Dr

Dr. Oriet
06-85-118
September 28th, 2018
Total Cost Minimization
The world today is a very technologically advanced planet. From laptops getting smaller and their processors getting faster to automobiles soon turning completely electric. All these innovations are made possible by engineers. However, engineers are also the reason why these expensive products have only decreased in price over time while technology has been improving. The decrease in price is because engineers help companies mass produce products by finding ways to achieve total cost minimization even in high cost economies. Engineers help these companies by designing production methods that increase efficiency. The most common method is the practice of the assembly line, which was designed by a man named Henry Ford and is widely known as the greatest technological advancement of the twentieth century.
Total cost minimization is very important to engineers in high cost economies because over the last century, all aspects of the manufacturing process have drastically increased in price. From labour, rent, insurance and other factors. The prices of labour in todays society have sky rocketed with the minimum wage in Canada currently at fourteen dollars per hour (Ontario.gov.ca). Due to this, the risk of many products increasing in price is at large. The price of transporting goods from factories to stores has also increased in price due to the cost of fuel growing. This has caused companies to re-think their manufacturing process. Due to these factors it is common for companies to move their production out of high cost economies and into third world countries, where the operating costs are much lower. Common
2
third world countries companies move production to according to James C. W. Ahiakpor of the Action Institute is “China, Kenya and a Hong Kong.” The reason for this is the profit margin being made in these expensive areas is much too low, due to the expensive overhead. However, the main issue engineers have with the outsourcing of production is that it often leads to workers in other countries being treated poorly due to unfair pay, unsafe working conditions and many other negative factors. As well, often the safety standards in the manufacturing process in other countries are not equivalent to safety standards in first world countries making safety a large concern that the products being assembled overseas will not meet certain safety standards. This can be due to using cheaper material that can break apart and infants could potentially swallow, or the cross contamination of certain food products. Though, engineers stop companies from going against their business ethics by providing companies with ethical options to keep production costs at a minimum. Engineers use the procedure of the assembly line to prove to companies that there is no need to outsource production
Mass production using an assembly line was first introduced by a man named Henry Ford. He used manufacturing engineering to reduce the price of cars in the early 1900’s. Ford had a vision to creating automobiles that were more affordable to the average American in the early 1900’s. This was because the cost of owning and buying an automobile at those times was extremely expensive due to the amount of inefficiencies in the building process. The automotive factories at that time relied heavily on skilled labour, because there was not much of a need for unskilled workers due to the fact there was not much technology behind the production, meaning each bolt had to be put on with the specific specifications by a skilled mechanic. In those days there was not yet precise machines that could tighten bolts with the specific torque needed to correctly build the vehicle. Due to the need for skilled labour, the salaries for the people working on the production line was very high. The high salaries for the skilled workers reflected directly in the price of the cars. However, Ford saw that there had to be a better way to make the
3
manufacturing process much more efficient and require less skilled labour. After using the trial and error method, Henry concluded that when people are working in a line with each other, much more can get done. Ford’s company operated with people working in a line with each other for a few months until, it was realized that the major inefficiency in production was that workers were walking much to far of a distance to get parts from one station of assembly to the next, and this was taking a lot of time. The way Henry reacted to this issue would be how lives would forever change. Henry innovated the method of people working in a line to assemble parts with conveyor belts. The purpose of the conveyor belt was to have the parts come to the workers instead of the workers going to pick up the individual parts. The use of the conveyor belt proved that each worker had no excuse to leave their work station because all the parts that were needed would come directly to them. Shortly after Ford implemented automated tools and machines into the production line, this allowed him to hire cheaper unskilled labourers to do the same work as a skilled mechanic. When Henry implemented the conveyor along the assembly line with automation to achieve mass production in “1913 the price for the Model T plummeted from $825 to just $290.” (Wiley.com) This was obviously a drastic price reduction, which made for people all over the world to be able to finally afford to own an automobile.
The assembly line first used by Henry Ford in the early 1900’s never lost its significance. In fact, the idea of mass production using assembly lines is used more than ever in todays age. From vehicles to computers and cell phones, all these items are mass produced and therefore become affordable to people in today’s society. The practice of mass production has allowed the way people learn and store information extremely easier by making laptops, computers and cellphones much cheaper. The way society relies on technology is very important, without affordable computers and cell phones many would not be able to afford attending school because the use of technology is relied on heavily in todays curriculum. The way engineers have been able to innovate and mass produce so many products for
4
reasonable prices is by using different assembly line procedures to mass produce specific objects. For example, in the auto manufacturing industry the use of automated welding and specialty tools than can tighten bolts to the exact torque spec have come into play cutting overall cost of production down. As well along production lines that make cell phones and computers, engineers have designed machines that can accurately wire and assemble items at a much faster and more accurate rate than humans ever could.
The assembly line is the most significant technological innovation of the twentieth century, with the increasing price in most economies around the world. The cost of production is set to rise, due to the increase in economies, the price of labour, materials and location costs. Due to the increase in the cost of production, the price in which consumers purchase these products will increase as well. If prices go too high, consumers will not be able to afford everyday essentials or extra luxuries. This problem can have a direct effect on the companies and people of society because companies will not be able to produce the consumer demands for these products. The assembly line allows companies to produce large amount of quantities at a faster rate, using less human labour therefore decreasing the overall price of the product. Due to the increase in human labour in the past few years, companies have had to rely heavily on the use of robotic technologies. The robotic technologies allow for better accuracy than humans due to the natural occurrence of human error. Also, the robots/machines can be programmed to work when companies want, and don’t require wages and labour laws do not apply for machines. Therefore, if a company automates most of their production methods they can produce products cheaper making the amount they sell for in store significantly less. The assembly line is very important to society today because with the current population growing, we need access to large quantities of products at reasonable prices. If this were not the case, poverty would be an even larger problem then it currently is in todays society because most people will not be able to afford to support their families if products were exponentially increasing.
5
However, a problem most people in the twentieth century society have with factories turning to automated production methods is the decrease in jobs due to the machines being able to produce much more than humans could produce and with greater accuracy. Though, the total opposite is the outcome of automated production. This is because the machines require maintenance teams to ensure they run efficiently without the risk of a breakdown which would stop or reduce production. This means skilled technicians are needed to look after the machines which requires a certification, leading to better pay and benefits. In todays society there is no shortage of work for factory machine technicians. As well, people with technician certifications are much more employable in todays every growing society that requires some sort of education to get a good stable job, ensuring a better life for their families giving them more opportunities. As well, the importance of mass production and the assembly line will be crucial to society in the coming years, especially with the increase in population the world will be faced with by twenty-fifty. The rate at which companies will be expected to produce at will be exponential, however to keep up with the demand and keep the costs of these products reasonable will be a challenge. Engineers must continue to innovate current procedures in the way companies produce items, with a goal that with the more items produced the less the items will cost.
In conclusion, the invention and innovation of the assembly line has changed the lives of society forever. Through the practice of mass production, engineers will continue to innovate ways to manufacture products by incorporating more automation and robotics, the more assembly lines in our society. The more jobs there will be for skilled technicians to maintain all this automation. As well, if engineers can keep designing efficient practice for companies will continue to keep production in high

6
cost economies, instead of relying on cheaper countries to produce products for cheaper, but without the proper business ethics.

7
Works Cited
Ahiakpor, James C.W. “Multinational Corporations in the Third World: Predators or Allies in Economic Development?” Acton Institute, Acton Institute, 20 July 2010, acton.org/pub/religion-liberty/volume-2-number-5/multinational-corporations-third-world-predators-o.

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“Ontario Minimum Wage.” Ontario.ca, 27 Nov. 2017, www.ontario.ca/document/your-guide-employment-standards-act/minimum-wage.

“Model T History.” Wiley.com, John Wiley & Sons, 1 Dec. 1996, www.wiley.com/legacy/products/subject/business/forbes/ford.html

Dr

Dr. Oriet
06-85-118
September 28th, 2018
Total Cost Minimization
The world today is a very technologically advanced planet. From laptops getting smaller and their processors getting faster to automobiles soon turning completely electric. All these innovations are made possible by engineers. However, engineers are also the reason why these expensive products have only decreased in price while the technology has been improving. The decrease in price is because engineers help companies find ways to achieve total cost minimization even in high cost economies. Engineers help these companies by designing production methods that increase efficiency. The most common method is the practice of the assembly line, which was designed by a man named Henry Ford and is widely known as the greatest technological advancement of the twentieth century.
Total cost minimization is very important to engineers in high cost economies because over the last century, all aspects of manufacturing have drastically increased in price. From labour, rent, insurance and other factors. The prices of labour in todays society have sky rocketed with the minimum wage in Canada currently at fourteen dollars per hour (Ontario.gov.ca). Due to this, the risk of many products increasing in price is at large. The price of transporting goods from factories to stores has also increased in price due to the cost of fuel growing. Due to these factors it is common for companies to move their production out of high cost economies and into third world countries. The reason for this is the profit margin being obtained in these expensive areas is much too low to cover the large cost companies have. The main issue engineers have with the outsourcing of production is that it often leads to workers in other countries not being treated fairly. As well, often the safety standards in other countries are not equivalent to safety standards in first world countries making safety a large concern for infant toys and certain foods.
Henry Ford was the first person to implement the use of the assembly line. He used manufacturing engineering to reduce the prices of cars in the early 1900’s. Ford had a vision to creating automobiles that were more affordable to the average American in the early 1900’s. This was because the cost of owning and buying an automobile at those times was extremely expensive due to the amount of inefficiencies in the building process. The automotive factories at that time relied heavily on skilled labour, because there was not much of a need for unskilled workers at that time due to the fact there was not much technology behind the production, meaning each bolt had to be put on with the specific specifications by a skilled mechanic. In those days there was not yet precise machines that could tighten bolts with the specific torque needed to correctly build the vehicle. Due to the need for skilled labour, the salaries for the people working on the production was very high. The high salaries for the skilled workers reflected directly in the price of the cars. However, Ford saw that there had to be a better way to make the manufacturing process much more efficient and require less skilled labour. After using the trial and error method, Henry concluded that when people are working in a line with each other, much more can get done. Ford’s company operated with people working in a line with each other for a few months until, it was realized that the major inefficiency in production was that workers were walking much to far of a distance to get parts from one station of assembly to the next, and this was taking a lot of time. The way Henry reacted to this issue would be how lives would forever change. Henry innovated the method of people just working in a line to assemble parts, with a conveyor belt. The purpose of the conveyor belt was to have the parts come to the workers instead of the workers going to pick up the individual parts. The use of the conveyor belt proved that each worker had no excuse to leave their work station because all the parts that were needed would come directly to them. When Henry implemented the conveyor along the assembly line in “1913 the price for the Model T plummeted from $825 to just $290.” (history.com) This was obviously a drastic price reduction, which made for people all over the world to be able to finally afford to drive.
There are a few different types of assembly line systems engineers use to help companies achieve total cost minimization in high cost economies. According to the website INC.com these methods are called “Modular, Cell, Team and U-shape assembly lines.” The modular assembly line uses two parallel conveyors that manufacture two different types of products and when those products are finished they are placed on one final line, in which they are assembled onto a product. A common use for the modular assembly line is in the production of automobiles. The cell assembly line uses machines that can perform multiple tasks, while just one operator is using the machine. A common use for the cell machine is that it can weld, handle materials and even assemble products. The use of the machine cuts operating time and costs down and is commonly used in the manufacturing of parts for machines, due to the number of welds and small bolts that need to be tightened at specific torques. The team production method of the assembly line is when workers are together in teams along a parallel assembly line and perform the same repetitive tasks over and over. The team production is commonly used when installing simple doors on cars or factory emblems on vehicle rims. Finally, the U-shape assembly line is commonly used when manufacturing difficult products, this is because the method behind the U-shape is that the workers manufacturing the products can communicate easily about the speed and any common issues they encounter during the manufacturing process.
The assembly line is the most significant technological innovation of the twentieth century, with the increasing price in most economies around the world. The cost of production is set to rise, due to the increase in economies, the price of labour, materials and location costs. Due to the increase in the cost of production, the price in which consumers purchase these products will increase as well. If prices go too high, consumers will not be able to to afford everyday essentials or extra luxuries. This problem can have a direct effect on the companies and people of society because companies will not be able to produce the consumer demands for these products. The assembly line allows companies to produce large amount of quantities at a faster rate, using less human labour therefore decreasing the overall price of the product. Due to the increase in human labour in the past few years, companies have had to rely heavily on the use of robotic technologies. The robotic technologies allow for better accuracy than humans due to the natural occurrence of human error. Also, the robots/machines can be programmed to work when companies want, and don’t require wages and labour laws do not apply for machines. Therefore, if a company automates most of their production methods they can produce products cheaper making the amount they sell for in store significantly less. The assembly line is very important to society today because with the current population growing, we need access to large quantities of products at reasonable prices. If this were not the case, poverty would be an even larger problem then it currently is in todays society because most people will not be able to afford to support their families if products were exponentially increasing.
However, a problem most people in the twentieth century society have with factories turning to automated production methods is the decrease in jobs due to the machines being able to produce much more than humans could produce and with greater accuracy. Though, the total opposite is the outcome of automated production. This is because the machines require maintenance teams to ensure they run efficiently without the risk of a breakdown which would stop or reduce production. This means skilled technicians are needed to look after the machines which requires a certification, leading to better pay and benefits. In todays society there is no shortage of work for factory machine technicians. As well, people with technician certifications are much more employable in todays every growing society that requires some sort of education to get a good stable job, ensuring a better life for their families giving them more opportunities. The rise in pay and increase in opportunity is all thanks to the innovation of the assembly line, making it the most significant technological advancement of the twentieth century.
The importance of mass production and the assembly line is crucial to society in the coming years, especially with the increase in population the world will be faced with by twenty-fifty. The rate at which companies will be expected to produce at will be exponential, however to keep up with the demand and keep the costs of these products reasonable will be a challenge. Engineers must continue to innovate current procedures in the way companies produce items, with a goal that with the more items produced. The less the items will cost.
In conclusion, the invention and innovation of the assembly line has changed the lives of society forever. Without the implementation of the assembly line it is not for sure cars would have become so popular. As well, without the use of automation in todays expensive society there would not be enough quantity of products for the prices they can be purchased for. With the cost in economies worldwide set to increase in the coming years, the use and innovation of assembly lines will prove crucial to society having access to products in the needed quantity and desired price, achieving total cost minimization.

Works Cited

Dr

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Profound orator, reverend, scholar, and civil rights advocate amongst many other things utilized American historical staple doctrines and documents built to uphold the nation as identifiers to decimate and combat injustices running desolate across the nation. In his “I have a Dream” speech of August 28, 1963 Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. set to take an analytical and rational approach to the current status of the Negro in America and decipher why the American legal, governmental, and political systems have failed to honor the unalienable rights guaranteed to all citizens of America.
After President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation of January 1963 for the benefit of the war between the confederate and union army the document established a problematic nature due to the fact that it did not state the conditions of the “free” Negro post-war. The issue of Negro citizenship and Negro social and political power was not one of the primary concerns of the Emancipation Proclamation for it only served to recruit Negroes to fight the ongoing Civil war between the Union and Confederate States. As one of the beginning issues of concern worth addressing in African-American legal history Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. saw fit to address the nature of documents such as the Emancipation Proclamation, as well as, the Declaration of Independence and their relation to African-Americans and the law because the law governed the lands. Due to the message and importance of these documents as legal binding agreements for all people throughout America it was important for Dr. King to outline that the very laws of these documents were not honored by the American people in regards to the African-American Negro. The entitlement of the laws of nature or those inalienable rights that are supposedly guaranteed to all men were not guaranteed to the Negro in America, and the social and political life of the American Negro was unacknowledged during this time period. Dr. Kings “I Have A Dream” oration provides an in-depth response and analyses of these documents and how the credibility of them and their ability to shelter, protect, and advance people of color failed these people who required its legal protection the most.
In the beginning of his speech Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. states,
“Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity.”

Dr. King addresses the slave trade, which physical, mentally, and emotionally chained African-Americans from obtaining a proper place in society due to their position of being held as slaves. The Emancipation Proclamation of 1963 was supposed to liberate African-Americans and although it did physically the implications of equality would not surface until the Civil War era of 1861-1865 during the reconstruction amendments, and even after these amendments were created the laws of Jim Crow left the African-American unequal with the rest of society until the modern civil rights era of 1954-1968. African-Americans were reduced to the status of second-class citizens after the Emancipation Proclamation proving that technically they were citizens, but they lacked operational rights. This theory of rights versus the operational reality of rights proved that African-Americans were not allowed full citizenship rights in America. Dr. King in his oration at the Washington Monument stated, “There will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges.” The denial of full citizenship was crippling to the African-American community from a legal, political, and social perspective due to the fact that the law can either prohibit or exercise one’s rights. Nevertheless, without the aid of the law social and political movements cannot gain any type of structure or mobility. So the States had the ability to nullify or invalidate any federal law passed down. Dr. King identifies this major point of tension and contradiction not only with the law, but also with the foundations of law (i.e. The Declaration of Independence ; The Emancipation Proclamation) and it’s interaction with Black citizenship to prove its large inequality to African-Americans.
Continuing into his oration Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. begins addressing other points of legal tension and contradiction on behalf of African-Americans. For instance he states, “We cannot be satisfied as long as the Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and the Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote.” Italics, Bold, & Underline mine. In the 15th & 19th amendments (1870) according to the constitution of the United States Black men and women were emancipated and granted their rights to vote. However, it was common practice for Southern voting polls to utilize devious methods such as harassment and physical violence to prevent African-Americans from reaching the voting polls. The Voters Rights Act, which was signed into law on August 6, 1965, was politically charged and motivated to overcome the many barriers on state and local levels that prevented African-Americans from voting. From a legislative perspective the many consequences of not being able to vote for African-Americans were socially equivalent to the inability to access basic fundamental human rights because in America the largest political power exists in the voting polls. In reference the Declaration of Independence and the Emancipation Proclamation Dr. King assured the crowd that America failed to grant African-Americans the rights they were ensured by these legal binding documents he noted another point of tension and contradiction existing within these documents by stating:
When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence (Yeah), they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed to the “Unalienable Rights of Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.

The Constitution of the United States was created to ensure justice and domestic tranquility yet African-Americans were not recipients of this justice and tranquility. Dr. King then stated, “It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked “insufficient funds.” This statement asserts the fact that African-Americans were experiencing a major contradiction in the history of United States legal legislation. When Dr. King stated, “One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later (My Lord)applause, the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land” he was referring to all of these social deviations from white society that exiled African-Americans from maintaining proper social equality.

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