For ages

For ages, the educational system was based on lectures, where the instructional process is based on the teacher’s explanations. He/she is responsible for providing knowledge and techniques to a group of students to understand and memorize. However, that is not the case anymore. Learners today can find whatever piece of information they need, everywhere and at all times. So what they need to learn is how to manage all the data available out there, how to choose what is good for them, and leave out what is not. And they also need to learn how to learn on their own and in collaboration with the others.
On the opposite of the traditional methods of second and foreign language teaching (SL/FL), where lecturers transform knowledge to the students and where students are considered as passive receivers of that knowledge (Williams ; Burden, 1997, p.5 as cited in Athmani Asmaa, 2010), recent approaches of language teaching stresses on the fact that knowledge assembly should be done by both the teacher and the learner; For the student is considered an active constructor, discoverer and transformer of his/her own knowledge.

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