EXPLORATION OF THE MEDIATING ROLE OF JOB SATISFACTION IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HUMAN RESOURCES PRACTICES AND ORGANISATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR AMONG EMPLOYEES OF UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITALS IN ENUGU STATE , NIGERIA.
CHAPT ER ONE. INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Globalisation coupled with the advance in technology has turned the world into a global village. This has its advantage in creating ease flow of goods and services around the world. This ease availability of goods and services has thrown up number of choices /alternatives open to consumers thereby making consumer taste more sophisticated. The -foreign based organisations with more financial and technological muscle can afford to provide high quality goods and services at affordable prices. However, globalisation has its own disadvantages one of which is that it makes competition stiffer, far above what the local organisations can cope. This has pushed managers in third world countries especially in Africa to resort to finding out the most effective managerial mix that will offer them competitive advantage in the global market structure. Thus, there is need for a competent and robust combination of human resources (the only resources abundant in Africa) practices that will enhance human quality and activeness of workers. The relationship between human resources practices and organisational performance is based on the resources based view (RBV). The resources based theory posits that the potential for competitive advantage of any organisation is a function of its ability to take full advantage of the potentials in its work force. Such potentials include expertise, skill and knowledge possessed by its work force that is unique to the organisation. These unique resources are not easily imitated or replicated by the competitors and that makes organisations to differ from each other in terms of performance. Human resources are intellectual capitals comprising human abilities, skills, personalities, intellects and motivation that often direct various employee behaviours. Keir (2016). The Resources Based View or Theory also posit that organisations put in place the needed capabilities to build core skills of staff and as well ensure that the attitude and value that support the development of these skills in staff are in place. Abraham and Cohen (2005). Organisations now as means of sustaining themselves turn to effective utilisation of various bundles of human resources practices to encourage employees not only to effectively carry out the assigned duties (in role functions) but also go extra mile to carry out beneficial extra-role activities. These extra-role activities that is voluntary, and non remunerative in nature and outside the assigned duty of the employee but do contribute to organisational effectiveness are called Organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB). Several Studies have shown that this kind of behaviour from employees benefits the organisation. Purcell et al (2009), services as strategic asset of the organisation that increases work quality .podsakoff et al (2009), enhances employee’s innovativeness. Xerri and bruetto (2013), and do influence organisational performance, level of task accomplishment and as well organisational profitability .podsakoff et al (2014). Human resources practices being the methods for building organisational effectiveness should be studied in context of its ability in encouraging this citizenship behaviour among employees. Sun, Areyee and Law (2007), and Fu (2013). Most organisations will prefer to employee or retain staffs that show the potentiality and capacity to exhibit organisational citizenship behaviour since this behaviour have been shown to be beneficial and cost effective due to its non remunerative nature and contribution to organisational success.
The relationship between these three constructs (human resources practices, job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour) is based on the social exchange theory. Reciprocity is seen as the key component of social exchange theory. Social exchange theory has it that employees reciprocate to high level of motivation by engaging in behaviours that have favourable implication for their organizations by feeling obligated to support their organization’s wellbeing. (Lavelle, Rupp, and Bruckner, 2007). The norms of reciprocity manifest in employees behaviour when he or she feels satisfied on the job. When people are satisfied with their jobs, they may reciprocate with positive behaviours to benefit the organization in return, sometimes, far beyond their normal in-role activities and engage in extra-role behaviours (organisational citizenship behaviour).
Researchers are not united in their findings on the influence of human resources practices on organisational citizenship behaviour with some finding no significant relationships between Human resources management practices and organisational citizenship behaviour Chen, Hui, & Sego, (1998). Others like Morrison (2010) showed the existence of direct relationship between Human resources practices and organisational citizenship behaviour. Morrison (2010).This direct relationship position is hotly disputed by other findings that found that the relationship is not direct but indirect .Sun et al(2007),Snap and Redman((2010).Thus, it becomes necessary in the mist of these disagreements to explore not just the existence of such relationship but also the underlining factors that not only facilitated (mediated) this relationship, but also tend to increase the wiliness of the employee to participate in organisational activities through voluntary, discretional and non remunerative behaviours.
In this study, we chose to do just that by exploring not only the likely relationship between human resources practices with the employee organisational citizenship behaviour but also the underlying factors that may have facilitated or mediated such relationship when in existence . We are going to open the so called “HRM black box” so as to see what is in the box and how and why they relate to each other. There is an implicit assumption among most organisations and Human Resources practioners that Human Resources management practices when properly structured and implemented no matter its composition and contents will inevitably lead to positive results. While this may be a possibility, the detailed supporting evidence as to what leads to this are not fully explored in most cases. Keir (2016). More research effort is therefore required in order to “peel back onion” as Becker and Gerhardt expressed it in 1996 for more clear definition and description of the most significant factors which characterize the processes involved and the extent to which these help to explain the outcome of the process to be unveiled. Becker & Gerhardt, (1996).
In this current study, we suspect
job satisfaction (which is explained as employee’s positive emotional state of mind based on his evaluation of the job) as a likely significant factor which characterise the processes involved and the outcome of the relationship between Human Resources Practices and employee Organisational Citizenship Behaviour. The purpose of the present study therefore is to explore the relationship between human resources practices and organisational citizenship behaviour initiated and performed by the employee with job satisfaction playing the role of a facilitator or mediator in the relationship. We are proposing a model that explains the relationship between human resources management practices and organisational citizenship behaviour where job satisfaction construct acted as the mediator of the relationship. We are proposing that human resources practices are significantly related to employee organisational citizenship behaviour. However, those human resources practices do not make the employee to involve in organisational citizenship behaviour directly. Therefore, we assume that the relationship between the two variables are indirect in nature meaning that human resources practices trigger organisational citizenship behaviour in an employee only when he has job satisfaction i.e. the relationship when existed is mediated by job satisfaction.
We chose the university teaching hospitals in Nigeria as context of study because of the increasing need for human resources practices that will improve staff effectiveness there. Nigeria possesses largest stocks of human resources for health in Africa outside Egypt and South Africa. There are about 39,210 doctors and 124,629 nurses registered in the country in 2006, which translates into about 30 doctors and100 nurses per 100,000 populations (Table 1 below) .This compares to a Sub-Sahara African average of 15 doctors and 72 nurses per 100,000 populations within the same period (WHO 2006).
Table 1: Number of some Categories of Health Workers per 100,000 Populations in Nigeria in 2006
Staff Type Number of Staff population No. of Staff/100,000
Doctors 39,210 30
Nurses 124,629 100
Midwives 88796 68
Dentists 2,773 2
Pharmacists 12,072 11
Medical Lab. Scientists 12,860 12
Physiotherapists 769 0.62
Radiographers 519 0.42
Health Record Officers 820 0.66
Environmental Health Officers 3441 3
Dental Therapists 872 0.69
Source; WHO report, 2006
Even at that, while giving an update on the current Nigeria doctors to patient ratio, Prof. Titus Ibekwe, an Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) specialist stated in a publication in Guardian Newspaper of February 5, 2017 that the World Health Organisation recommended ratio of one doctor to 600 patients has not been met by Nigeria with its existing ratio of one doctor to 6000 patients. He further said that as a result, Nigeria is rated 187th out of 191 nations in the world when doctors to patient ratio were considered the world over in 2017. (Vanguard 5th February, 2017).
Globally, human resources for health planning, management and development, particularly in sub Saharan Africa, have been strewn with crisis. Investments in the production and training of the much needed professionals do not seem to match requirement and therefore does not make the expected impact, massive brain drain among health professionals, internal mal-distribution of those available, public-private dichotomies in distribution of services and utilization of skilled health manpower, unclear career pathways that make some professionals abandon the health professions are all noticeable problems.
In Nigeria, the health sector is facing some human resource challenges that include:
Inappropriate or inadequate training with curricula that are not needs-based; Inadequate numbers and skills of health workers; Uneven distribution of workers at different levels of service delivery, Poor motivation resulting in low morale; Unsafe conditions in the workplace; Unclear career pathways and structures, Unattractive conditions of service and remunerations; Lack of integration of services between the public and private sectors; Poor work environment including dilapidated structures, inadequate and outdated equipment and cumbersome work flows; and absence of effective staff performance management ‘building-blocks’ such as up-to-date job descriptions, objectives, targets, supportive supervision, appraisal mechanisms, etc,. All these have resulted in poor commitment to work, low productivity and high attrition of health workers.
The poor situation in Nigeria Health sector was earlier in 2015 summarised in nursing world Nigeria publication thus;
“More and more Nigerians are flocking overseas for medical treatment, seeking to escape the worsening health services here. This is worrisome. The current arrangement, a mixture of public and private system, is expensive. Most importantly, it is not working. As our population rapidly grew, the government neglected the emerging dynamics. According to the NMA, there are 40,000 Nigerian medical doctors, but 19,000 out of them are practising abroad, while 70 per cent operate in urban centres where 30 per cent of the population reside. This is a dismal ratio. As a result, the World Health Organisation classifies the country among the 44 per cent of nations that have less than one per cent of physicians-per-1000 population. Drugs are sometimes not available. The facilities are obsolete, too…. Strikes bedevil the system at every turn. The result is chaos, such that the military, in the 1980s, described the hospitals as “mere consulting clinics.” Nursing World Nigeria (2015)
Based on the above reports, there is every need to motivate staff in the university hospitals to greater performance through displaying bundles of human resources practices that will not only encourage employee carrying out in role activities but further encourage organisational citizenship behaviours since these extra role behaviours Several Studies have shown do benefits the organisation by serving as strategic asset of the organisation that increases work quality .podsakoff et al (2009), by enhancing employee’s innovativeness. Xerri and bruetto (2013), and by influencing organisational performance and level of task accomplishment and as well as organisational profitability .podsakoff et al (2014). Human resources practices being the methods for building organisational effectiveness should therefore be studied in context of its ability in encouraging citizenship behaviour among employees. Sun, Areyee and Law (2007), and Fu (2013). Such human resources practices shall be the ones that motivate employees since a motivated employee is a happy employee. A happy employee in turn is a satisfied employee and a satisfied employee will be happy not only to perform his in-role activities but may also be willing to perform voluntary and non remunerative extra-role activities as well (i.e. exhibit organisational citizenship behaviour). This will provide the needed improvement in the hospital performances, a must need, in the face of the prevailing staff inadequacy, decaying infrastructure and poor work condition of service in the Nigeria teaching hospitals . These voluntary, spontaneous and non remunerative services from employees will save them from the current noticeable shortfalls in service and build more public trust and patronage. For instance, a satisfied doctor may be willing to stay beyond working hour to complete operation and save life, donate equipment from his private clinic if it is in urgent need and lacking in the hospital, ready to answer call to duty at odd hours even when not his schedule and come to work and early enough even when salary is not paid as and when due.
OUR STUDY MODEL
1.2 Statement of problem
The focus of this study is the relationship between Human Resources Practices and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour and the role Job satisfaction may play in the relationship between the two variables in University Teaching Hospitals. Organisational citizenship behaviour is a new construct in human resources management and has witnessed few published research works on it in Africa and in Nigeria. Staff inadequacy, poor infrastructure, massive brain drain and poor working condition that has bedevilled the hospitals calls for better understanding and application of methods that will encourage employees to double effort at participating in organisational life far beyond the norms . Currently, this is lacking in Nigeria and in the Teaching hospitals as well .
Much of the published research works on human resources practices are concentrated in advanced countries and preponderances of it being on its relationship with the employee organisational outcomes and organisational performance. Few have been on the underlining factors that may have contributed to the relationship because there is, though often wrongly, implicit assumption among organisations and human resources practioners that human resources practices when well structured and implemented will always be successful. There is therefore no need to seek for why and how. Currently much research interest has shifted from studying the relationship between human resources practices and various organisational outcomes to studying the underlining factors that explains such relationship. Further, our literature search did not so far reveal any such published research work involving university teaching hospitals in Nigeria.
Again, in Nigeria, employees are less regarded and less cared for when compared to other important organisational resources because they are seen to be abundant. This disregard often manifests in the type of human resources practices in place. This abysmal attitude of employers toward employees has a lot of implications to employee attitude and behaviours toward the organisation which, most often, is on the negative side. These, in turn negatively affect the organisational outcomes (job performance, customer satisfaction, organisational performance, etc ) in Nigeria. This to us is not what is required by organisations to become competitive in global market structure or by the teaching hospitals to survive through stemming the tide of massive brain drain witnessed today. There is apathy to delivery of quality services in Nigeria especially in public institutions in Nigeria due to employee being poorly motivated.
Based on the above explanations and to achieve our present research objectives, this study attempts to find answers to the following:
1 Are there significant relationship between human resources practices and organisational citizenship behaviour?
2 Are there significant relationship between human resources practices and job satisfaction?
3 Does employee who has job satisfaction display organisational citizenship behaviour?
4 Is the relationship between human resources practices and organisational citizenship behaviour mediated by job satisfaction?
1.3 Study objective
General objective: The broad objective of this study is to explore the mediating role of Job satisfaction in the relationship between two Human Resources Management constructs: Human Resources Practices (HRP) and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) .
Specific objectives: The following specific objectives will be pursued in this study;
1 To find out whether there is significant association/relationship between human resources practices and organisational citizenship behaviour.
2 To find out whether there is significant association/relationship between human resources practices and job satisfaction
3 To find out whether employee who has job satisfaction will also display organisational citizenship behaviour.
4 To find out whether job satisfaction mediates the association/relationship between human resources practices and organisational citizenship behaviour.
1.4 Research questions
1. What kind of relationship exists between human resources practices and organisational citizenship behaviour?
2. What kind of relationship exists between human resources practices and job satisfaction?
3. What kind of relationship exists between job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour?
4. What is the role of job satisfaction in the relationship between human resources practices and organisational citizenship behaviour?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
Human resources practices (HRP) and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB).
Researchers have pointed to the fact that bundles of human resources practices (recruitment and selection, training and development, compensation, performance management and industrial relations) may contribute to emergency of citizenship behaviours. Organ et al (2006), Snap and Redman (2010), Hussein et al (2012), and Fu (2013).The assumption in this study is that employee perception of human resources practices of an organisation determine how he feels about the organisation. For instance, employee who feels fairly treated by the organisation’s human resources practices will feel a sense of belonging, recognition, motivation and satisfaction with his job. With this positive emotional state, such employee may not only strive to satisfy his in role functions but also exhibit extra role functions in reciprocity. Based on the literature and the assumption above we propose our first hypothesis thus;
H1: There is significant relationship between human resources practices and organisational citizenship behaviour
Human resources practices and job satisfaction
Human resources practices encompass all activities involved in managing the human resources of an organisation made up of human resources planning; recruitment and selection, training and development, compensation, performance appraisal and grievance handling activities. Keir (2016). These practices influence employee behaviours, his attitude and performance at work. Noe, Honnenbeck, Gethart and Wright (2007).
Job satisfaction is said to be a pleasing or positive emotional state which follows from employee’s evaluation of his job. Lock (1976). This positive or pleasing emotional state of the employee reflects in his general attitudinal disposition regarding his job. Robbins (1999).
Researchers did show that human resources practices are closely related to job satisfaction. Huselid (1995), Spector (1997), Ting (1997), Gould and Williams (2003), Steijn (2004), and Peirjescu and Simmons (2008)
The assumption therefore is that when employee perceives the human resources practices of his organisation positively he will be satisfied with his job and vice versa. A satisfied employee in turn may feel motivated and happy to carry out his in- role activities. Based on the literature and the assumption above, we propose our second hypothesis
H2: There is significant relationship between human resources practices and Job satisfaction.
Organisational citizenship behaviour and Job satisfaction
Various empirical studies in advanced countries have indicated that job satisfaction has significant and positive relationship with organisational citizenship behaviours. Smith et al (1983), Bartman and Organ (1983), Bolon (1997), Murphy, Athanasius and King (2002), Organ (2006), and Saepeng, Sikinno and Sienyhai (2015). According to Organ (2006), when an employee is motivated, he will display it in his character toward the organisation including a drive to display organisational citizenship behaviour toward the organisation, himself, and his colleagues at work. Organ (2006 ). A well motivated employee is likely to be a satisfied employee and a satisfied employee may be in a better position emotionally to display organisational citizenship behaviours.
Based on the literature and the assumption above, we propose our third hypothesis.
H3: There is significant relationship between job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour.
Job satisfaction as mediator.
Employee job satisfaction has been implicated in a number of published research works to have mediated in a number of organisational outcomes: Self efficacy and organisational citizenship behaviours .Rahman, Sulaman and Omar (2014), Job characteristics and organisational citizenship behaviour. Chiu and Chen (2015), employee performance and employee engagement .Ahmed, Shahzad, wheee and Khan (2004), and high performance work practice and staff absenteeism. Chidebere Ogbonnaya and Danat Valizade (2016). However, literature reviewed by us so far in course of this study did not reveal similar published work on the mediating role of job satisfaction on the relationship between human resources practices and organisational citizenship behaviour. However, it is assumed in this current study that employee who has positive view about the human resources practices of the organisation he works with will feel job satisfaction. Opposite will be the case for an employee who has negative feeling about his organisation’s human resources practices. Extending this assumption, employee who experiences job satisfaction as a result of positive feeling about the organisation’s human resources practices will correspondingly strive to go extra mile helping the organisation, helping others and helping self i.e. exhibiting extra role behaviours.
Based on the literature and assumption above, we put forward our fourth hypothesis.
H4: Job satisfaction mediates the relationship between human resources practices and organisational citizenship behaviour
1.5.1 Summary of Study Hypotheses.
H1: There is significant relationship between human resources practices and organisational citizenship behaviour
H2: There is significant relationship between human resources practices and Job satisfaction.
H3: There is significant relationship between job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour.
H4: Job satisfaction mediates the relationship between human resources practices and organisational citizenship behaviour
1.6 Significance of the study
The main significance of this study is in the managerial implications.
1. This study will may go a long way to show that human resources practices loaded with items of motivation will lead to job satisfaction and ultimately ignite employee organisational citizenship behaviour.
2. Managers of organisations from this study outcome will see the need to review, design and implement human resources practices that will improve employee job satisfaction and increase the desire to put extra role behaviours’ at work place which is currently needed at this time of intense competition in global market structure.
3. The teaching hospitals in Nigeria will also see from the findings of this study the need to evolve a type of human resources practices that will motivate hospital employees, improve their job satisfaction and encourage organisational citizenship behaviours that are good enough to stem the current short fall in services due to poor working conditions and the massive brain drain of qualified physicians and nurses overseas.
4. The study will broaden the knowledge of the term Organisational citizenship behaviour which is a new construct in human resources and may then lay the foundation for further research studies on it in Africa.
1.7 Scope of study
This study will be conducted within the university teaching hospitals in Enugu state, the University of Nigeria Teaching hospital at Ituku Ozalla and ESUT Teaching hospital at parklane Enugu and will concentrate on exploring the nature of relationship between three important human resources management constructs; the human resources practices, the job satisfaction and new human resources construct called organisational citizenship behaviour.
Geographic scope. A study of these importance involving teaching hospitals in Nigeria could have included more university teaching hospitals to make it more representatives. Nigeria has 59 of such institutions including federal medical centres. However, the homogeneity of these hospitals in terms of supervising authorities, establishing statutes, administrative/management structure and human resources practices in use points to the fact that the results/findings from a study like this could be applied to every other teaching hospitals be it state or federally owned . A wider and all inclusive study may turn out to be a waste of time and resources since the reports from this will enjoy wider application.
1.8 Operational definitions terms.
These definitions are for the purpose of this study.
Personnel Management is all administrative efforts aimed at the management of the workforce in organisation.
Human resource management is a strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization’s most valued assets who are the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of its objectives.
Human resources practices are all human resources management activities aimed at managing the workforce of an organization
Job satisfaction is defined as employee pleasing and positive emotional state which comes out of the person’s evaluation of his job.
Organisational Citizenship behaviour is behaviour from employee that is spontaneous, voluntary, non remunerative, and outside his assigned duty by contracts of appointment but do benefit the organisation.
Altruism is employee behaviours that help others with existing job-related problems.
Conscientiousness is performing one’s role by employee in the organisation in a manner that is far above the norm of the organisation.
Civic virtue is employee responsible participation in the affairs of the organisation
Sportsmanship is the willingness of an employee to tolerate less than ideal circumstances and temporary personal inconveniences without complaining.
Courtesy is actions taken by employee to help prevent problems of work.
1.9 Profile of the organisations (History, services and HR practices)
University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku Ozalla
The Hospital began early in the 20th century as a standard general Hospital for Africans built by the colonial administrators. It later metamorphosed into a general hospital on the attainment of Nigeria’s independence in the 1960’s.
However, at the end of the Nigerian civil war in 1970, the then government of East Central State transformed it into a Specialist Hospital with effect from July 1, 1970.
At this time, the hospital had a total of 50 doctors, 10 wards, and 300 beds and a chest bay of 60 beds. There are also 350 nurses working in the Hospital then.
Today, the situation has changed dramatically. The bed capacity of the hospital in the permanent site is over 500 beds and the number of its personnel (professional and non – professional) has increased tremendously.
By decree number 23 of 1974, the Federal Military Government took over the hospital, but left the management in the hands of the Council of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
The University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital became independent in July 1976 with the appointment of autonomous Management Board.
The physical constraints at the old site of the hospital made it impossible for needed expansion to be implemented. It was also appreciated that the old site was developed and used as a general hospital, and therefore, could no longer cope with the challenges of a Teaching Hospital.
Consequently, the approval of the then Federal Military Government for the construction of a new complex for the Teaching Hospital was sought and it came as a welcome relief.
Today, this new site, which is the permanent Site of the UNTH at Ituku/Ozalla, is permanent and fully functional. It is located 21 kilometres from Enugu Capital City along Enugu – Port Harcourt Express Way.
The UNTH Ituku/Ozalla has broad objectives of service, teaching and research. The hospital tries to achieve these through provision of in – patient and out – patient services to its clients through her highly trained staff, provision of adequate clinical materials for service and training as well as equipment for research, provision of teaching facilities for training her students and other persons in the health delivery team and conduct and promotion of research on all matters pertaining to health.
Altogether, there are 41 main departments in the hospital with three out – posts – Comprehensive Health Centers at Obukpa near Nsukka, Enugu State, and Abagana in Njikoka Local Government Area of Anambra State and Isuochi in Abia State.
There are nine training schools/programmes in the hospital viz: the School of Nursing, Midwifery, Medical Laboratory Science, Nurse Anaesthetists, Community Health and Post Ophthalmic Nursing. Others are Peri – Operative Nursing, Cardiothoracic Nursing and Medical Records.
B. Enugu State Teaching Hospital, Parklane, GRA, Enugu
Following the creation of Ebony state in 2005, Enugu state university established its own college of Health sciences at Nsukka using the General hospital there. It was relocated to Parklane hospital Enugu and renamed ESUT College of medicine in 2006.
The teaching hospital like most teaching hospitals in Nigeria provides three major services; Health services, Training and Health related research programmes. There are training schools/programmes in the hospital such as the School of Nursing, Midwifery, Medical Laboratory Science, Nurse Anaesthetists, Community Health and Post Ophthalmic Nursing including medical records.
Human resources practices in Nigeria Teaching Hospitals
A review of Human resources management of University Teaching Hospitals in Nigeria points to the recognition of the importance of effective human resources management through the institution of various bundles of Human resources practices in line with Nigeria public service rules and regulations. There is statutory provision that due diligent be followed in the recruitment process through public advertisement that must last for six weeks. However, this statutory provision is always watered down by socio-political reasons of Federal character equation and other vices that jettison merit.
Training and development is required and seen most of the time to be implemented. However, strict implementation seems to be hampered by poor budgetary allocation and absence of training need analysis prior to commencement of training making training less relevant.
Annual performance appraisal is also a statutory requirement and is done. However, the report seems not used for anything. It is just an annual ritual that must be followed.
Salaries and allowances followed the national wages policy provision with few pro visions made to reflect the call of the profession.
There are robust and viable industrial relations/employee relations activities with the existence of unions being allowed in the system. Efforts are seen to be made at getting everybody involved in the organisational life through the ‘servicom’ policy.
Chapter two Review of Related literatures
The objective of this chapter is to give an overview/review of the relevant literature concerning the three constructs under study. It dwelt on what has been written or published in the past about the study variables as well as on the research topic. It contained the conceptual frame work, the theoretical framework, and the empirical studies, summary of review of related literature and the critique of the literature.
The concept of Personnel Management (PM), Human Resources Management (HRM) and Strategic Human Resources Management (SHRM)
This current study is on the relationship between human resources practices and organisational citizenship behaviour with job satisfaction being a likely mediator. It is important that we include in this section the explanation of the three important concepts that originated the human resources practices/dimensions in use for this study. It is our view that understanding these concepts will be of immense help in our understanding of the HR dimensions and how they relate to various organisational outcomes.
Personnel Management (PM)
Personnel management is the progenitor of Human resources management. This means that Human resources management arose as an advancement of personnel management functions. It refers to administrative efforts to management of the workforce in organisation such as pay and salary, provision of good working environment etc. Its main concern was how to handle workforce and make them happy.
Human Resources Management (HRM)
Human resource management is defined as a strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization’s most valued assets – the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of its objectives. Armstrong (2006)
Human resources management goes beyond the mere administration of work force such as pay and salary to that of treating the work force as resources of the organisation that is of equal importance with other resources of materials and money. This means an upgrade for inclusion into the so called organisational 3Ms of money, material and manpower.
Armstrong (2006) stated that the aims of HRM have been distilled by Caldwell (2004) into 12 policy goals of
‘Managing people as assets that are fundamental to the competitive advantage of the organization, aligning HRM policies with business policies and corporate strategy, developing a close fit of HR policies, procedures and systems with one another, creating a flatter and more flexible organization capable of responding more, encouraging team working and co-operation across internal organizational boundaries, creating a strong customer-first philosophy throughout the organization, empowering employees to manage their own self development and learning, developing reward strategies designed to support a performance-driven culture, improving employee involvement through better internal communication, building greater employee commitment to the organization, increasing line management responsibility for HR policies, and developing the facilitating role of managers as enablers’. Armstrong (2006), Caldwell (2004)
Strategic Human Resources (SHRM)
The concept of strategic HRM is derived from the concepts of HRM and strategy. It takes the HRM model with its focus on strategy, integration and coherence. ‘It connotes all aspect of strategy, namely, strategic intent, resource-based strategy, competitive advantage, strategic capability and strategic fit’. Armstrong (2006):
According to Hendry and Pettigrew (1986), strategic HRM has four meanings as sited by Armstrong (2006) to include ‘the use of planning as the starting point of every personnel activities, coherent approach to the design and management of personnel systems based on an employment policy and manpower strategy, aligning HRM practices and policies with business strategy and taking the people of the organization as ‘strategic resource’ for the attainment of its ‘competitive advantage’. Armstrong (2006), Hendry and Pettigrew (1986)
HRM upgrade and regard as organisational resources lead to HR managers now seen as strategic partner in the business success.
Summarised comparisons of the three concepts are given below for better understanding.
Figure. 1 Comparison of PM, HRM and SHRM
Personnel Management (PM Human Resource Management (HRM) Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM)
Basic Assumption People as commodity People as resources People as strategic resources
Goal Performance of pre- defined professional activities Individual HR behaviours Organisational effectiveness as a whole
Nature Plural, collective reactive Unitary, individual proactive Strategic proactive
Framework Lack of systematic framework Isolated HR activities which are separate from each other and not linked to the overall environment of the organisation Broad, contingency-based. An HR system designed to fit the organisational environment and mutually reinforcing or synergistic in strategic intent.
Level Lower level Middle level Top level
Context Special field within the organisation Within the organisational scope Interact with organisational factors as well as external factors
Psychological Compliance Commitment Long-term commitment/development
Evaluation Cost minimization Maximum utilization Overall business success
Status Marginal Major managerial function
Source: Yususif Keir (2016) summary from Wright & Boswell (2002), Truss & Gratton (1994), and Baker et al. (1999).
Details from the above showed that People are regarded as commodities in personnel management, regarded as Resources in human resources management, and not only as a resource but a very strategic resource needed in the realisation of the organisational goals in strategic human resources management. While personnel management is to minimize cost, that of the human resources management and strategic human resources management are cost maximization of the individual HR outcome and organisational effectiveness as a whole respectively. From the figure above, nature of PM is plural and reactive, that of HRM is unitary and more active while SHRM is strategic proactive approach .4
SHRM focused more on top level of organisation, PM focus at lower level while HRM is on lower and middle management levels. In SHRM, managers/HR professionals are seen as strategic partners in the business unlike in PM and HRM. The major actors of these three approaches, the line and HR managers, take active roles in the strategic human resources functions with that of HR managers being supportive. Contrary to the roles managers play in SHRM which is supportive, HR managers and professionals are the major actors in human resources management with only few tasks delegated to line managers. Keir (2016)
(A) Human Resources Practices
a. Recruitment and Selection
Recruitment and selection is the process by which actions are taken to ensure that an organisation employs the most suitable person for the declared position. Recruitment refers to the arrangements made to ensure that potential applicants are made to know of the intention of the organisation to make an appointment while Selection refers to the procedures used to choose the most qualified candidate based on job specification .This involves collection of application, short listing from the applications, interviewing, selection and deployment as appropriate.
A direct link between the rigour of the process for attracting and selecting the most appropriate employees and overall employee productivity was reported in Huselid (1995)
b. Training and Development.
McGhee and Thayer (1965) defined training as the formal programme or procedures which a company uses to facilitate employees learning so that their resultant behaviour contributes to the attainment of the company’s goals and objectives. McGhee and Thayer (1965). Ubeku(1975) sitting Seymour and Humble defines operative training as the process of transforming skills from those who posses them to those who do not and management training as the process of developing managers’ knowledge, skills and attitudes to meet the present and future needs of the business. Attempts have been made by authors to differentiate training and development efforts. Maxwell and Roberts (1969) stated that training refers to the means used to improve employees on the job while development is any method used to prepare a manager for his intended job. He went further to explain that their difference anchored majorly on the fact that one prepares employee for his present job and the other prepares him for his future job. The above definitions have been supported by others like Nadler (1981), Evans (1981), and Johnson (1975). The important of training and development in organisation has been highlighted by authors. Lall (1990) wrote that shortages of managerial capabilities appear to have significant negative effect on the operating efficiency of most companies who lack trained personnel. Ubeku (1983) noted that the major problem of developing nations of which Nigeria is one, is their inability to manage their resources effectively orchestrated by the fact that they lack trained managers. Some authors see the need for training emanating from changes in organisation, individual and societal needs. Ajuogu (1980) said that the need for training and development is reflected in the fact that the people and the institution which affects managerial actions in organisations and which makes demand on it are continuously changing: the sub-system within the organisation whose needs are to be considered are also changing: the output by the organisation which affect the society are also changing continuously. Agathon() wrote that the need for manpower development arose from the fact that the ways of doing business is becoming extremely complex in terms of product lines, changing technology, and services. Competitions within the business community are becoming more intense. Organisation characters and structures are in constant flux as companies live through radical swings in business practices. Ubeku (1988) saw the need for efficient training in terms of the need to reduce cost in labour and overheads through reduction in time, reduction in losses, reduction in personnel costs, absenteeism, and accidents as well as reduction in administrative cost. Mbanugo (1985) on his part saw the need for training as just to develop an individual to perform his job well for the realisation of organisational objectives by increasing his skills, attitudes and his knowledge. On the individual level, authors argue that through training employee acquire needed skills and knowledge he needs to survive on the job which in turn has direct link with employee productivity , job satisfaction, commitment to the organisation and turn-over intention Huselid(1995), Noe et al(2004) and Johnson (1967). McGhee and Thayer (1965) outlined the ways of determining the existence of training need of any organisation to include
Analysis of the activity in a logical step (process, job and operation),
Analysis of equipment especially availability of new equipment,
Analysis of the problems facing the organisation,
Analysis of behaviour of workers in terms of chronic absenteeism carelessness, accident rate etc.
Analysis of the organisation. (Confused planning, weak discipline, unclear goals and other action that may affect employee morale and lead to organisational performance may reveal the need for training), and
Analysis of performance appraisal reports. McGhee and Thayer (1965).
Pigor and Meyer (1977) succinctly outlined various method of imparting training to include
1. Classroom training.
2. On-the-job training. This is the type on training the trainee is shown what to do while the supervisor watches. The supervisor first demonstrates the job and watch the trainee do it. He then makes correction as and when due
3. Vestibule training. This is where the training takes place in a place that mimics the actual working place. This kind of training is desirable where the job is difficult where mistakes will impair production schedule and where special coaching is needed.
4. Apprenticeship training. This is where the trainee is sent to training under guidance and supervision of an expert for longer period of time.
5. Programmed instruction. Programmed test materials are utilized for training. All principles of learning, reinforcement, feedback, involvement and repetition are applied in this kind of training. Pigor and Meyer (1977)
Thomson(1978) classified development programmes into three; internal development programme inside and outside the company including on –the- job, job rotation and counselling, formal development programme mainly within the company including various types of formal courses of instruction , and external formal courses making use of courses at universities, colleges and industrial training institute. Thomson (1978).
Jones (1980) was more succinct in his classification of training by grouping them into off-the-job training by way of formal courses run outside the company and on-the-job training for courses run within the company with or without a coach. All this group of training take the form of methods of lecture, case study, role playing, business games or programmed learning in a typical management programme. Jones (1980)
C. Contingent Pay and Reward Schemes (Compensation System)
Compensation system is an important consideration if organisation intends to procure, maintain and retain quality staff. Organisations must develop reward system and strategy that is clear enough in terms of how it is determined and paid. Within public sector institutions in Nigeria, this is determined nationally by the national wages and pay system unlike the private sector where there is flexibility on the part of the organisation in fixing their wages and pay which may incorporate other options like bonuses and incentives, employee benefits or performance-related pay. Organisations in the private sector in Nigeria develop its own framework for compensation with a set of basic principles guiding such compensation system. Contingent pay and reward schemes are essentially designed in such way that will attract and retain desired employees. For a chosen pay system to be effective, it must fulfil the condition of the equity theory .Equity in compensation calls for the fulfilment of two basic principles to avoid disequilibrium in pay system. First, what is paid to individual employee must be at per or commensurate with his input or service to the organisation i.e. input=output. Secondly, what is paid to individual employee must be at par with what is paid to colleague in similar organisation in the industry doing the same job. When any of these principles is violated, there is going to be disequilibrium which may lead to dissatisfaction on the part of employees. Adams (1965). Based on this, pay system should accurately reflect the importance of the job role within the organisation.
Incentives are pay systems that reward employees for exceptional performance such as Merit pay provided to employees for their individual behaviour or performance contributions to an organisation, Skill based pay which may take the form of pay increases based on employee’s achievement of particular skills. Incentives could be provided through gain sharing, profit sharing, stock sharing or executive pay system. However, most of these are not applicable in teaching hospitals whose pay system aligns with that of the public service in Nigeria.
d. Performance Appraisal
All the formal process involved in monitoring and improving the productivity of workers is called performance appraisal (Brown and Heywood, 2005). It is the process that includes determining and communicating to employees how they are performing their jobs and establishing a plan for improvement. Ezigbo (2011). Appraisal system begins with job analysis and specification, setting of expectations or targets, performance management , measurement of performance in line with set targets, provision of feedback and subsequent management of the under performers Armstrong(2006). It is a compulsory requirement in university teaching hospitals in Nigeria in line with the public service rules. Mullins (1999) observed that effective performance management should be an ongoing process to appraise the behaviour and performance of staff. He further stated that the key aspect of the process of monitoring performance is ensuring that employees are provided with what is expected of him and the parameters by which his performance will be assessed. Dressler (2008) argued that this has to be agreed with the employee.
Systematic appraisal systems can help in the identification of training needs, employee weaknesses (which may need to be addressed), employee useful strength (that can be utilised for organisational success, employee promotability), and kind of rewarding system to be instituted. Keir (2016). Performance appraisal must be accompanied by complementary HRM practices like formal training, incentive pay and a robust disciplinary system for appraisal system to be effective .(Brown & Heywood, 2005). Authors have shown that performance appraisal is vital for the organisation success and outcomes such as job satisfaction Ellickson (2002), employee perception of unfairness in treatment. Daily and Kirk (1992), and turn -over intention. Dailey and Kirk (1992). Dailey and Kirk (1992) warned that “ineffective performance appraisal and planning systems contributed to employees’ perceptions of unfairness”. Managers should therefore ensure that whatever appraisal system adopted must be fair and just in the eyes of stakeholders
e. Industrial relation/Employee Relations
Industrial relation is the regulation of employment relation in an employment situation by the employer/management or their organisations, the workers organisation and a third party, private and or government acting as an umpire, or controller. Akpala (1982).The purpose of industrial relation is to establish job rules and co-operation of man power resources toward attaining the objective of the employee, the organisation and the state through collective bargaining as a process whereby representatives of two parties meet and try to negotiate an agreement which states the nature of future relationship between them. Akpala (1982). Industrial relations play a great role fostering and sustaining industrial democracy. Monappa (2004). Well managed industrial relations creates peaceful and appropriate working environment for employees, good enough for them to have job satisfaction. Khan and Jahe, (2008).Employee relations on the other hand consist of human resource management practices that involve relationships with employees either directly or through collective agreements where trade unions are recognized. Employee relations are concerned generally with managing the employment relationship. Armstrong (2006). These relationships have to do with the agreement of terms and conditions of employment and with issues arising from employment. Armstrong (2006). An .Employee relation is broader in coverage than industrial relations, which are essentially about dealings between managements and trade unions.
Studies have indicated a number of HR practices that could be tested in connection with employee organizational outcomes. Eleven human resources practices were used by Huselid in 1995. They were selection, appraisal, compensation, job design, information sharing, grievance procedures, and assessment of attitude, labour relations, and recruitment, training and promotion criteria. Huselid (1995) .Eight HR practices of training practices, compensation practices, employee performance evaluation practices, promotion practices, governance procedures and social security were used by Teseema and Soeters (2006)
In this study, we are going to use recruitment and selection, training and development, compensation system, performance appraisal, and employee relations/involvement. They are selected since they form the major functions of human resources management commonly used for research studies of this type.
Summary of human Resources Practices
Source: The Author
(B) Organisational Citizenship Behaviour:
In 1983, Bateman and Organ introduced the term “citizenship “as form of behaviours that socially helps the organization reach its goal. Bateman and Organ (1983).
Katz (1964) while expatiating on this stated that behaviours that contributed to organizational survival are of three types;
People must be induced to enter and remain within the system,
People must carry out their role assignments in a dependable fashion,
People must exhibit innovative and spontaneous behaviours in achieving organizational objectives which go beyond the assigned roles if organisations are to be immune to unforeseen, Unexpected and unprepared changes in the organisational environment. Katz (1964)
Smith and associates (1983) was guided by this idea of innovative and spontaneous behaviours in defining this type of behaviours as “actions not specified by role prescriptions which nevertheless facilitate the accomplishment of organizational goals” Katz (1964). Organ (1988) put this succinctly when he defined such behaviours as
“Behaviours that are discretionary, not directly recognized by the formal reward system and that in the aggregate promotes the effective and efficiency functioning of the organization. By discretionary, we mean that the behaviour is not an enforceable requirement of the role or the job description, that is, the clearly specifiable terms of the person’s employment construct with the organization; the behaviour is rather a matter of personal choice, such that, its omission is not generally understood as punishable”. Organ (1988).
This brought to the fore three important characteristics of organisational citizenship behaviour going by Organ’s definition and subsequent explanations by some authors thus,
1 OCB is discretionary in nature and goes far beyond the traditional requirements of the job (Smith, Organ, & Near, 1983).
2 Unlike the formal job description written in the employment contract, OCB is not directly or formally recognized by the reward system. Although engaging in such activities might attract some reward, it cannot be guaranteed by the terms of the contract. Organ (1997).
3 OCB in the aggregate benefits the organization.
The idea of organisational citizenship behaviour construct in human resources practise outcome did not go down without criticism from experts. Morrison ( 1994), Mackenzie, Podsakoff, and Fetter( 1991).
The criticisms centred on the inability to clearly distinguish in- role behaviours from extra -role behaviours in certain situations. According to Morrison, employees may hold different views about their job responsibilities and may differ from each other while defining the boundary between what is in-role and extra-role behaviour. Therefore, engaging in OCB depends on how the employee defines his/her job at particular situation.
Another criticism directed to the OCB construct is based on the issue of rewards. Mackenzie et al. (1991) argued that some OCBs might be confusedly rewarded as if they are in-role performance elements. .
However, researchers have not been consistent with the terminology used to describe the organisational citizenship behaviours. It has been described as prosocially organisational behaviour. Brief and Motowidlo (1986), O’Reilly and Chatman (1986), George (1991) and McNeely and Meglino (1994)); extra-role behaviour by Van Dyne et al. (1995), Tiemey, Bauer and Potter (2002), Platow (2003)); contextual performance by Bormann, White and Dorsey (1995), and Bormann and Motowidlo (1997)); and organisational spontaneity by George and Brief (1992) ,and George and Jones (1997)). According to Katz and Kahn (1978), the above-mentioned behaviours are important because effective organisational functioning requires employees not only to perform their prescribed role (referred to as in-role behaviours), but also to engage in behaviours that go beyond these formal obligations. It is widely accepted that organisations need employees who are willing to exceed their formal job requirements since it is one of the gate way of improving organisational performance needed to survive turbulent unforeseen circumstances. For instance, Katz (1964) noted:
“No organisation planning can foresee all contingencies within its operations, or can anticipate with perfect accuracy all environmental changes, or control perfectly all human variability. The resources of people in innovation, in spontaneous co-operation, in protective and creative behaviour are thus vital to organisational survival and effectiveness” Katz (1964)
Smith et al. (1983) also argued that ‘citizenship behaviours are important because they lubricate the social machinery of the organisation. They provide the flexibility needed to work through many unforeseen contingencies; they enable participants to cope with the otherwise awesome condition of interdependence on each other’. Smith et al. (1983) Further to this, George and Brief (1992) stated that OCB is essential because organisations cannot anticipate through formally stated in-role job descriptions the entire array of behaviours needed for achieving goals. George and Brief (1992) . In agreement with these authors, Van Scotter, Motowidlo and Cross (2000) argue that even though organisational citizenship behaviours are not part of individuals’ assigned duties, they are still beneficial to the organisation, its members and the employees themselves. (Van Scotter, Motowidlo and Cross ,2000)
Yussif Keir (2016) cited Several authors who have discussed the potential impact of OCBs on organisational performance and success in their respective studies to include Schnake, (1991); Williams and Anderson, ( 1991). Organ (1988) and Podsakoff, Mackenzie, Paine and Bacharach (2000) showing that OCBs may contribute to organisational success in the following ways:
1 Improving managerial productivity;
2 Freeing up resources so they can be used for more productive purposes;
3 Reducing the need to devote scarce resources to purely maintenance functions;
4 Helping to coordinate activities both within and across work groups;
5 Strengthening the organisation to adapt more effectively to environmental changes;
6 contributing to organisational performance because these behaviours provide an effective means of managing the interdependencies between members of a work unit, and as a result increase the collective outcomes achieved; and
7 Increasing organisational productivity because workers that exhibit such behaviour improve the ability of co-workers to perform their jobs or because such behaviour allows managers to devote more time to productive activities like planning, scheduling, problem solving and organisational analysis. Yussif Keir (2016)
Podsakoff et al (2000) argue that there is a lack of consensus about the dimensionality of this construct. Keir(2016) explained that literature have indicated that there are several different dimensions put forward by authors such as altruism and generalized compliance .Smith et al, (1983); obedience, loyalty, advocacy participation, social participation and functional participation. Van Dyne, Graham and Dienesch, (1994); helping behaviour .Van Dyne et al (1995); Van Dyne and LePine, (1998); and interpersonal helping, individual initiative, personal industry and loyal boosterism. Moorman and Blakely, (1995). Williams and Anderson (1991) gave two broad categories of OCB: OCB-0 behaviours toward the organisation and that benefit the organisation in general (e.g., the employee gives advance notice when unable to come to work); and (b) OCB-I behaviours toward other person (i.e., employee behaviours directed at other individuals) and that immediately benefit specific individuals, and indirectly through this means contribute to the organisation. Although a wide variety of specific dimensions of OCBs have been identified, Kei(2016) argued that the five-dimension framework proposed by Organ (1988) of altruism, conscientiousness, civic virtue, sportsmanship and courtesy, have been the most frequently examined by researchers citing. Podsakoff, Mackenzie, Moorman and Fetter, (1990); Mackenzie, Podsakoff and Fetter, (1991); Moorman, (1991); Moorman et al (1993); Tansky, (1993); Konovsky and Pugh, (1994); Podsakoff et al. (1996); Van Yperen, Van den Berg and Willering, (1999); Diefendroff, Brown, Kamin and Lord, (2002) as such researchers. We also used them in the current research.
Dimensions of organisational citizenship
Altruism refers to behaviours that help others with existing job-related problems. This behaviour is directly intended to help a specific person in face-to-face situations. Examples of this behaviour include: helping others ; performing a task or solving a problem for others; standing in for others who have been absent; helping others who have heavy workloads; and orienting new people even though it is not officially required .Organ, 1988; Podsakoff et al, (1990). While these behaviours may be intended to benefit an individual, organisation also benefits. Keir (2016)
Conscientiousness refers to behaviour which benefits the organisation. It is performing one’s role in the organisation in a manner that is far above the norm of the organisation.
. Civic virtue is defined as ‘responsible participation in the affairs of the organisation’
Sportsmanship refers to the willingness of an employee to tolerate less than ideal circumstances and temporary personal inconveniences without making a fuss, ‘to avoid complaining,
Civic virtue refers to the extent to which one contributes to political issues in organisations in a responsible manner. Civic virtue is defined as ‘responsible participation in the affairs of the organisation’ Graham (1986), Podsakoff et al, (1990). Examples include Keeping up with matters that affect the organisation, attending meetings, Participating in organisationally sponsored community development, and Expressing positive emotions about one’s organisation to outsiders .Organ ( 1988). Keir (2016)
Sportsmanship refers to the willingness of an employee to tolerate less than ideal circumstances and temporary personal inconveniences without making a fuss, ‘to avoid complaining, petty grievances, railing against real or imagined slights, and making federal cases out of small potatoes’ (Organ, 1988). Being a good sport includes not only the absence of complaint when faced with unfavourable conditions or behaviours from others, but also maintaining a positive attitude and tolerance of the rejection of one’s ideas Podsakoff et al, (2000). Examples include not consuming a lot of time complaining about trivial matters and not always finding fault with what the organisation is doing. Keir (2016)
Courtesy refers to actions taken to help prevent problems of work. It involves preventing problems by keeping others informed of your decisions and actions which may affect them, and passing on information to those who find it useful. Examples include consulting with others before taking action, not abusing the rights of others, giving advance notice, reminders, passing along information, and being mindful of how one’s behaviour affects other peoples’ jobs Organ( 1988), Podsakoff et al( 1990).These behaviours are important in several ways including: enhancing individual and group productivity; freeing up resources for more productive purposes; increasing coordination; enhancing the stability of organisational performance; and assisting in the maintenance of a favourable work climate. Podsakoff et al (2000).
Organ’s (1988) five-dimension framework described above has been the subject of vigorous empirical research. Keir (2016). We used them in this present research for the basic reasons that it is often being used in most organisational citizenship Behavioural research
(C) Job satisfaction
Job satisfaction is defined as pleasing and positive emotional state which comes out of the person’s evaluation of his job. Locke (1976), Nurul Agbari,Tahlil Azim, Blalasurundaram andAkhter (2010). Robbins (1999) said that job satisfaction is an individual’s general disposition (attitude) regarding his or her job. He also stated that it is the employees feeling about the different dimensions of their job. Robbins (2003). Job satisfaction is a function of how satisfied or dissatisfied an employee is with his or her job .Spector (1997)
Dimensions of Job satisfaction
Researchers have indicated a lot of dimensions of job satisfaction. Snepung et al (2011). They are motivators and hygienic factors otherwise called Herzberg two factors theory of motivation. Herzberg, Mausner and synderman(1957), Five dimensions of job satisfaction was proposed by Smith, Kendal and Hulin(1968).They are the work itself(challenges, opportunities etc), pay system(appropriateness of rewards/financial remuneration received in services of sacrifices made and in comparison with colleagues in similar firms),promotional opportunities( advancement opportunities and fairness associated in determining promotability), supervision(level of support received by subordinates from supervisors), co-workers( how cooperative and socially supportive are the co-workers in the same organisation). Some authors agree with the above but added that employees needs and desires, social relationships, job design, compensation system, promotional opportunities, and level of work-life balance affected employee job satisfaction. Javed et al (2012), Byers and Bue (1987), and Moorhead and Griffin (1999).Keir (2016)
According to Smith, Kendall and Hulin (1969), all sources of job satisfaction fall into two categories: intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction. Intrinsic sources originate from within the individual and have psychological value. Such satisfactions are essentially self-administered. In contrast, extrinsic sources of satisfaction originate from the environment (outside the individual). Forces beyond the individual’s control (e.g., job security and fringe benefits) determine the frequency and magnitude of extrinsic satisfaction. In addition, some sources of satisfaction serve a dual purpose; that is, they can be extrinsic or tangible in nature while having intrinsic or psychological value because of what they symbolise. (Keir, 2016, Smith et al. 1969),
(D) Control variables
Control variables are variables that may also influence the dependent variables. In a research it has to be controlled to avoid exaggerating the influence of the independent variables on the dependent variables. In the current study, the following control variables were taken into consideration: age and job tenure since these variables could affect organisational citizenship behaviour. Holding these variables constant was necessary in order to see whether there is a relationship between employees’ perception of the HR practices and extra-role performance towards the organization. It is expected that older employees and employees working longer in a firm are more likely to engage in OCBs. These variables were chosen based on earlier research which investigated extra-role performance. Organ and Konovsky (1989) proved in their research that the older the employees are and the longer the job tenure in an organization the more positive behaviours they will demonstrate towards their organization.
In this study we propose that Human resources practices relate to job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour respectively, and that the relationship between Human Resources Practices and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour is mediated by job satisfaction. Theories abound that support this. In this section of our literature review, we are going to look at these related theories. They are the motivation theories, the Resources Based View (RBV), social exchange theory, and the HRM BOX Concept.
Herzberg Two Factor Theory of Motivation.
Berelson and Steiner in Koontz, O’Donnell and welheriah (1964) defined the term motive as “an inner state that energizes, activates and moves (hence motivation), and that directs or channels behaviour toward goals”. This therefore means that a manager motivates his subordinates by engaging in those things that satisfy them on the job especially in the areas of meeting their needs wants and desires. Koontz et al (1964) presented this motivation satisfaction chain as a chain reaction that starts with felt needs resulting in wants or goals sought which leads to desires for satisfaction of wants, and ends with eventual satisfaction of wants or goals. Koontz et al (1964).
This leads to the phenomenon of motivator which Koontz et al (1964) defined as some things that influences an individual to behave in certain way. Herzberg and colleagues succinctly explained how motivation leads to satisfaction with the so called Two-Factor theory where he came up with what he classified as maintenance or dissatisfiers , and satisfiers or motivators. The two-factor model of satisfiers and dissatisfiers was developed by Herzberg et al (1957) following an investigation into the sources of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction of accountants and engineers in an organization. In their study, participants were asked to state the times during which they felt exceptionally good and exceptionally bad about their jobs and how long their feelings persisted. These groups form the two factors in Herzberg’s model: one consists of the satisfiers or motivators and the other consists of dissatisfies. The dissatisfies include those factors he also christened hygienic factors (company policy and administration, supervision, working conditions, inter personal, status, salary, job security and personal life )whose presence is necessary in the organisation since its absence will lead to employee dissatisfaction with his job. The other group he calls the motivators or satisfiers whose presence in the organisation will ultimately lead to job satisfaction. These factors include achievement, recognition, challenging work, advancement and growth in the job. Armstrong (2006), Herzberg et al (1957)
This means that if managers must engage in human resources practices that improve on job satisfaction such human resources practices must be the ones that improve on job contents, recognizes employee contributions ,better compensation system etc.
In this current study we propose that Human resources practices significantly relate to job satisfaction in line with the above theoretical explanation.
AMO theory talks about high performance work systems, the three main constituents of which are as follows: firstly: ability/skills of employees such as education and training, secondly, motivation/incentives such as job security, good internal communications, opportunities for promotion, and equitable remuneration and thirdly: the opportunity to participate in sustained quality decision making in the organisation (Appelbaum et al., 2000).
According to Boxall and Purcell (2003) this theory could be summed up through the following equation: P = f (A, M, O) .Where P is performance, A is ability, M is motivation, and O is an opportunity to take part in management. This equation demonstrated that HR practices should foster ability, motivation, and opportunity to participate and contribute to organizational life. People do better when they are enabled to do their job via using skills and knowledge they possess and that is powered by the extent of incentives they receive in the organisation. Resarchers like Katz and his colleagues have suggested that ability and motivation of employees, and opportunity to participate in decision making, affect both organisational effectiveness and employee satisfaction (Katz et al., 1985). In this our current study, we assume that human resources practices are related to organizational citizenship with job satisfaction as likely mediator of such relationship
Resource Based View/Theory (RBV)
RBV stipulates that competitive advantage is determined essentially by having resources that is distinctive in the area of capabilities, skills and expertise found in staff employee. The view also support the fact that organisations build the needed capabilities to build core skills of staff and as well ensure that the attitude and value that support the development of these skills in staff are in place. Abraham and Cohen (2005). The resources based view recognised the facts that other organisational resources such as material and technology can easily be imitated by competitors thereby eroding most organisations of any competitive advantage possession of such resources can accrue. This is where the need for competitive advantage that accrues from the organisational resources that are not easily imitated comes to play. The resources based theory posits that the potential for competitive advantage of any organisation is a function of its ability to take full advantage of the potentials in its work force. Such potentials include expertise, skill and knowledge possessed by its work force that is unique to the organisation. These unique resources are not easily imitated or replicated by the competitors. This explain the differences in business performance among organisations since Human Resources Practices in place impact on employees by influencing his organisational outcomes such as organisational performance, Boral and Steeveid (1999), Keir (2016). Guest (1997) argued that some of the HR practices can be imitated as well insisting that tailor made and targeted Human Resources Practices that improve skills, knowledge, attitudes and behaviour that cannot be imitated is preferred.
Social exchange theory
According to Organ (1990), the basis of the relationship between job satisfaction and OCB is social exchange theory. This theory states that the existence of certain conditions in an organisation predisposes people to reciprocate those who benefit them. Belau (1964) argued that the relationship between employee and organization is based on exchange relationship that is both social and economic in form. The key to social exchange theory lies with the norms of reciprocity according to Shapiro (2002) to which people feel obliged to respond positively when treated favourably by others. Social exchange theory emphasizes the socio-emotional aspects of the Relationship between employee and organization, including feelings of obligation while economic aspect of this exchange dwelt on tangible means of exchange such as pay and benefits Shore, Tetrick, Lynch, & Barksdale, (2006); Song, Tsui, & Law (2009). . Reciprocity is seen as the key component of this exchange. At high level of social exchange relationships employees are motivated to engage in behaviours that have favourable consequences for their organizations by feeling obligated to support their organization’s wellbeing. Lavelle, Rupp, & Bruckner, (2007).
The norms of reciprocity manifest in employees behaviour when he or she feels satisfied on the job. When people are satisfied with their jobs, they will reciprocate with positive behaviours to benefit the organization in return ,most times ,far beyond their in -role activities and engage in extra role behaviours( organisational citizenship behaviour) .
HRM Black Box Concept: its meaning and opening.
When looking at the relationship between Human resources management and organisational outcomes, researchers must also look for the causal factors. There is the need to consider understanding of the “HRM Black Box” concepts in understanding and explaining how HRM practices are supposed to contribute to these outcomes. The importance of being clear on “how” something is done compared to just “what” has been done is very relevant leading to the research literature increasingly shifting toward looking into the “black box” in explaining the why and how of relationships between variables. Boselie et al., (2005). Essentially this refers to a process that seeks to make clear how providing specific inputs are then converted into useful outputs (Purcell et al., 2003). There has been a movement in the literature that is calling for future Human resources management research to extend beyond a demonstration of main effects of HR practices to an examination of both how and why high performance human resource practices are related to some individual and organisational outcomes. (Sun et al., 2007, .Keir, 2016) .It is through investigation of this problematic model of “Black Box” that factors which are otherwise often termed as “a remaining void”, “a gap” or ” a largely unexplained facet” can be clarified. The causal chain linking HR practices (inputs) and employee’s response to them (outputs) is complex and has been referred to as the “black box” problem in the literature. Boxall and Purcell, (2003). The “Black box” model builds on a psychological contract, i.e. on an employee’s and an employer’s perception of mutual, often informal and imprecise, obligations and stresses a notable role of line managers in ensuring conducive work environment for building employee Involvement in Organisational citizenship behaviours. Opening the black box will expose what is inside, how they interact and why they interact the way they do inside the box.
In the context of this current study, “black box” refers to the causal chain of a direct relationship linking HR practices and employees ‘organisational citizenship behaviour. Looking inside the black box will expose the why and how of the likely relationship between these two variables.
Keir (2016) in other to encourage better understanding of the black box concept in HRM presented authors Propositions related to the Concept in figure 2 below.
Figure 2: Authors Related propositions on HRM Black box Concept
Theriou, Chatzoglou (2009)
Although there are a large number of research papers which have been published which looks at the effect of HRM practices on performance there is little work done which provides an underpinning theory which can be generally applied. The mechanisms by which processes lead to “competitive advantage” are not clear. .
Lytras, Ordonez de Pablos (2008)
The literature lacks an underpinning rationale which explains the key factors which can be identified as explaining how HRM practices generate organisational performance improvements…
Boselie et al. (2005)
The inputs and outputs to the transformational process are not clearly defined and little attention is paid to examining the potential for intermediate or compounding variables. Generally there is very little research which focuses on the “linking mechanisms and “mediating effects of key variables” in this relationship.
Wright et al. (2003)
Much of research has demonstrated statistically significant relationships between HR practices and firm profitability. While these studies have been useful for demonstrating the potential value created through HR practices, they have revealed very little regarding processes through which this value is created.
Purcell et al. (2003)
Many previous studies have examined the link between HRM practices and performance and shown there to be a positive relationship, but none has explained the nature of this connection how and why HRM practices impact on performance
Causal pathways which explore the mechanisms which influence results which are positive are neither clearly understood nor described in much of the literature. Influencing factors to explain research results need to be more clearly described.
Huselid ; Becker, (1996)
The starting point for research in the areas is often from a standpoint where there is an implicit assumption that HRM practices which are properly structured and implemented will inevitably be an “economic asset”. The detailed supporting evidence for value creation pathways leading from this are not fully explored. Research is required in order to “peels back onion” and more clearly defining and describing the most significant factors which characterize the processes involved and the extent to which these help to explain the outcome of the process. The positive association between specific practices in “adding value” is often presented as the main goal or objective of research but does little to explain both
Source: Keir (2016) summarized Authors propositions related to “Black Box” Concept based on Savanaviciene and Stankeviciute,( 2010)
It can be seen that a key theme which characterises the publications discussed above is that there is a need to focus on the mediating variable in the relationship between human resources practices and organisational outcomes. This current research seeks to fill that gap.
2.3 Empirical Review
Relationship between Human Resources Practices and Job Satisfaction (Study objective one)
A lot of studies have linked human resources management practices with job satisfaction of employees in various sectors of the economy of countries around the world.
A study by Worlu Okechukwu on the influence of Training and Development , Employee performance on Job satisfaction among the staff of school of Technology and Logistics, University of Utara, Malaysia using 81 staff respondents showed that the two Human resources practices(Training and Performance appraisal) has positive relations with job satisfaction.. Worlu, O. (2017)
A study conducted by Yaduveer, Singh and Partel in Uduanpour, India using hotel industry involving 88 hotel employees in 2014 found that human resources practices have significant association with job satisfaction and that human resources dimensions such as recruitment and selection,, working condition and career growth have positive impact on job satisfaction. Yaduveer et al.(2014)
In a study by Mohammed khan Niazi in Pakistan on employees of textile industries found that bundles of human resources practices of training and development, respect and integrity, opportunities for growth and career path, increment and promotion, performance appraisal, compensation and benefit have significant positive impact on job satisfaction of employees. The study also showed that front line managers were less satisfied with human resources practices compared with middle level managers. Khan Niazi(2014).
A study in Malaysia by Leyia Farahbod and Soureh Arzi published in the interdisciplinary journal of comparative Research in Business in 2014 involving 139 hotel employees from six hotels in Kuala Lumpur showed that human resources practices of training and development, staffing, performance appraisal and rewarding system separately have significance and positive relationship with job satisfaction. The multiple regression analysis from this study also found that all the dimensions of HR practices studied except training have a significant impact on employee job satisfaction with performance appraisal having the most. Leyia, F. and Soureh ,A.(2014)
In Bangladesh, Nurul Absar Tahul Azim, Balasundaram and Sadia Akater. In a study titled ‘impact of human resources practices on job satisfaction evidence from manufacturing firms in Bangladesh’ involving 60 employees from 20 manufacturing companies found that Bundles of human resources practices have significant association with job satisfaction. The study also showed that training and development has the greatest impact on job satisfaction. Six dimensions of human resources practices were used in the study. They were human resources planning, recruitment and selection, training and development, compensation and industrial relations. Nurul et al.(2010)
In Africa, George Mainoo, Bright Addo and EEnnin Kobin studied human resources practices and employees job satisfaction with a Focus on public institutions in Ghana. Using cross sectional survey of employees of Obuasi Municipal District Assembly consisting of low and middle level management staff, and found that significant negative relationship existed between career development and job satisfaction(r=-0.683,p=0.000) , career development and promotion(r=0.184,p=0.025. However, the study found that employee recognition of good performance and job design were positively related to job satisfaction. This finding could be explained from the fact that the study involved management staff who might be aspiring for the upper level of motivation of self recognition and self actualisation in line with Maslow’s theory of motivation and Herzberg’s two factor theory of motivation. Maino o et al (2014).
Relationship between Human Resources Practices and organisational Citizenship Behaviour(Study objective Two)
Organisational citizenship behaviour is a very new construct in human resources management practices outcome that have not been richly studied in Africa. The reason might be from the poor human resources practices in Africa where employees are less regarded as important organisational resources when compared with other organisational resources of material and financial resources. In Africa, organisations less aspire to motivate employees since they are seen to be in abundance resulting in employees poor job satisfaction. The other consequence is that the much needed extra- role behaviour will be sacrificed. Only a satisfied employee will strive to give non remunerative organisational citizenship behaviour toward the organisation.
A study by Mohammed Ghafoor in Pujab, Pakistan involving school teachers titled “Linkage between human resources practices and organisational citizenship behaviour through mediation of perceived organisational support found that there is significance and positive relationship between two dimensions of human resources practices and organisational citizenship behaviour…The study further showed that perceived organisational support mediated the relationships mentioned above among teachers in Punjab, Pakistan. Ghafoor (2016).
A study on the impact of human resources policies and practices on organisational citizenship behaviour in Brazil by Joel Adame and colleagues retrieved from the publication of the free library of the Brazilian school of Business Studies involving 156 workers of public companies in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil found that bundles of human resources practices of recruitment and selection, training and development, performance evaluation, remuneration and reward, work conditions, and employee involvement accounted for 31.7% of employee citizenship behaviour in those companies studied.
Green et al. (2006), in their study of ‘Work Attitude and Work performance’ conducted a survey which involved 269 HR professionals employed by large US manufacturing firms.
They concluded that HR practices that were well integrated with the organisation’s strategic plans bring about high levels of satisfaction and enhanced commitment in employees . (Keir(2016), Green et al (2006)
Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Organisational citizen behaviour(Study objective Three)
A number of empirical studies abound linking job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour around the world.
In Nigeria, empirically study of the impact of organisational citizenship on job satisfaction among administrative staff of Osun state owned tertiary institutions by Itiola,K.O., Adebayo, I.I. and Alabi, E. In 2014 using structured questionnaire administered on 80 members of staff, showed that all dimensions of OCB have significant impact on job satisfaction with stronger relationship exhibited by the dimensions of sportsmanship and civic virtue. However, findings from the study showed that all dimensions o f OCB as predicator variable accounted for 86.9% variance of job satisfaction Itiola et al.(2014)
A study by Sinto Sunaryor and Joko Suyono that examined a model of the relationship between public service motivation, job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour in Indonesia involving 136 public servants working for the government of the district of Stragen showed that motivation has a positive and significance impact on job satisfaction and that job satisfaction has relationship with organisational citizenship behaviour. This means therefore that employee motivation can mediate the relationship between job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour. Sunaryo and Suyono(2013). This means that employee who is motivated on his job can also have job satisfaction..
An exploratory survey by Tabatabel, Takapoo and Leilaeyoun on the relationship between job satisfaction and organisational citizenship among 270 nursing staff of social security hospitals in Isfahan province of Iran disclosed that if job satisfaction is increased, organisational citizenship behaviour is enhanced significantly.( Tabatabel et al.2014)
Empirical study of group of companies in Turkey by Faruk Unal on the relationship between dimensions of organisational citizenship behaviour and the facets of job satisfaction involving 199 employees showed that the facets of job satisfaction have various impact on dimensions of organisational citizenship behaviour. Facets of job satisfaction used were job itself, co-workers, supervision ,company policy, pay and promotion while dimensions of organisational citizenship behaviour used in the study were altruism, courtesy, civic virtue, conscientiousness and sportsmanship. Unal, F. (2013)
Amna Arif and Aisha Chohan studied the relationship between job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour among employees working in banking sector of Pakistan economy involving 350 employees based o n Herzberg’s two factor theory of job satisfaction and dimensions of organisational citizenship behaviour developed by parsons and Shriolls(1951) comprising interpersonal help , individual initiative, personal industry and loyal boosterism . They discovered that both variables are highly correlated and that job satisfaction accounted for 57.2% of organisational citizenship behaviour among bank employees. Amna Arif and Aisha Chohan(2012)
Figure 3. Summary of some Authors’ Research and their Findings Related to Job Satisfaction and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour
Determinants of organizational Citizenship behaviour among knowledge worker: the role of Job Characteristics, Job Satisfaction and organizational commitment Funda Ozturk (2010) IT, Software, Defence and banking industry OCB
Organizational Commitment There is a substantial relationship between job Characteristic and OCB.
Job Satisfaction is strong factor of OCB and there is a relationship between Organizational Commitment and OCB with affective commitment as the most significant
Perceived organizational support, job satisfaction, task performance and organizational citizenship behaviour Ren-Tao Miao (2011) Employees at two large scale companies in china Perceived organizational support
OCB There is a positive significant relationship between job satisfaction and OCB, as well as between perceived organizational support and OCB, and task performance, also job satisfaction and task performance.
The relationship between job satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship behaviour (OCB) in the retail industry in Indonesia WanneeSaepung, Sukimo, SununtaSiengthai (2011) Retail employees in Jogjakarta, Indonesia Job Satisfaction
OCB The found a positive relationship between job satisfaction dimensions and OCB dimensions, as well as the Job satisfaction and OCB relationship themselves that showed 57.2%
Does Job satisfaction influence organizational citizenship behaviour? An empirical study in selected 4 stars hotels in Jakarta, Indonesia Budiman, Anantadjaya, andPrasetyawati (2014) Employees in 4 star hotels in Jakarta Job Satisfaction
OCB Job satisfaction has an insignificant relationship with OCB, and nature of work is the strongest factor in job satisfaction
Deducting the organizational citizenship behaviour dimensions and its antecedents (Job Satisfaction) in the Indian context P.Vaijayanthi, K.A. Shreenivasan and Reena Roy (2014) Employees in travel management company in India Job Satisfaction
OCB Found that only the extrinsic job satisfaction has a strong relationship with OCB , not the intrinsic job satisfaction
Job Satisfaction and Organisational Citizenship Behavior of Personnel at One University Hospital In Thailand OCB
Job Satisfaction Intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job Satisfaction are essential in predicting OCB
Job Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour: An Empirical Study at Higher Learning Institutions Intaraprasong et al., (2012)
Mohammad et al, (2011) Higher Learning Institution, Malaysia OCB
Job Satisfaction Positive Relationship between OCB and Job Satisfaction
Source: El Din Mohamed, W.S. (2012)
Job satisfaction as mediator variable (Study objective Four)
Published research studies have found that job satisfaction has mediating effect in various aspect of human resources management practices outcome.
In a study on the role of job satisfaction as mediator in the relationship between self-efficacy and organisational citizenship behaviour involving 339 teacher in religious school it was found that job satisfaction significant mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and organisational citizenship among teachers in Indonesia. Rahman, Wan sulaimon, Rohany Ieasia and Fatima Umar (2014). Rahman and his colleagues also reported a study by chiu and chen (2005) that examined the role of job satisfaction in mediating job characteristics and OCB involving 270 employees from 24 electronic companies that showed that job satisfaction(intrinsic ) has mediating mechanism on the relationship between job characteristics and organisational citizenship. Rahman et al (2014).
In a survey of 273 administrative employees of four universities in Jordan by Ahmed Al-shuaibi, Subranian and Faridahwatn Shamsudin(2012),it was found that job satisfaction mediated the relationship between four dimensions of human resources practices(performance appraisal, compensation practices, career advancement, and employee security) and cyber deviance. Also in the finding is that one dimension of job satisfaction, satisfaction with pay, partially mediated the link between performance appraisal and cyber deviance while the other job satisfaction dimension ,satisfaction with workload ,was a partial mediator between career advancement and cyber deviance. Ahmed Al-shuaibi, S. and Faridahwatn S. (2012)
The Mubashiri Ahmed et al (2014) studied the relationship between high involvement practices and employee performance with job satisfaction as mediator variable in banking sector of Pakistan. 300 bank employees were involved with a response rate of 71.3%. The report showed that job satisfaction fully mediates the relationship between high involvement management practice and employee performance in the banking sector of Pakistan. Mubashiri Ahmed et al (2014)
A research study report published by online publisher Essay UK showed that multiple regression analysis of data in a study titled ‘The Relationship between Training and organisational Citizenship behaviour: The Mediating role of Job satisfaction’ among employees of private and public sectors of Island of Barbados via a structured questionnaire given out to 200 employees showed that job satisfaction mediated the relationship between HRP dimension of training and organisational citizenship behaviour demonstrating that employee highly trained will exhibit organisational citizenship behaviour. (Retrieved from www.essay.uk.com. April 17th, 2018)
In a study by Mariam et al (2016) which explored the relationship between Organisational citizenship behaviour, Job satisfaction and organisational culture using 127 MBA students of German university of Cairo revealed that job satisfaction mediated the relationship between organisational culture and organisational citizenship behaviour
Literature above has provided us with evidence of the mediation capacity of job satisfaction on relationship between human resources practices with some organisational outcomes.
However, there is dearth of of published works with regard to its mediating effect on human resources practices relationship with organisational citizenship behaviours.
2.4 Summary of Literature
We looked at the literature that has to do with the three human resources management constructs of study in this research. In doing this, we started with looking at the conceptual framework where we discussed concepts that have to do with the three constructs. We then went further to look at the related theories that either explains the study or supported it in one way or the other. We concluded with itemising the gaps that we discovered in the literature which the current study is out to fill
Under conceptual framework, we discussed the concepts of personnel management, human resources management and the strategic human resources management together with their differences. We did this to expose their connections and how attempts to understand and implement them at workplace are linked to the emergence of human resources practices. We further moved to review publications on the study constructs. Under the human resources practices, we looked at the various dimensions comprising of recruitment and selection, Training, compensation, performance appraisal , employee relations and commitment . The literature also revealed that one of the construct of study, organisational citizenship behaviour is the behaviour of an employee that is spontaneous, voluntary, non remunerative and outside the duties of such employee by contracts of employment. We understood that such behaviour from employees do benefit the organisation through its contribution to increase in employee and organisational productivity, and employee innovativeness. Various dimensions of this construct include Altruism, Conscientiousness Sportsmanship, Civic virtue and Courtesy.
Another construct whose literature was reviewed was job satisfaction. The concept of job satisfaction was defined in the literature as employee pleasing and positive emotional state which comes out of his evaluation of his job. Literature made us to understand that such emotional state arising from employee assessment of his job could affect his behaviour toward his organisation positively or negatively. Negative assessment could lead to poor performance of in role functions while positive assessment could result not only in the employee performing his in role functions but also extra role function that is non remunerative and outside his contract of appointment.
Various empirical study were equally reviewed which indicated a possible link between the two constructs of human resources management practices, and organisational citizenship behaviour. However, there was no consensus within published reports on the nature of this link. Some report indicated no link, some indicated direct link while others indicated a link that is indirectly facilitated/explained /mediated by another factor. This has made research study shifting toward including a search for the explanation of how and why of such relationship if existed in the study of the relationship between the two construct of human resources practices and organisational citizenship behaviour . Empirical review of literature also showed the mediating capacity of job satisfaction on various organisational outcomes necessitating our attempts to control it in this current study so as to know whether it could be implicated as significant factor that explains the link between HRP and OCB.
Under the theoretical framework, we reviewed theories of interest in this study and how they helped to support our current study. They included the motivational theories, the resources based theory and the social exchange theory as well the concept of HRM Black Box. The Motivational theory from Herzberg and colleagues(1957) showcased what could lead employee to job satisfaction if they are present in an organisation and those that could make them unhappy and dissatisfied when not present. What then is required by managers of organisations is to include the satisfiers and deemphasize the dissatisfiers in their human resources practices. With this the employees will be satisfied on the job which will impart positively to organisational success supporting our study which is exploring the possible link between HRP and OCB.
The Resources Based Theory posit that organisation survival in this era of stiff competition in the global market structure is a function of its ability to harness and build structure that will encourage the development of the potentials in its workforce. In this our current study we are exploring the link between HRP and OCB with JS as facilitator.
The Social Exchange Theory is based on the norms of reciprocity which stated that when employees is favoured by the HRP of an organisation, they intend to reciprocate by feeling obligated to help the organisation, helping others and helping self with beneficial behaviours. This supports our study which is an exploration of the mediating role of job satisfaction in the relationship between HRP and OCB. Finally, our review took us to the concept of HRM Black Box. This concept showed that the HRP and various organisational outcomes do relate within HRM Black Box and it is by opening the box that what explains or facilitated the interactions will be unveiled. In our current study, we assume that HRP and OCB exist and relate within the HRM Black Box and that when we open the box we may unveil job satisfaction as the likely explanation of the causal chain that leads to the relationship.
2.5 Gaps discovered in the literature this current study is out to fill
1. Organisational citizenship behaviour, being a new construct in human resources management has not been well studied as shown by few published work on it in Africa and in Nigeria in spite of the need for it if organisations in Africa is to survive intense competition in the global market structure.
2. There are preponderance of published works on human resources practices and the relationship with organisational outcomes in advanced countries and third world countries of Asia. The same is not the case in Africa continent which have so far recorded few published research works on them. That means organisations in Africa either are adapting their human resources practices from developed nations that invariably is unsuitable in African environment or utilising a very poor form of human resources practices that is not enabling enough if organisations in Africa are to stand out of the crowd and survive the effect of globalisation, advance in technology and increasing sophistication in consumer taste. Again, it goes to show that human resources is less regarded and less cared for in Africa.
3. Most of the published researched works on human resources management practices have been on its relationship with organisational outcomes. However, few works have been done on investigating the underlining factor that facilitated or explained the “why” and “how “of such relationship especially in third world countries. Such studies will help managers engage human resources practices that are rich in content enough to motivate workers since human resources are the only resources abundant in Africa that needed to be improved on and relied upon for survival in the global market structure.
4. There is glaring dearth of research works on three important Human Resources Management constructs in Nigerian university teaching hospitals that may prove helpful in improving the performance of these hospitals and engender public trust and patronage while diminishing the human capital flight overseas. These constructs are the Human resources practices, Job satisfaction and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour. For instance, no research studies have been seen on how Human Resources Practices re-mixing, re-engineering and re-configuration could come to rescue i.e. what Human Resources architecture could motivate hospital employees to improve on their in-role activities and move further to add extra-role behaviour for the improvement of the teaching hospitals and stem the brain drain syndrome plaguing the nation’s hospitals occasioned by poor working conditions at home
Based on the identified gaps in the literature, this current study is meant to close them.
Chapter three Methodology
The main aim of this study is to explore the mechanism through which human resources practices (HRP) relate with employee organisational outcome of organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB). In this chapter, we discussed study design (the plan or blue print that detailed how to go about data collection and analysis), sources of data collection either from primary or secondary source or both, the population of study (all the people or things that makes the target of study),sample and sampling techniques (parts of the population selected to present characteristics of the main population and the method of selecting this parts from study population respectively),hypothesis testing techniques (how the proposed hypothesis could be tested for acceptance or rejection), data collection instruments ( the instruments to be used for data collection), and method for data analysis( presentation of data in more comprehensible format).
3.2 Study design
This study is a survey study. A survey research is where group of people or items is studied by collecting and analysing sample data from population. (Onwe,2004). In this study ,we are going to apply structured questionnaire survey . The research will be undertaken in phases starting with sending of ‘Request for endorsement letters’ to the management of case organisations (the university of Nigeria and ESUTH teaching hospitals at Ituku Ozalla and Park lane, Enugu. Respectively) .The request for endorsement letter will be clear on the intention of the research and confidentiality of the information to be provided in the course of the study by the management and staff of these organisations. It is a way of asking for the participation of these organisations. It has been proposed by the experts that getting the necessary support of the management of the organisation of study is very helping in building the trust and eventual participation of employees and management which in turn improves the questionnaire return rate. Diliman((2000),Ruth and Bevier(1998, 2000),Weliu(2000).
The second phase is the design and distribution of structured questionnaire that will be administered on the respondents who are the employees of University teaching hospitals in Enugu state, Nigeria.
3.3 Sources of data collection
There are two main sources of data collection, primary and secondary. In this study our main source of data collection will be the primary source. Primary source of data is a way of getting data directly from the person who observed the data (Uzoagulu, 1998). It is observed data that come from direct observation of events, manipulation of variables, and contrivance of research situation including performance of experiments and responses from questionnaire (Asikia, 1991; Onodugo,Ugwuonah and Ebinne,2010).
We will also deploy data from secondary source when there is need especially in the validation of some information from primary sources. Secondary information will be gotten from the management on the human resources practices of the case organisations,
3.4 Population of study.
A study population is said to be the entirety of cases which possess the designated set of criteria of character necessary for the study meaning all elements found in the group. (Polit and Hungler,1978). This means also that to be included in the population of study, you must possess the pre-designated characteristics of that group.
The population for this study is the employee of University teaching hospital in Ituku Ozalla and ESUT university teaching hospital, Park lane, all in Enugu state, Nigeria. The combined population of the two teaching hospitals is 9,800(UNTH, 6,400 and ESUT, 3,400). The population consists of Doctors, Nurses/midwives, paramedics and administrative staff.
3.5 Determination of sample size.
The below statistical formula Crochran (1963) will be used to determine the appropriate sample size for this study.
P=probability of success (50%). (Arbitrarily selected)
Q=probability of failure (50%).(Arbitrarily selected)
Z=standard error of mean (1.96)
E=limit of tolerance error/level of significance (5%)
The total population to be studied is 8, 300(the actual number of population when the number of employees who are not qualified to to participate is removed). Applying the above statistical technique, our sample size will be determined thus
= 7971.32/21.7104 =367.165
A total of 367 Questionnaires will be produced and administered on the respondents proportionally and according to percentage composition of categories of employees (doctors, nurses, paramedics and administrative staff)
3.6 Sampling selection procedure.
Onodugo and et al(2010) stated that the idea of sample arose because in most cases, it is difficult to study the entire population. They further stated that studying the entire population will be time consuming and with high cost implication. The method deployed to select appropriate representative sample from the population is the term sampling.
In this study, the technique to select from the entire population the needed sample will be purposive and stratified. Purposive sampling is a technique that uses researcher’s prior knowledge of the population which enables him to know which proportion of the population will be useful and representative for the current study. Babble (2007). In this study, we will pre select respondents from the population based on their ability to understand and respond to the questionnaire items. Educational level and length of service of employees will be the criteria for selection purposively. Based on this, messengers, security personnel, outsourced staff, drivers, cleaners and health assistants will be excluded. Also excluded are those who have been with the organisation for less than less than a year that must have been less affected by the human resources practices and thus possess low understanding of the HR practices. Stratified sampling will be used also to select the samples to ensure appropriate representation of the staff categories.
3.7 Data collection instruments.
This section of the research methodology explains the various instruments in use for measuring various constructs in this study.
Human resources practices will be measured using questionnaire items adapted from previous studies. It contains 30 items covering various dimensions of human resources practices adapted from the work of Abu Keir (2016), Snell and Dean(1992) ,Thamuja Thnaweera(2010). .The five key dimensions of human resources management practices identified through various literatures are used in this study. They are recruitment and selection, training and development, performance appraisal, compensation and employee relations. Respondents are to respond to the posed questionnaire items in likert scale ranging from strongly agree (5) to strongly disagree (1). This instrument is widely used and internationally acclaimed explaining why we adopted most of the question items from these measuring instruments. Recruitment and selection has 5 questions, Training and Development has 5 questions, and Compensation has 8 questions, Performance appraisal has7 questions and employee relations 8 questions.
Job satisfaction will be measured as compound word using the short form Minnesota Job satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ). This instrument was developed by Weiss ,Devis, England ,and Lofquist(1967).The selection of this instrument for this current study is as a result of its capacity to measure both intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction.. Some authors have argued that when a cognitive based measuring instrument like MSG is used to measure job satisfaction, the outcome will be closely related to organisational citizenship behaviour. Respondents will be asked to respond to question items according to their level of satisfaction with the job ranging from very satisfied (5) to very unsatisfied (1). The overall satisfaction of each respondent will be measured by calculating the mean scores of all items in the questionnaire. The total items in Minnesota Job satisfaction Questionnaire is 24..
Organisational citizenship behaviour measuring instrument we are proposing to use is adapted from the work of Podsakoff and colleagues (1990) based on the original measurement from Organ(1988) that comprised the five dimension of organisational citizenship behaviour of altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, courtesy and civic virtue. Podsakoff et al.’s (1990) organizational citizenship behaviour measurement scale was created to measure related dimensions of employees’ discretionary and voluntary extra work efforts. Podsakoff et al.’s (1990) five dimensional organizational citizenship behaviour measurement scale appears to be an adequately reliable and valid construct that can address to the important elements of extra employee role behaviours. The scale contains 24 questions covering all the five dimensions of OCB thus; conscientiousness 5, sportsmanship 5, civic virtue 4, courtesy 5, altruism 5. Respondents are to respond to question items in likert scale of 5 ranging from very accurate (5) to very inaccurate (1).
Figure 5: Summary of measuring instruments proposed for use in this study.
s/n Measuring instruments Index items No. of questions Authors/sources
1 Minososota job satisfaction questionnaire 24 Weiss ,Devis, England ,and Lofquist(1967).
2 HRP questionnaire Recruitment and selection, training, compensation, performance appraisal ,and employee relations 30 Abu Keir (2016), Snell and Dean(1992) ,Thamuja Thnaweera(2010).
OCB questionnaire Altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, civic virtues, and courtesy 24 Podsakoff et al.’s (1990)
3.8 Procedure for Data Collection.
Data will be collected for this study through structured questionnaire. Questionnaires are popular method of data collection in a research study and are very useful in obtaining data for answering the research questions and testing the pre stated hypothesis. It is a proforma containing a sequence of questions that can get respondents give out the needed information. In a structured questionnaire, responses were fixed containing specific answers to the posed questions in the questionnaire from which the respondents are to choose as deemed appropriate. The questionnaire for this study will be in four parts. The first part will collect respondent’s bio data. The second part will collect data on respondent’s perception of human resources practices. The third part will collect information or data on items of organisational citizenship behaviour while the fourth and final part collects data on employee job satisfaction. The beginning part of the questionnaire will be a short introduction that explains the purpose and confidentiality of the information to be provided.
All responses will be presented in Likert scale format. According to Tittle and Hill (1967), the most popular type of social science scale designed to measure an individual’s attitude is the Likert scale that includes items in which response levels are arranged parallel to each other. These items also require anchored verbal expressions in the form of a symmetrical construct where agreement and disagreement are located at both ends with neutral positioned in the middle. The typical Likert scale is a five-point system although it is possible to use 7 point items such as 1 Strongly Disagree, 2 Disagree, 3 No Opinion/Neutral, 4 Agree, and 5 Strongly Agree. In this study we used 5 point scale.
The questionnaire will be administered physically by the researcher to the respondents. This will take 4 days and to be retrieved after 14 days from the date of administration. Respondents will decide their preferred way to return questionaire with options to do so physically, through the head of department or online.
3.9 Validity of the instruments
Any conclusion or decision arising from data collected from survey process can be judged acceptable to the extent they are determined valid by the end users. Validity is a way of ascertaining whether a research measures what it intended to measure. It is also a way of ascertaining the veracity of the research results. Validity and reliability make the difference between “good “and “bad” research report while quality research depends on a commitment to testing and increasing the validity of the research results. Onwe, O.J. (2014).
Validity is measured in various ways in quantitative research including face validity, content validity, construct validity and criterion-related validity.
This is the least of the validity measurement. Technically, it is not widely acclaimed as a test of validity. It is a measure that appears in a surface and judgment arising from that being subjective. It lacks statistical backing.
Face validity is concerned with answering the question, is this measure really measuring what is being claimed to measure. In this current study, the use of previous instruments used by researchers in similar experiments has satisfied the face validity.
This like the face validity measurement is also subjective in that you are just trying to answer the basic question of whether the instrument in use actually covers the full domain of the construct intended. It is subjective because it relies on mere perception people have on the measuring constructs. In this current study, the author did not design his own questionnaire instruments to measure the intended constructs but will rely on the instruments shown by literature to contain items that measured the intended constructs in previous study. It is our assumption that this will solve the problem of content validity.
Construct represents a collection of events or behaviours that is associated with a particular image, idea that can be a researchable invention Onwe, O.J. (2014). A construct is explained by a collection of related indicators. Thus, constructs validity explains the extent to which inferences can be drawn from the results of a given research design. Construct validity can be measured by the extent to which the research operations resembles other operations that it should be theoretically bound to be similar to.
In this study, we intend to use measuring instruments that have been widely used by others and have been acclaimed internationally as valid in terms of content and construct validity. We are not going to invent our own measuring instrument that differs substantially from what other researchers have used in the past. This is to us will give this study both constructs and homological network.
This is in a way the instrument validity. This can be achieved by comparing the instrument being used with a measure or instrument that has been previously demonstrated to be valid by experts. This put in other way is correlating the measure in use with other measures that have known validity. It has to do with the ability of your design predicting the expected results. In this current study, all the instruments we intend to use were adapted from previously used instruments that have been demonstrated valid in predicting the outcomes or producing the expected results
3.10 Reliability of the Instruments.
Reliability measures include split half reliability test and the cronback alpha. In split half method, the questionnaire is administered once and the result is divided into two halves, may be by odd and even number items. The two halves are correlated and further corrected using the spearman brown formula shown below.
Cronback alpha is used to calculate the internal consistency of results across items on the same test. Alpha computation will be based on the mean correlation of each item in the scales with every item. According to Nunnally (1994), Cronbach’s coefficient alpha determines reliability based on internal consistency and provides a good estimate of scale reliability. Measures of this study were judged to be reliable if Cronbach’s alpha was 0.60 or greater Nunnally & Berstein, (1994 )
Figure 5: Summarised strength of Alpha coefficient size .
0.91-10 = very strong =
0.21-0.40 small but definite relationship
slight, almost negligible
Source: The author
Reliability of the measuring instruments.
The reliability of the five dimensions of OCB showed that Altruism is .86 by Hui, Lam, and Law (2000), .89 by Organ and Konovsky, (1989), and .91 by Smith et al. (1983); conscientiousness, .79 ; Sportsmanship .89 ; courtesy ; .86 , and civic virtue .90 (Fields, 2002).
The internal consistency of Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire is .91 showing very high reliability
3.11Method of data analysis.
This is where we work on the data collected to make it meaningful and usable for inferences or decision making. Data analysis starts with descriptive statistics calculation. Data analysis includes arrangement of the collected information of the population in a way it can be explained, understood and used. We will use percentages, mean standard deviation and variance to analyze data in this study. We will also present the data in pictograms where possible.
Data analysis for relationship, we will use multiple correlation analysis. . This is statistical technique for testing the linear relationship or association between two or more variables. Onodugo et al (2010). Here it will be deployed to test for the degree of association between human resources practices, organisational citizenship behaviour and job satisfaction. Pearson correlation formula will be used. The coefficient ranges from -1 to +1 with -1 signifying perfect negative relation, o signifying no relationship and +1 signifying perfect positive relationship.
Analysis of data to test the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable, we will use hierarchical multiple regression analysis. This will test the degree of relationship between one variable, the dependent variable with another variable, the independent variable so as to draw certain statistical inference on the manner and strength of their relationship. The results of regression analysis always indicate how the dependent and the mediator variables are influenced by the independent variables.
Analysis of data to determine the existence of mediation effect, we will apply Baron & Kenny’s (1986) 4-step indirect effect method. Mediation analysis tests a hypothetical causal chain where one variable X affects a second variable M and, in turn, that variable affects a third variable Y. Mediators describe the how or why of a relationship between two other variables and are sometimes called intermediary variables since they often describe the process through which an effect occurs. This is also sometimes called an indirect effect.. In Baron and Kenny 4-step approach, the following must be fulfilled for mediation to be established:
1 The independent variable must significantly correlate with the dependent variable
2 The independent variable must significantly correlate with the mediator variable
3 The mediator variable must significantly correlate with the dependent variable
4 When the mediator variable is entered in the regression equation, the independent variable will drop in strength or significance. The drop signifies the mediation effect.
In our current study, the following will apply;
Independent variable (IV) is the Human resources practices.
Dependent variable (DV) is the organisational citizenship behaviour.
The mediator variable (MV) is the job satisfaction.
The direct effect is represented by x-y in the below figure(c)
The indirect effect or mediator effect is represented by x-m-y in the below figure(a and b). Thus, for mediation to take place , the strenght of the effect of HRP on OCB through JS causal chain (x-m-y) has to reduce when compared with that of HRP on OCB direct(x-y) i.e the strenght of human resources practices in predicting the organisational citizenship behaviour(Dependent variable) will have to be reduced when job satisfaction enters the regression equation signifying its mediation effect.
Before use of data, we will also analyse the data for certain assumptions . When these assumptions are not met the results may not be trustworthy, resulting in a Type I or Type II error, or over- or under-estimation of significance or effect size(s). They are assumptions of linearity, reliability of measurement, homoscedasticity, and normality.
Assumption of Normality
Regression assumes that variables have normal distributions. Non-normally distributed variables (highly skewed or kurtotic variables, or variables with substantial outliers) can distort relationships and significance tests. There are several pieces of information that are useful to the researcher in testing this assumption: visual inspection of data plots, skew, kurtosis, and P-P plots give researchers information about normality, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests provide inferential statistics on normality.
Assumptions of Linearity
Standard multiple regression can only accurately estimate the relationship between dependent and independent variables if the relationships are linear in nature. As there are many instances in the social sciences where non-linear relationships occur , it is essential to examine data for linearity.. If the relationship between independent variables (IV) and the dependent variable (DV) is not linear, the results of the regression analysis will under-estimate the true relationship. This under-estimation carries two risks: increased chance of a Type II error for that IV, and in the case of multiple regression, an increased risk of Type I errors (over-estimation) for other IVs that share variance with that IV. Authors such as Cohen and Cohen (1983), suggest three primary ways to detect non-linearity. The first method is the use of theory or previous research to inform current analyses. The second is examination of residual plots (plots of the standardized residuals as a function of standardized predicted values, readily available in most statistical software). The third method of detecting curvilinearity is to routinely run regression analyses that incorporate curvilinear components (squared and cubic terms. In this study, we will use the second.
Assumptions of Homoscedasticity
This means that the variance of errors is the same across all levels of the independent variable. When the variance of errors differs at different values of the independent variable, heteroscedasticity is indicated. According to Tabachnick and Fidell (1996) slight heteroscedasticity has little effect on significance tests; however, when heteroscedasticity is marked it can lead to serious distortion of findings and seriously weaken the analysis thus increasing the possibility of a Type I error. This assumption can be checked by visual examination of a plot of the standardized residuals (the errors) by the regression standardized predicted value. Most modern statistical packages include this as an option. Ideally, residuals are randomly scattered around 0 (the horizontal line) providing a relatively even distribution. Heteroscedasticity is indicated when the residuals are not evenly scattered around the line. There are many forms heteroscedasticity can take, such as a bow-tie or fan shape. In cases where skew is present, transformation of variables can reduce the heteroscedasticity.
In this study SPSS package will be extensively used to run all the data analysis..
3.12 Significance level
This will be at 95%
3.12 Decision rule
A. Relationship between variables.
1. When the correlation co-efficient is 0, there is no relationship between the variables.
2. When the correlation co-efficient is 1, there is perfect relationship between the variables.
3. When the correlation co-efficient is above -.2 or below +.2, the relationship is not significant.
4. When the correlation co-efficient is below -.2 or +.2, the relationship is significant
B Mediation Effect:
1. If the mediator variable enters the regression equation after controlling for the age and job tenure and the strength of the independent variable in predicting the dependent variable reduces to zero, there is complete mediation effect.
2. If the mediator variable enters the regression equation after controlling for age and job tenure and the strength of the independent variable in predicting the dependent variable just reduces but not completely, there is partial mediation effect.
3. If the mediator variable enters the regression equation after controlling for age and job tenure and the strength of the independent variable in predicting the dependent variable remained the same, and then there is no mediation effect. 3
3.13 Ethical Approach
This section addresses the ethical concerns associated with the study since it provides some guidelines into the compliance with the ethical issues regarding research in general and this study in particular.
When conducting research, it is essential that ethics and the unbiased answers by respondents are taken carefully into account. It is also that the ethical interest of the organisation in taking into consideration. This study will comply with these issues thus:
a. To the respondents
1 Through assuring that the answers of the respondents will be confidential and assuring them that the information supplied would be used only for the purposes of the research being undertaken
2 Through reassuring respondents that they will not be subject to any risk .
3 Through ensuring that Paper and electronic data disposed of securely on completion of analysis
4 Through ensuring that anonymity of additional information requested or given by respondents is assured.
5 Through giving the Participant assurance of the confidentially and security of information they supply.
6 Through making clear to the respondents the purpose and procedures of research.
b. To the Teaching hospitals
7 Through signing ethical compliance agreement with them.
8 Through complying with their demand that a copy of the report of the study must be submitted to them.
9 Through making clear to the organisations the purpose and procedures of research.
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