Genetically modified organisms

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are organisms that have been injected with new properties into the gene code of foreign genes.
GMOs are divided into the following types:
-genetically modified microorganisms (GMM);
– genetically modified animals (GMV);
– genetically modified plants (GMR).
Genetically modified organisms are created by methods of genetic engineering – a science that allows the introduction of a DNA fragment from any other organism into the genome of a microorganism, an animal or a plant in order to give it certain properties. For example, to deduce a breed of pigs with lean meat they built a spinach gene; to deduce a frost-resistant tomato in its genes, the gene of Arctic flounder was built; for the breeding of rice resistant to pests, the gene of the human liver was added to its genes, and scorpion genes were built in for the development of drought-resistant wheat varieties.
The important difference between genetically modified organisms and natural ones is that they are absolutely sterile. That is, the seeds of such plants do not germinate, and the animals do not produce offspring. The introduction of alien genes of some species or classes in others leads to genetic malfunction, blocking of reproduction processes. This is a protective mechanism for the conservation of species, the protest of nature against interference in its laws.
Genetically modified plants currently have the following properties:
– higher yield;
– give several crops a year (for example, in Russia, there are remontant varieties of strawberries, yielding two crops per summer);
– resistance to insects (for example, in Russia, there are developments aimed at obtaining varieties of potatoes whose leaves are acutely toxic to the Colorado beetle and its larvae);
– resistant to unfavorable climatic conditions (drought resistant transgenic plants having a scorpion gene in their genome);
– are able to synthesize some proteins of animal origin (for example, in China a tobacco grade synthesizing human lactoferrin has been obtained);
– resistance to herbicides;
– resistance to viruses;
resistance to fungi.
– resistance to salts and aluminum (by gene modification methods, it was possible to obtain rape carrying the ion transport gene from arabidopsis, which makes it resistant to salinity by sodium chloride.
Thus, the creation of genetically modified plants makes it possible to solve a whole range of problems, both agrotechnical and food, and technological, pharmacological, etc. In addition, pesticides and other types of pesticides that have disrupted natural balance in local ecosystems and caused irreparable damage to the environment go into non-existence.
The use of genetically modified foods
There is no confirmed scientific research pointing to the risk of using approved genetically modified products today. Genetically modified foods have advantages. For example, there are fewer chemicals in them than in their natural counterparts. Some genetically modified plants themselves destroy herbicides – due to the content of a special enzyme. And all products derived from genetically modified plants are tested for biological and food safety.
Genetically modified foods are more resistant to all kinds of viruses and bacteria. They are stored longer.
The goals of genetic technology applied to animals are usually to accelerate their growth and increase their mass. Cows with increased fat content in milk and salmon were obtained, which grow very fast and do not need to migrate from fresh water to fresh water.
Differences of genetically modified products:
Tomatoes – an external glossy impeccable appearance and an infinite shelf life.
Potato – resistance to pests and increased yield.
Bananas are medicinal properties (they produce a vaccine against poliomyelitis).
Bread with the addition of genetically modified enzymes for a long time does not become stale.
Tobacco acquires resistance to pesticides.
Proponents of genetically modified foods claim that genetic engineering will save the world’s growing population from hunger.