Gold is a precious coinage metal used as jewelry From ancient times1,2.
it is a soft, dense and bright yellow metal. The gold nanoparticles are biocompatible with large surface area and high dispersion owingto their very small size. The synthesis, characterization and their use in biologyand medicine has produced significant results 3–5
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have certain characteristics and properties those can be used in biomedics, drug delivery agents, and sensors. AuNPs has several advantages compared other nanoparticles namely inert, resistance to oxidation by moistureand air and unaffected by mild acids,biologically nonhazardous and compatible 6.
Conventionally, synthesis of AuNPs canbe performed by many physical, chemical and green synthesis methods 7. However, high cost andtoxic chemicals are major challenges for applying physical and chemical methods therefore biosynthesis got edge due to its simple, eco-friendly and low cost process 8. Phytochemicals present inbiomassare efficient to reduce chloroauric acid to form AuNPs. In fact, synthesis of nanomaterials.using biosynthesis approach has provided a common junction between nanotechnology and biotechnology which led to the fabrication of unique materials with tunable size and shapes.
Plant-mediatedsynthesis of metal nanoparticles has become Widely useddue to ease and availability of plant material which contain reducing compounds such as sugars,proteins, phenols, ketones, aldehydes, carboxylic acids etc. 9–11.
it has been reported that GNPs functionalized with chitosan andliposomes are highly stable in gastric acid, and capable of fusingwith bacteria at physiological pH, making them suitable to treatgastric pathogens such as Helicobacter pylori infections12.
Previously few studies have been carried
out to explore the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS)mediated DNA damage by exposure to GNP in different cell types13
Several studies reported that GNPs cause cellulardamage to mammalian cells through unintended mechanismsincluding induction of necrosis and apoptosis 14,15
, oxidative stress, inflammation, DNA damageand alterations in gene expression 16
However, thereare some contradictory reports on non-toxicity of GNPs to variousmammalian cells under ambient conditions. Moreover, there is limitedreport on GNP toxicity on gastric cell lines, where H. pyloripredominately cause peptic ulcers in immune-compromised patients.
Presently, the major concern around the worldin medical science is that H. pylori has developed resistanceagainst the standard antibiotics being used in the clinical
practices 17.Therefore, there is a need for the developmentof novel antimicrobial agents possessing superior effectivenessagainst H. pylori with reduced toxicity for human cells.So far, metals including zinc 18, bismuth 19, and silver-
uptake, membrane interaction and cellular toxicity 20
many plants from Apiaceae family(Umbelliferae) have been used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases, including asthma, gastrointestinal disorders, intestinal parasites, and have been known to possess antifungal, anti-diabetic, anti inflammatory, antimutagenic and antiviral activities(21).
Pituranthostortuosus(Desf.) (family Umbelliferae), smells very strong aromatic ordour in thefruiting stage..Pituranthostortuosus(Desf.) is known in arabic as Shabat El-Gabal and is usedin folk medicine as diuretic, diuretic analgesic, it is also used to relief stomach pain and against intestinal parasites(22). There is phytochemical study on this plant revealed the presence of flavonoidal glycosides, steroids and furanocoumarins which are known to exhibit valuable biological properties such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, antiproliferative,