Generally, when we speak of tourism, we think about people who are visiting a particular place for a vacation, sightseeing and having a good time. They might fill their leisure time by doing something adventure or just simply enjoying the environment.
Almost every each institution defines “Tourism” differently but the most common theme that we know that they provide products and services to tourists. The most generally accepted definition of tourism is that provided by the United Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO).
According to the UNWTO, tourism can be defined as comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes. Meanwhile J. Christopher Halloway (1998) stated that tourism may be further defined as the movement of people away from their normal place of residence.
In tourism industry, there are five elements that interrelated to each other which are (1) accommodation, (2) food and beverages services, (3) recreation and entertainment, (4) transportation and (5) travel services or travel agents. Without these elements, tourism does not occur.
Tourism has different types which are international tourism that consists of inbound and outbound tourism, internal tourism, domestic tourism and national tourism. Inbound tourism happens when visitors from Europe travel to Malaysia. While outbound happens when Malaysians travel to Australia. Internal tourism is about inbound tourism plus domestic tourism. Domestic tourism is a visit by residents of a country to their own country and the last one is national tourism which it is an internal tourism plus outbound tourism.
For example, Sara is a Malaysian, she plans to go for a holiday for one week with her friends but unfortunately her friends are on another trip which is at Japan. So she decided to go as a solo traveller. She chooses Pulau Perhentian, Terengganu as the destination. In this case, as Sara’s friends go to Japan, so it considered as outbound tourism while for Sara itself, it considered as domestic tourism.
HISTORY OF TOURISM
Tourism began when wealthy citizens of ancient Rome, deciding to spend their summers away from the city, took trips to the countryside and the beach.
A tourist industry soon growth up to supply for the Romans’ travel and accommodation needs and for a while it grows really well.
During the medieval era, however, tourism again appeared due to the growing interest in pilgrimages. The organisers arranged the tourism basics of itineraries and places to eat and sleep. Hundreds of years later, there were two other factors that encouraged the start of more widespread and regular tourism which are health and culture. Those who could afford to do so began to visit the spa and seaside towns of eighteenth century Europe to benefit from the spring waters and fresh air.
Others, most particularly the English, they took educational holidays to countries such as Italy with the intention of studying paintings, sculptures and architecture, and visiting historical sites.
Leisure tourism took hold when industrialisation across Europe gave rise to an affluent middle class with an increasing amount of free time. Entrepreneurs started to build hotels with an infrastructure of roads, carriages and ferries. After all, tourism began to take form as an international and wide industry.
BENEFITS AND COSTS OF TOURISM
In tourism, there is no question that it delivers benefits, but tourism is not perfect. There are also costs of tourism. Improperly planned and developed tourism can create problems. The demands of tourism may come into conflict with the needs and wishes of local residents.
Tourism has been blamed for polluting beaches, spoiling the countryside, creates social problem, increases the incidence of crime, prostitution, and gambling, creates misunderstanding between local people and tourist and environmental deterioration. Besides that, when so many people come to visit a particular place at the same time; it will be considered as destroying that place which the exact term is mass tourism.
Mass tourism is the act of visiting a leisure destination with large amounts of people at one time. It is the most popular form of tourism as it is the cheapest way to holiday, and is often sold as a package deal. Mass tourism has always been the subject of criticism for its negative impacts around the world. Not only that, mass tourism also creates intense environmental pressures due to the fact that such activity involves a large number of tourists in small areas.
However, tourism can still bring great benefits to the economic. Tourism industry provides employment opportunities, both skilled and unskilled, because it is a labor-intensive industry. Not only that, it tends to be one of the most compatible economic development activities available to an area, complementing other economic activities. It will also improve the quality of life related to a higher level of income and improved standards of living.
Thus, tourism must get the right balance, which is to have the benefits outweigh the costs. Tourism development must be a part of overall economic and must be done in a manner that is sustainable.
WHY DO PEOPLE TRAVELLING?
Travel is the movement of people from a place to another place. Travel can be done by using transportation such as flight, train, bus, ferry or car. It can be one way or round trip, and with or without luggage. Most people at certain point in their life will have a desire to travel. Everyone must have their own reasons why they decide to travel. Here are the reasons that motivate people to go for travel.
I. Travel for seeking knowledge
The first reason is, people travel for seeking knowledge. It is a part of wanted to learn something new. People want to experience something that they never experience it before and leave with new skills and knowledge. When people see the world, it is actually more educational. This is because people will see, learn, practise and experience it for real. For example, culture. Sabah is one the best place to discover a new cultural since it has many group of ethnics such as Kadazan-Dusun, Bajau, Murut, Melanau and others. Every ethnic has their own cultural. Visitors will see the ethnics’ life, learn their languages, and practise their lifestyle. That is how visitors learn.
Every destination in the world has something unique and incredible to show visitors. People might travel to learn something specific like a new language, a new cuisine, new culture, or a deeper appreciation of faith or spirituality. As a result, people comeback with new knowledge, making more friends, gain awareness of new cultures, customs, and places.
II. Travel is for relaxation, fun and escaping from busy life
The second reason why people travel is for relaxation, fun and escaping from busy life. Everyone is surely having a hard time in whatever they do especially at the workplace and because of that they should reward themselves by taking a break to release the pressure. They could plan a vacation with their family, friends or just go as a solo traveller. Travel is particularly helpful for workaholics who have trouble leaving their job behind. Moving away from the workplace is good for both mentally and physically.
Going for a vacation is absolutely in everyone’s dream. It not only makes people feel good, but also provides a better health. Vacation helps to increase people happiness and at the same time stress will be reduced. Some people prefer to do something adventure such as riding an ATV, doing bungee jumping, paragliding, skydiving and so on. These activities are completely suitable for the allocentric tourist. Meanwhile, for psychocentric, this people choose to do something non-adventure like playing golf with old friends, going for shopping, having tea and gossiping.
People seek from their travels what they don’t have back home: better weather, nicer scenery, the freedom to do what they want, experiences they can’t normally have, a slower relaxing pace. It helps your mind, body and soul reboot in a way you can’t achieve at home.
When you are in a vacation mood, just make sure to enjoy your holiday, don’t ever think about work, and free your mind, body and soul. What you have to do is relax and be present in the moment. You will find yourself at more peace than before.
III. Travel for business purposes
The third reason is people travel for business purposes. Business travel is a travel undertaken for work unlike the usual types of travel, such as for leisure purposes. It is not 100 percent focus on work, it is actually also mixed with pleasure. Meaning here that, you have to divide your time into two; working and having some fun with business partners.
This kind of trip does not mean it will bring nothing. No! In fact by involving or volunteering yourself in this trip, it will give you better familiarity in terms of building and strengthening relationships. For example, you, your manager, and few staffs need to go for a business trip. Throughout the trip, you can know your manager and the staffs very well. The happiness will be shared together and spontaneously the relationship between the employer and employees become so close and strong.
Not only that, business trip can be one of the best ways to make new friends like friends from different company. Meeting and make friends with new people is a valuable travel benefit. Maybe you and your new friends can share about working experience, current issues or seeking for an advice on how to perform better.
People have to change their mind-set about this trip. Do not think that it might be very bored or stressful. Get yourself participate and you will know it is actually give you lots of benefits and once you have bonded, new possibilities for future travel is unfold either to visit them or making journey with them.
IV. Travel for health
Besides that, sometimes people also travel for the purpose of health. They travel to another country to get better treatment for their disease. Apart from finding a good treatment, travel itself could be the best medication for them. This is because once you travel; you can relieve stress, lower the risk of depression and boost happiness in yourself.
Speaking about getting better treatment, this statement is not about they are rich enough or not but they prefer to go to another country to receive treatment because of the shorter wait times. They cannot wait any longer if their disease declines. They need something fast to recover them – not fully recover but at least there is an improvement than before. Sometimes, they looking for a specialist doctor because no specialist doctor in their country.
Other than that, you have to let yourself free by throwing all those unimportant things and go get some fresh air. Fresh air is good for health. Fresh air can increase oxygen in blood and in turn, it gives more energy so that you will become more energetic. You can also pampering yourself like doing a body massage, face facial, hair salon and anything that can satisfied you and yourself.
As everyone knows, going for a vacation tend to make people become happier. It is been scientifically proven that travel will increase your happiness, decrease your depression and chill you out. So no matter how busy you are, do find some time to go for a vacation. Choosing a cheap vacation is alright as long as you can relax your body, mind and soul.
V. Travel to visit family or friends
Travel for visiting family or friends are one of the reasons that motivate people to travel. In this case there might be some family members move to another country. It can be on the other side of the world or just in another country next to yours.
Nowadays people always busy with their work and they do not have time to visit their family. There is one way that can make them to visit their hometown. It is through a special occasion like wedding, parents’ anniversary and family member’s birthday. This is a good way to gather with family after a long time. It is not a hectic trip because once you see your parents, all your tiredness will out.
When you are attending any one of the special occasion above, you actually will meet your friends too which is from kindergarten, primary and secondary school and maybe until your marriage. Friendship that you build will never fade if you still keep in touch.
As a human just remember that when you do go and visit your family and friends, they are sharing their living space with you, giving you their valuable time and attention. They are welcoming you in a pleasant way. Make sure to stay connected with people and the way that you are able to develop and maintain relationships with people.
In conclusion, no matter what purposes you are travel for; it will bring you happiness and become healthier. Once you go for a vacation and then after you back you will plan for the next vacation for either every month or year. Be sure to let your body, mind and soul rest and relax.