ETHICS OF HUMAN CLONING
Science and religion have frequently been in conflict through out much of the history, but human cloning remains a controversial topic due to its fundamental and complex questions arised. It leads both the secular and the religions to reflect on the nature of humanity,and the meaning of our lives.The ethical questions have raised about human cloning exist in several levels of conspiracy. A principle that forms the basis for many human cloning arguments is the assertion by Immanuel Kant that humans must be treated as ends in themselves, not as means to an end.The prospect of human cloning raised many ethical ,legal and social challenges.
Most of the scientists and decision makers view as the purpose of making human baby.Supporters see it as a solution for infertility.Even though most species have been cloned successfully,the process is still difficult and inefficient.Cloning advocates argue that will be similar to the evolition and the procedure will help infertility.
Cloning, on the other hand , offers remarkable insight into the power of creation that humanity has been waited.An theological analysis holds that humans are also cocreators with God. Cloning represents a remarkable test of human race,skills and development.
” I have been opposed to human cloning from the very beginning”
– LEON KASS
center472440HUMAN CLONING : AN OVERVIEW
Human cloning involves implanting the DNA from one organism into the egg whose nucleus has been removed.After being artificially manipulated,the egg behaves as though fertilized and begins to delevop as the same one.Some argue that human cloning is unacceptable;Others see it as a valuable treatment for infertility;Other revolve around ethics;Some concerns over the religions that cloning of a human is a sin.Human cloning calls into the question reproductive rights and the family nature.
Human somatic cell nuclear transfer by cloning involves
The starvation and subsequent implantation of DNA from specialized, non sexual cells of one organism into an egg whose DNA nucleus has been removed
The resulting egg and nucleus are chemically treated so that the egg begins to fertilize,results in embryo development.
There are two types of human cloning : Therapautic cloning and Reproductive cloning, more likely to achieve a therapeutic cloning is more easy to access, and is not morally problematic.Legalizing human cloning became the heart of the debate world, and to legalize theraupitic cloning as the only way to practice and investigate.The cloning of human organs and their use for transplantation or cloning human beings sould be taken into account technical and economic barriers. Many countries proposed their own laws against Human cloning conspiracies.In 2015,about 70 countries banned human cloning says a report.
“Human cloning is coming”
217805475551PROS AND CONS
There are many medical pros and cons of cloning and its processes.They include benefits : to renew damaged tissues and grow new cells to replace with them,to create modified donor organs, to study cell differentiation and development of cloning, to cure infertility till the roots.It opens door for innovation,it can elimate defective genes which might in near future treat cancer in humans
They also possess their own cons : Cloning of identical genes,weaking of adaptation,human cloning allows genetic hybridisation of genomes which may result in errors and makes reproduction characteristics lower.Cloning organs will be not efficient and would be expensing.It has a low fertility rate.The experiment of Dolly used 277 eggs,30 began to divide,nine induced pregancy, only one survived.Some ethicists fear the clones rights will be broken.There is a possibility of faster ageing,some therorist believe that it might create a major divide among the people.Moreover,it goes against every religion of the world (except Raelism).The created clones might be exploited in various manners causing harm to the human ecosphere.The cloning technology for humans is considered mostly a massive failure of 90%.Clones reduces a sense of individuality which potentially turn human into a commodity.The dangers for early prospective clones are controversial and difficult to manage because
One is attempting to protect from imminent danger which is flexed by the same ones.
They believe that the early cloning experiments will branch a natural barrier,taking humans into a realm of self engineering with new reproductive technologies.
center472440ETHICS OF HUMAN CLONING
Ethical issues of human cloning has become a debated issue in recent year,as people are misleaded by misconceptions.although these clones have same genes,they don’t have same traits and personalities differ.By analogy, many have speculated as to whether
A human clone lacks traits necessary for true independent creature from parent progenitors.
Whether a cloneis entitled by contrast to feel that a progenitor is an mportant problem of cloning as an appropriate parent.
And many in the genral public of western culture identified the most important problem of cloning as whether a clone would have a soul
Hoaxes, wild claims and media speculation have inevitably intruded into the cloning discussion, sometimes originating more in pure science fiction than actual scientific experiments. “Similar experiments with humans would be totally unacceptable”, Wilmut concluded.The high failure rates and high death rate of animal cloning strongly suggests its inapplicability to humans.
• Technical and medical safety
• Undermining the concept of reproduction and family
• Ambiguous relations of a cloned child with the progenitor
• Confusing personal identity and harming the psychological development of a clone
• Concerns about eugenics
• Contrary to Human Dignity
• Promoting trends towards designer babies and human enhancement.
In its “Human Cloning and Human Dignity” study in 2002, the President’s council on Bioethics in US stated that efforts to clone a human would be unethical at this time because of safety concerns and the likelihood to harm to those involved.
The central question facing those who approach cloning with an open mind is whether the gains from cloning humans – a remedy for infertility and substitute for adaption are worth the risks farming organs.propogators dictators, and impeding evolution.
Christian roman catholism and many conservative classes have markingly opposed human cloning and the cloning of human embryos ,as they believe that life begins with conception and soul enters body.Cloning specific organs is permitted in Islam,but cloning of the full body would not be permitted in any circumstances.Organs being cloned for treatmen would be permitted and rewarded by Allah.Liberal Jewish thinkers have cautioned against cloning,through some sort of potential medical advantages. Buddhists also believe in the natural order of life and cloning of humans is violating it.
Ethicists have found out the difficulties that may arise in world where human clones might exist.Human cloning might be changing the structure of family withing the convulated family system.In some another cases, there might be expectations would act identically to the cloned one,which could break the laws of self determination.This would nullify the exploitation of animals in scientific research on cloning for food production or for human consumption,or for human uses.
My point of view is that human cloning should be banned no matter what are the circumstances as therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning are the one and the same. Both utilize the same process and the end result being a newly cloned human being.Human cloning is very malicious.It is estimated that 98% of human cloning experiments are failure. Even if it is a success, the cloned human might possess genetic disorders.From an unethical standpoint, since cloning requires human embryos, might kill innocent unborn children. There is also the possibility of comprising individuality.Cloning might create a superior race of clones which might be the dooms day of human.However, it would fail, because cloned people would live with non cloned people, results in gentic hybrids would soon be equatised.
Human cloning is the reproductive technology least tied to intimacy. It is not generally associated with family but rather with egomaniacal villains in science fiction. Therefore, the impact of cloning on ideas of family and sexual life should be examined. Indeed, cloning will produce situations that challenge the traditional concepts of parenthood and family. For example, it is not always obvious who are the parents of a cloned embryo. Sex, reproduction, and family structure have been connected in a consistent manner for centuries, but human cloning will radically alter these connections. For instance,the mother of a clone could actually be considered the child’s sister. In addition, the importance of sexual intimacy in procreation may become marginalized.I thereby conclude that human cloning might either be a boon or bane when used to human needs.