Ethical leadership is seen in medical and energizing love powers, recognizing that leadership is a mutual relationship with followers. The mission of a leader is to serve and sustain, and his passion for leadership stems from compassion (Ethical leadership is even shown in an effort to curb ethical leadership to love. Good leaders have a better ability to adhere to morals to their followers, and it is not a skill, but awareness and a world perspective Ethical leadership has beneficial consequences for followers and organizations, reflected in leaders ‘ perceived efficiency and job satisfaction, bigger commitment and problem solving
VALUES OF ETHICAL LEADERSHIP
Ethical values in an organizational environment are still emphasized and strengthened primarily by values- leadership, that can be described now as a relationship between the leaders and co-workers, based on shared, internalized principles upon which the leader acts ((Daft 2007). Values are general principles that guide action. Values are not actions; they are sanctions or sanctions codes for certain behavioral choices and rewards for others. Over the course of history, values have attracted the interest of many researchers in different sciences.
On the basis of virtue (value) theory five values are crucial for ethical leaders and they are as follows
• Pride. A leader who lacks self-esteem will hardly receive respect from his followers.
• Patience. Sometimes a leader is faced with challenges from all sides and also resistance from his followers. Because it may take time to overcome these challenges, patience is very important.
• Prudence. Prudence is a virtue that refers to exercising sound judgement in practical affairs.
• Persistence. It is perceived as a leader striving for goals and his continuing quest to take all the necessary steps to achieve them, even if they involve sacrifice and personal risk.
• Perspective. It is understood as the capacity to perceive what is truly important in any given situation.
Personality Characteristics of Ethical Leaders
Integrity is one of the most important features of effective leadership. The leaders who demonstrate integrity are honest with themselves and others, learn from mistakes and improve themselves continually. They lead by example and expect as much from others as from themselves. They take responsibility for assessing important decisions and strive to balance competing interests in order to achieve key organizational goals (Hoenig, 2000).
Can an organization become successful, competitive and ethical especially in the current market? Akers believes that success in the market and ethical behavior are inseparable: “Ethics and competitiveness are inseparable. We as a community, we keep on competing. No society in any part of the world will compete successfully with back bitters; people with no morals and with every little dispute ending in court; and with government writing regulatory reams, trying to keep business and foot honest “(Oh, 69).
FOUR ETHICAL FRAMEWORKS
Rights and duties
Rights define what people can expect as their due, so far as it is under the control of people or human society. There is always a duty associated with a right, though in many cases the duty on other people is simply that they do not interfere with or prevent others claiming their rights. Any right an individual has relies on other people carrying out their duties towards that individual. So, it follows that if people neglect their duties, then other
Maximizing the amount of good in the world
This framework balances the benefits of an action against the risks and costs. It promotes the common good to help everyone have a fair share of the benefits in society, a community or a family. This framework is often described as ‘the ‘greatest happiness for the greatest number’. It could be seen as ‘right’ to override the rights of individuals in order to bring about happiness in the wider community
Making decisions for yourself
This framework considers that people should make their own lives. Respecting people’s autonomy (independence) and decision-making abilities enables individuals to make reasoned and informed choices. Personal autonomy is where people control their own destiny, through decisions they make throughout their lives
Leading a virtuous life
This framework supports the moral ‘rightness’ or ‘wrongness’ of actions. An action can be described as right or wrong independently from any consequences of the action. It is not the consequences that make an action right or wrong, but the principle or motivation on which the action is based
THE TWO MOST IMPORTANT KEYS TO EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP
According to a study by the Hay Group, a global management consultancy, there are 75 key components of employee satisfaction (Lamb, McKee, 2004). They found that:
• Trust and confidence in top leadership was the single most reliable predictor of employee satisfaction in an organization.
• Effective communication by leadership in three critical areas was the key to winning organizational trust and confidence:
• Helping employees understand the company’s overall business strategy.
• Helping employees understand how they contribute to achieving key business objectives.
• Sharing information with employees on both how the company is doing and how an employee’s own division is doing – relative to strategic business objectives. So – you must be trustworthy and you have to be able to communicate a vision of where the organization needs to go. The next section, “Principles of Leadership”, ties in closely with this key concept.
PRINCIPLES OF LEADERSHIP
• Know yourself and seek self-improvement –
• Be technically proficient – As a leader, you must know your job and have a solid familiarity with your employees’ tasks.
• Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions – Search for ways to guide your organization to new heights. And when things go wrong, they always do sooner or later – do not blame others. Analyze the situation, take corrective action, and move on to the next challenge.
• Make sound and timely decisions – Use good problem solving, decision making, and planning tools.
• Set the example – Be a good role model for your employees. They must not only hear what they are expected to do, but also see. We must become the change we want to see – Mahatma Gandhi • Know your people and look out for their well-being – Know human nature and the importance of sincerely caring for your workers.
• Keep your workers informed – Know how to communicate with not only them, but also seniors and other key people.
• Develop a sense of responsibility in your workers – Help to develop good character traits that will help them carry out their professional responsibilities.
• Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished – Communication is the key to this responsibility
• Train as a team – Although many so-called leaders call their organization, department, section, etc. a team; they are not really teams…they are just a group of people doing their jobs. • Use the full capabilities of your organization – By developing a team spirit, you will be able to employ your organization, department, section, etc. to its fullest capabilities