Concerning to this as indicated above table8

Concerning to this as indicated above table8, 39(26.5%) sample respondents were described lack of community participation, 42(28.6%) high population growth and urbanization, 34 (23.1%) insufficient financial resource, 26(17.7%) lack of institutional capacity and 6(4.1%) insufficient water resources. As it mentioned above from respondents high urban population increase and urbanization is becoming a global challenge to proved urban infrastructure particularly in the developing world like Ethiopia. In the similar way, the rate at which urban infrastructure is provided and urban population growing is still a challenge for water shortages in the Town.
The increasing number of people living in urban areas is associated with increasing water demand and difficulties for many people to access adequate supply of clean water and sanitation (Post, 2002). In addition, the participants of interview were revealed this issue during in field observation by indicating as ”the town is mainly facing water scarcity due to increasing water demand and insufficient actions to meet the demand. This particular condition is arising because of raise in urban population and urbanization from time to time.” Thus, it shows that immediate actions of supplying water service should be taken to meet the demands of rapid population growth and urbanization.
According to Sodo town administration census of 2015, the population of the town was 105,263 in 2010, 113,242 in 2012, and 131,514 in 2015. This indicates that unless immediate harmonizing actions are taken in the provision of urban infrastructures, especially water to meet the demands of fast growing population, the situation may be found worsening from time to time if keep on going at prevailing rate. Hence, strategy makers should give due notice to the issues and develop strategies and plan on how the rate of service provision should be increased to cope up with high population growth and urbanization rate.
As Montegomery et al (2007) pointed out that in many developing countries lack of financial resources and low prioritization of water supply constrain both the maintenance and expansion of water supply services. The larger part of sample respondents also indicated that, highly growing demands for urban water supply and distribution services has been constrained by inadequate investment. Additionally, to this during field observation also community indicated that, there is small portion of money provide to water supply and distribution service compared to other infrastructures.
According to the table 8, indicated that, community participation in the condition of water supply and distribution is insufficient in the study area. The public involvement is the core part in the provision of urban infrastructures, particularly in water service, by contributing to the building activities through provision of labor, material and cash.
4.3.1 Interruption of water supply
According to World Health Organization (WHO, 2010), interruptions to water supply either through frequent sources or resulting from engineering inefficiencies is a major factor of the access to water. Daily or weekly interruption results in low water supply pressure and a risk of in-pipe contamination. Additional consequences include reduced availability and lower volume of water supply, which poorly affect hygiene. Further, in addition to the clear reduction in quality and quantity of water supply, time is wasted in water collection. Water interruption in town is becoming a huge challenge for the long years and influences the life of the resident in many ways.
According to Vairavamoorthy and Mansoor (2006) in Kharti and Vairavamoorthy (2007) intermittent water supply (daily or weekly discontinuity) leads to many problems including severe supply pressure losses, great inequalities in the distribution of water, lower volume use and in-pipe contamination. Thus, households’ water storage may be necessary, and this may lead to an increase in the risk of contamination during such storage and associated handling. Seasonal discontinuity often forces users to obtain water from inferior and distant sources.
Table 4.9. Interruption of water supply


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