population. However, it is extremely unsustainable and it is heading toward an inevitable end. When a traditional greenhouse is integrated with a sustainable system, the result will be a sustainable greenhouse. Integrated pest and disease management assures that pest and diseases are enemies of sustainability and that pesticides cannot be the only mode for dealing with pests and diseases. The natural enemy, sticky paper, black and white plastic mulching and insect proof nets are being used as integrated pest management methods. The sustainability of greenhouse farming would also be assured if farmers can consider renewable sources of energy. The use of modern irrigation, the reduction of water EC level, types of irrigation and recycling of water are considered as determinants of sustainability. Technical training can also assure greenhouse sustainability through regular farm visits by extensional officers to enlighten farmers and also how trainings and workshops can be used to enhance knowledge among greenhouse farmers. Sustainability of greenhouse farming technology has been a worldwide challenge. The goal of sustainable greenhouse is to reduce the usage of energy, water, and agro-chemical; and minimize the amount of waste from the production.