Globalization, as defined by Steger, is “a spatial concept signifying a set of social processes that transform our present social condition of conventional nationality into one of globality.” (Steger, 12) This means that globalization is a set of social processes that encompasses and involves all people regardless of social, economic, political, or environmental stances. However, it doesn’t benefit everyone, because much of the globalization of today’s world involves only the well developed and the wealthier countries, despite attempts to make it otherwise. Market globalism, justice globalism, and religious globalism are all infused with ethics to create the overview of the term “globalization.” Globalization can reach more people, however it will take policies implemented that combine market and justice globalism in order to do so. Industrialization and the spread of technology will also bring about globalization to more people. With the spread of technology and the process of industrialization, a country can gain access to the ever expanding global economy and global knowledge chain. Industrialization leads to a furthering in technology and leads to more progress by improving communications with the surrounding countries. The spread of technology also increases communication with surrounding and distant countries, increasing the spread of ideas and ideologies. Communication is important in order to create treaties and diplomatic agreements with one state to another.
Market globalization is the dominant ideology of our time. It “seeks to endow ‘globalization’ with free-market norms and neoliberal meanings.” (Steger, 109-110) This type of globalism focuses heavily on the unalienable civil rights, which are freedom, liberty, and property rights. There are five claims to market globalism. 1. Globalization is about the liberalization and global integration of markets. 2. Globalization is inevitable and irreversible. 3. Nobody is in change of globalization. 4. Globalization benefits everyone. 5. Globalization furthers the spread of democracy in the world. Market globalism’s main point is that free trade creates competition and innovation, which will improve the standard of living for everyone. However, it doesn’t provide a way to help those who are living in the impoverished conditions. The “increased standard of living” talked about is only applied to those who can participate in the economy, which leaves out “over three billion people who live on less than $2.50 a day.” (Shah 2013) Claim four is disputed by this fact. This globalism also doesn’t focus on important social or environmental issues. And while claim one is technically correct, globalization encompasses the spread of ideas and culture as well as the integration of markets and economies, so it only addresses one part of the entity that is globalization.
Justice globalism “constructs an alternative vision of globalization based on egalitarian ideals of global solidarity and distributive justice.” (Steger, 110) Simply put, justice globalism is based on ideals of social justice and rights for everyone, especially women, children, indigenous peoples, and the environment. Justice globalism directly disputes market globalism because of the growing inequality in market globalism and due to the belief that the neo-liberalism ideology led to the 2008 Recession.