CHAPTER ONE

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Compensation management is one of the most fundamental human resource practice and a major subject of importance in the general field of management. This comes as no surprise considering the fact that organizations play a vital role in the economic development of a country therefore, maintaining the employees who run the operations and activities of organizations is of utmost importance. Employees are generally motivated to exert more efforts in their jobs when they feel that their job provides them with the things that they value. Organizational commitment of employees on the other hand, is also an important factor that organizations must consistently strive to achieve and maintain as it tends to influence whether an employee remains a member of the organization or leaves to pursue another job. This often results in turnover for the organizations in question. Employees who are committed to their jobs often exhibit loyalty to their organization, do not engage in withdrawal behavior, are eager to learn more on the job, and, are willing to put in their best to ensure that the organization achieves its desired goals and objectives. One way to secure the organizational commitment of employees is to build and maintain an effective and efficient compensation management system that gives the organization some form of leverage to retain the employees.
Because one of the main aims of an organization is to maximize profit, organizations are constantly seeking to ensure that employees are satisfied with their jobs to enable them put in their best effort for the organization. Very often, organizations use compensation management systems to attract, motivate, satisfy and retain employees and also to ensure that the employees give their best and increase productivity. However, organizations cannot rely on high salaries alone to retain their employees. Therefore, there is a need for organizations to develop appropriate compensation plans that reflect the real and perceived needs of employees some of which can include stock option plans, suitable tax incentives, assistance in achieving personal goals etc. The process of developing an appropriate compensation management system allows organizations to provide tangible and intangible value to employees for the work they do or services they render.

Several studies have been conducted by many management scholars over the years on the concept of compensation management such as Frye (2004), Osibanjo et al. (2014), Riaz (2014), which focused on the relationship between compensation management and organizational performance and commitment at the workplace. Most of such studies confirmed that there is a positive relationship between compensation management and organizational performance and commitment. “Researchers have further argued that compensation management system can create and sustain a competitive advantage for organizations” (Milkovich et al., 2011). “Over the years, more and more organizations have embraced and implemented not just monetary rewards but also non-monetary rewards into their compensation management plans and packages” (Widmier, 2002). These monetary rewards often include basic salary, wages, bonuses, commissions etc. and, the non-monetary rewards can take on several different forms ranging from protection programs, pay for time not worked, services and perquisites, praise from superiors and co-workers, promises of future promotions and opportunities, feelings of self-esteem that comes from verbal acknowledgements, recognitions, recommendations, to future monetary rewards related to performance and so much more.
“Compensation represents both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards that employees receive for performing their jobs” (Dessler, 2011). Intrinsic and extrinsic compensation describes an organization’s total compensation management system. Intrinsic compensation is based on intangible rewards. It reflects employees’ psychological mindsets that result from performing their jobs. It is internal to the person in that it is something that you have to offer yourself and is driven by personal interest or enjoyment in the work itself. Employees who are intrinsically motivated tend to work at higher levels of productivity and strive to develop both personally and professionally. Intrinsic compensation is usually non-financial in nature such as personal achievement, professional growth, sense of pleasure and accomplishment, job satisfaction, recognition, verbal acknowledgements, freedom, responsibility etc. Such rewards impacts a deeper and long lasting impression because it enables the employees to improve on the quality of the work they do. Extrinsic compensation on the other hand, is based on tangible rewards. It is external to the individual and is typically offered by a supervisor or manager who holds all the power in relation to what extrinsic rewards are offered and in what amount. Extrinsic compensation is usually financial in nature such as a raise in salary, a bonus for reaching some quota, paid time off, commissions and so on. Imagine how demotivating it would be for employees who are underpaid, overworked, and unappreciated, and one can quickly see how important extrinsic compensation is to organizational commitment, effectiveness, and success. An extrinsically motivated employee will work on a given task that they do not particularly care for simply because of the anticipated satisfaction that will come from the extrinsic compensation.

Compensation management refers to the overseeing of rewards usually in the form of pay for a job. Rowman (2006), described compensation management as “all the employers’ available tools that may be used to attract, retain, motivate, and satisfy employees”. This tends to include every single investment that an organization makes in its people and everything its employees value in the employment relationship. When an organization is ready to hire employees, it must develop a process to reward those employees. This process is referred to as the compensation management process. Some of the objectives of compensation management includes; to attract and retain employees, to increase and maintain morale, to reward job performance, to attract manpower in a competitive market, to achieve internal and external equity, to reduce turnover, to encourage company loyalty, to modify practices of unions through negotiations, to control wages, salaries and labor costs by determining rate change and frequency of increment, to maintain satisfaction of employees by exhibiting a fair, adequate and equitable remuneration, and many more. “The importance of an effective compensation management system in an organization cannot be over-emphasized and should in fact be consistently recapitulated because, employees generally value the rewards they receive at their workplace as it motivates them to improve their performance” (Milkovich et al., 2011). When organizations develop and maintain a well-designed and structured compensation management system, such organizations tend to attract and retain employees who are willing to work because it gives them a positive feeling and impression about their job, satisfied with their jobs and motivated to work harder to achieve objectives and, thus, desire to remain with the organization they work for.
Colquitt et al. (2009), described organizational commitment as a “phenomenon that influences whether an employee stays a member of an organization (is retained) or leaves to pursue another job (turns over)”. Wiener (1982), defined organizational commitment as “the aggregate internalized demands to perform in a manner which meets organizational goals and objectives”. Porter et al. (1974), on the other hand defined organizational commitment as “an attachment to the organization, characterized by an intention to remain in it, identifying with the values and goals of the organization, and a willingness to exert extra effort on its behalf”. Miller (2003), also defined organizational commitment as “a state in which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals, and wishes to maintain membership in the organization”. Employees who are not committed to their organizations often engage in withdrawal behavior, which can be defined as a set of actions that employees perform to avoid the work situation. Withdrawal behaviors are known as behaviors that may eventually culminate in quitting the organization. Organizational commitment and withdrawal behaviors are negatively related to each other because the more committed employees are, the less likely they are to engage in withdrawal behaviors. Organizational commitment can therefore be referred to as the degree in which an employee is willing to maintain membership with the organization due to interest and association with the organization’s goals, values and objectives.
There are three main dimensions of organizational commitment namely; “affective commitment (AC), continuance commitment (CC), and normative commitment (NC)” (Allen & Meyer, 1991). Affective commitment occurs when employees want to stay and is influenced by the emotional bonds between employees. Continuance commitment occurs when employees need to stay and is influenced by salary and benefits and the degree to which they are embedded in the community. And finally, normative commitment occurs when employees feel that they ought to stay and is influenced by an organization investing in its employees or engaging in charitable efforts. According to DeCenzo & Robbins (2006), “employee benefits as a whole have no direct effect on employee performance, however, inadequate benefits contributes to low job satisfaction and increase in employee absenteeism and turnover”. This implies that when employees are not compensated appropriately for the effort they put in to work, dissatisfaction emanates on the job therefore, organizations seeking to achieve improved performance, effectiveness, and productivity must design well-structured compensation management systems that considers and satisfies not just the physical needs of the employees but also their emotional desires as well. Thus, not only motivating but at the same time satisfying their employees adequately enough to work at their absolute best (Allen & Meyer, 1991).

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Some issues to consider are; Is it possible for an organization to design a compensation management system that would adequately have a positive impact on employee performance and their commitment? How often should the compensation management system be reviewed? Would a fixed compensation management system bring out the required and/or desired performance from the employees? Does the compensation management system reward the right set of employees? Does the compensation packages given to employees solve their problems enough to boost their performance and commitment in the workplace? Can the compensation management system stand out amongst that of fellow competitors and also stand the test of time? With these questions in mind, there is a need for the human resources management of our organizations to design and implement appropriate compensation management systems in line with actual organizational performance, commitment, and the level of work, input, and productivity that employees exhibit. The problem of trying to figure out these questions with an intent of proffering possible solutions forms the basis for this study.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
In these modern times, there is a lot of interest in the field of compensation management and organizational commitment. Why because, employees are the most significant and valuable resource in any organization therefore, ensuring that they are satisfied with their job and give the organization their best is one of an organization’s main objective. There are several ways to motivate the performance of employees, one of such ways is to build an effective compensation management system. This study is aimed at exploring the gap between the compensation management system and organizational commitment at the Nigerian Bank of Industry Limited. In every organization, employees typically receive different kinds of benefits in the form of wages, salaries, bonuses, commissions etc. Most of these employees who possess good and solid educational backgrounds tend to be unmotivated to perform their best with the job when their compensation packages does not measure up to their educational experience and standard thus leading to dissatisfaction, withdrawal behaviors, and turnover. Osibanjo et al. (2014), suggested that “organizations with more appropriate and adequate compensation packages typically record a positive effect on employee performance which leads to an overall decrease in turnover and employees’ willingness to remain with such organizations”. This could imply that proper compensation packages would motivate employees to commit to the organizations they work for and remain loyal to it.
The ability to identify the plausible reasons as to how and why compensating employees adequately can lead to organizational commitment on the part of employees pushes us a step further and closer to understanding the importance of compensation management and how it greatly influences organizational commitment in the workplace.

Objectives of the Study
The study examines the relationship between compensation management and organizational commitment with the following objectives:
To determine the forms of compensation management that affect organizational commitment.

To identify the factors that influence organizational commitment.

To examine the relationship between compensation management and organizational commitment.

Research Questions
The purpose of the study is to obtain practical answers to the following research questions:
What are the forms of compensation management that affect organizational commitment?
What are the factors that influence organizational commitment?
What is the nature of the relationship between compensation management and organizational commitment?
Research Hypothesis
The following null hypotheses will be tested in this study:
H1: There is no form of compensation management that affect organizational commitment.

H2: There is no factor that influence organizational commitment.

H3: There is no significant relationship between compensation management and organizational commitment.

Significance of the Study
The information from this study will add to the already existing pool of knowledge and theories on the subject matter of compensation management. The main question of concern is how well the use of compensation management systems relates positively to organizational commitment.

The outcome of this study could prove significant and useful in several ways such that it would serve as a challenge for future researchers or students who may be interested in carrying out more research in this area and also serve as reference materials for other students examining or investigating the field of compensation management and/or organizational commitment.

The study could provide evident information on compensation management processes and practices.

The study would also give an insight on the impact of compensation management systems that could assist in maintaining organizational commitment of employees.

The study may also provide insights to managers on ways to enhance the organizational commitment of employees.

Finally, the study would help to reiterate the importance of appropriate compensation management systems in organizations and how it affects overall organizational commitment in the workplace.
Scope of the Study
The scope of the study is confined to the employees of Nigerian Bank of Industry Limited, focusing on the period from 2001 to 2017 as it represents the period from which the bank fully commenced its start of service to date. The study was conducted on employees of various levels from different departments at Nigerian Bank of Industry Limited. Employees expected to participate in the study includes; supporting workers, executive officers, technical executives, managers and operational staff. The study was restricted to employees of Nigerian Bank of Industry (BOI) Limited in order to determine several ways of integrating the employees to achieve higher and more efficient success through organizational commitment.

Limitations of the Study
The major limitation of the study is that it covers only the compensation management system at the Nigerian Bank of Industry (BOI) Limited, thus, grounding the available and necessary resources, data and information to a specific office only.
The study excluded several variables of compensation management and organizational commitment due to shortage of time and funds.

Budgetary constraints also played a constraining part in the conduction of the study because data was gathered from only one sector of the many Development Finance Institutes available in Nigeria and thus, the results cannot be deemed as fully expedient for the rest of the sectors.

The time period that was specified and available to perform the necessary requirements, project errands, meetings and data and information collection was not readily available, carefully managed and efficiently utilized.

Definition of Terms
Reward: a reward is anything given in recognition of service, effort or achievement. It is a consequence that happens to a person as a result of worthy or unworthy behavior. The total of all rewards provided to employees in return for their input is called compensation.

Compensation: Compensation is a reward in exchange for services. It is known as any form of extrinsic benefit, monetary or non-monetary, provided to employees in exchange for their contributions and service to the organization.
Compensation management: compensation management which is also known as wage and salary administration or remuneration management or reward management is concerned with designing and implementing total compensation packages.

Organizational commitment: organizational commitment is a spontaneous process, which develops through the orientation of individuals to the organization. It can be defined as the desire on the part of an employee to remain a member of an organization.
Profile of the Organization Under Study
The Nigerian Bank of Industry (BOI) Limited is the oldest, largest and the most successful Development Finance Institute (DFI) currently operating in Nigeria. It has a strong branch network with 24 branches across the country, a headquarters in Lagos State, and a corporate office in Abuja, Nigeria. Nigerian Bank of Industry Limited is owned by the Ministry of Finance Incorporated (MOFI) Nigeria (94.80%), the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) (5.19%), and private shareholders (0.01%). The bank has 11 members on its board chaired by Aliyu Abdulrahman Dikko. Nigerian Bank of Industry Limited began its operations in 1959 as the Investment Corporation of Nigeria (ICON) Limited. In 1964, ICON Limited was reconstituted to become the Nigerian Industrial Development Bank (NIDB) Limited under the guidance of the World Bank. Initially, International Finance Corporation (IFC) held 75% equity in NIDB however, the equity structure was then diluted in 1976 as a result of the indigenization decree.
In 2001, the Nigerian Bank of Industry Limited was reconstructed out of the merger of the Nigerian Industrial Development Bank (NIDB), Nigerian Bank for Commerce and Industry (NBCI), and the National Economic Reconstruction Fund (NERFUND). Although the bank’s share capital was initially set at ?50 billion in the wake of NIDB’s reconstruction, it was increased to ?250 billion in 2007. The purpose of the increase was to better position the bank in addressing Nigeria’s rising economic profile in line with its mandate to provide financial assistance for the establishments of new enterprises, the expansion, diversification, and modernization of existing enterprises and the rehabilitation of ailing industries.
Following a successful institutional, operational and financial restructuring program embarked upon in 2002, the bank has transformed into an efficient, focused and profitable institution that is well-placed to effectively carry out its primary mandate of providing long-term financing to the industrial sector of the Nigerian economy. Over the years, the bank has undergone several transformations and re-engineered its processes to improve service delivery. In 2014, the bank commenced the use of Business Development Service Providers (BDSPs) to improve the quality of entrepreneurs and loan applications. The BDSPs are expected to assist MSMEs with structuring their business plans and business models and provide relevant capacity building and training programs. Nigerian Bank of Industry Limited in collaboration with the Small and Medium Enterprises Development Agency of Nigeria (SMEDAN) and Department for International Development (DFID) created an institute to accredit BDSPs in Nigeria.
The Nigerian Bank of Industry (BOI) Limited was set up to encourage industrial production and value creation by manufacturing and processing activities of businesses. The objective of the bank is to provide the industrial sector of the Nigerian economy with finance as well as business support services. The bank’s market focus targets mainly; small, medium and large enterprises excluding cottage industries, new or existing companies seeking expansion, modernization or diversification, credit worthy promoters who will be required to prove their commitment to the project by contributing at least 25% of the project cost excluding land, borrowers whose management capability, financial situation (including availability of collateral and guarantee), character and reputation are incontrovertible, clients with demonstrable ability to meet loan repayments and finally, borrowers with no record of unpaid loans to earlier development, finance institutions and other banks. The Nigerian Bank of Industry (BOI) Limited is built on the following operating principles;
Professionalism, excellence and integrity in the conduct of our business.

Long term partnership with clients, based on shared responsibilities for the success of enterprises.

Equitable commitment to the prosperity of all stakeholders.

Assurance of BOI’s viability, survival and capabilities.

Lending decisions based both on project’s expected viability and probability of loan repayment.

Interest charges to cover cost of borrowing, risk and operating expenses.

Support of enterprises with potential to be profitable, competitive and sustainable and have substantial developmental impact.

The development orientation at the Nigerian Bank of Industry (BOI) Limited emphasizes on prudent project selection and management. The bank, accordingly, supports quality projects with potential development impact. Because the bank is committed to having its impact felt in all parts of the country, it operates an office in each of Nigeria’s geo-political zones and FCT Abuja, Nigeria. Nigerian Bank of Industry Limited assists projects to generate considerable multiplier effects such as job creation and poverty alleviation, both of which invariably enhance the social and economic condition of Nigerians. In view of the high priority the bank places on the developmental impact of its operations, BOI is eminently positioned to manage foreign grants and aids that are given to facilitate attainment of the nation’s developmental aspirations, the implementation of the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS), the realization of the Federal Government is sustainable pro-employment of 10% economic growth rate per annum and the Millennium Development Goals.

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
The literature review contains the review of related literature as carried out by several scholars, authors, researchers and experts whose perspectives, discussions, opinions, conclusions and recommendations will guide the course of this study.

2.2 Conceptual Framework on Compensation Management
In layman’s terms, the concept of compensation management can be explained as; “there is more to rewarding people than simply throwing money at them”. The concept of compensation management encourages employees to work harder while also helping to build a competitive atmosphere in the organization. Compensation management is the process of establishing and maintaining an equitable wage and salary structure, an equitable cost structure. It involves job evaluation, wage and salary survey, profit sharing and control of pay costs. According to Mulis ; Watson (2001), “the monetary value in an organization’s compensation plan is very key however, other non-monetary factors come into play and should also be considered when preparing adequate compensation plans in any organization”. Thus, compensation management simply implies having an appropriate compensation plan where employees can be rewarded for the work they do.

Armstrong ; Brown (2006), postulated that “compensation management is an integral part of human resource management as it seeks to address the long term issues relating to how people should be valued for what they desire to achieve”. Ezeh (2014), on the other hand described compensation management as a “segment of organizational management which is centered upon the planning, organizing, and controlling of all the direct and indirect payments employees are to receive for the work they do or service rendered”. Some objectives of compensation management includes; effective and efficient maintenance of a highly skilled and productive workforce, equitable pay, attracting efficient manpower in a competitive market, control of wages, salaries and labor costs by determining rate change and frequency of increment, maintaining satisfaction of employees by exhibiting fair, adequate and equitable remuneration, and, compliance with federal, state, and local laws and regulations.
The conceptual framework of this study was adopted based on the key concepts of the literature reviewed in line with the dependent variable, compensation management and the independent variable, organizational commitment.
476968139452COMPENSATION MANAGEMENT
Direct Compensation
Indirect Compensation
Independent Variable
Dependent Variable
ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT
COMPENSATION MANAGEMENT
Direct Compensation
Indirect Compensation
Independent Variable
Dependent Variable
ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT

Figure 1: A Conceptual Framework for the Relationship between Compensation Management and Organizational Commitment
2.3 Forms of Compensation
When an organization’s compensation plan is effectively managed, it increases organizational performance, productivity and commitment of employees. Compensation does not include salary alone, it includes the sum total of all rewards and allowances provided to employees in return for their services. “Compensation often provided to employees can either be direct (monetary benefits) or indirect (non-monetary benefits)” (NaukriHub, 2009). According to Supriyatin (2013), compensation refers to “the provision of fringe benefits provided by an organization to its employees, where the compensation is directly or indirectly received by the employees”. There are two main forms of compensation provided to employees which are; direct compensation and indirect compensation (Dessler, 2011).

2.3.1 Direct Compensation
Direct compensation can be described as the monetary benefits offered to employees by an organization in return for the work they do or service they render. Dessler (2011), suggested that “direct compensation is usually limited to the direct cash benefits that employees receive on hourly, daily, weekly, quarterly or monthly basis for the services they render as employees of a particular organization”. Direct compensation typically includes base pay (salaries), merit pay (wages), incentive pay (bonuses, commissions, stock options, piece rate, profit sharing and shift differentials), and deferred pay (annuity, savings plan and stock purchase).

2.3.2 Indirect Compensation
Indirect compensation can be described as the non-monetary benefits offered to employees by the organizations they serve. “Organizations tend to use indirect compensation to facilitate its recruitment and selection practices, influence the potential of employees coming to work for an organization, influence their stay and create a desire for employees to commit to the organization” (Chhabra, 2001). Indirect compensation is not paid directly to the employee but calculated as an additional component to the base salary figure. According to Dessler (2011), indirect compensation refers to “non-monetary benefits that employees receive for the work they do”. Indirect compensation typically includes protection programs (pension, social security, disability income, life insurance and medical insurance), pay for time not worked (holidays, vacations, jury duty and sick leave), and services and perquisites (car, financial planning, recreational facilities and low-cost or free meals).

2.4 Conceptual Framework on Organizational Commitment
Organizational commitment can be defined as the affiliation of employees to the organization and their willingness to be a part of an organization. Porter et al. (1974), defined organizational commitment as “believing and accepting the goals and values of an organization and, possessing and showing the desire to be part of the organization”. Employees who are committed to an organization often display strong intentions to serve their organizations and are low at intentions to leave. Buchanan (1974), emphasized that the “emotional attachment to the objectives and values of an organization is what can be referred to as organizational commitment in the workplace”. On the other hand, Wiener (1982), suggested organizational commitment to be the “aggregate internalized normative demands to perform in a manner which meets organizational objectives and interests”. In view of the literature available one can say that for employees, organizational commitment can be considered as their belief in and acceptance of the organization’s goals and values, their desire to remain part of the organization, and act in ways that is beneficial for the organization.
Initially, according to Allen ; Meyer (1984), organizational commitment was originally a two-dimensional concept namely; “affective commitment and continuance commitment”. Affective commitment can be described as the “positive feelings of identification with, attachment to, and involvement in the organization”. When an employee feels a desire to remain a member of an organization due to an emotional attachment to, and involvement with, that organization or simply put, the employee stays because he/she wants to then, that employee has an affective commitment for the organization. Continuance commitment on the other hand, can be described as the “extent to which employees feel committed to their organization by virtue of the costs that they feel are associated with leaving”. When an employee desires to remain a member of an organization due to the awareness of the costs associated with leaving for example salary, benefits, and promotions or simply put, the employee stays because he/she needs to then, that employee has a continuance commitment to the organization (Allen ; Meyer, 1984).
However, further research by Allen ; Meyer (1991), added a third dimension to organizational commitment which is normative commitment. Normative commitment can be described as the “employee’s feelings of obligation to remain with the organization”. When an employee desires to remain a member of an organization due to a feeling of obligation for example feeling a sense of debt owed to a colleague, a boss, or even a larger company or simply put, the employee stays because he/she ought to then, that employee has a normative commitment to the organization. “These dimensions of organizational commitment displayed by employees at their place of work generally depends on how they feel about their jobs” (Allen ; Meyer, 1991).

2.5 Factors Affecting Organizational Commitment
Organizational commitment in the workplace is dependent on a variety of factors. According to Colquitt et al. (2009), some of the “factors that affect organizational commitment includes; diversity of the workforce, the changing organizational culture, good working relationships within the organization, the management style of employers, job-related influences, personal characteristics of employees, organizational structure, better employment opportunities and the working environment”.

2.5.1 Diversity of the Workforce
According to Colquitt et al. (2009), “one of the most visible trends affecting the workplace is the increase in diversity of the work force”. As work groups become more diverse with respect to age, race, gender and national origin, there is a danger that minorities or older employees will find themselves on the fringe of such networks which potentially reduces their affective organizational commitment. At the same time, foreign-born employees are likely to feel less embedded in their jobs, may perceive fewer links to their working environment and less fit with their geographic area. This feeling may reduce their sense of continuance organizational commitment.
2.5.2 Changing Organizational Culture
The changes in an organization’s culture occurs often as a result of changes in leadership, mergers and acquisitions, or, downsizing in organizations which makes it more challenging to retain valued employees (Colquitt et al., 2009). The most obvious challenge that comes with such changes is maintaining an affective organizational commitment because certain negative emotions can be stimulated by these changes which in turn reduces an employee’s emotional attachment to the organization. Another challenge with a changing organizational culture is maintaining normative organizational commitment because the sense that people should stay with their employer erodes when an organization is downsized.

2.5.3 Good Working Relationships within the Organization
An organization can be described as a workplace environment which consists of individuals who work together by utilizing the available resources to achieve organizational goals and objectives. These individuals, the employers and employees, often develop certain working relationships as they work together. Some of such relationships are supervisory relationships, groups, teams and many more. When the individuals of an organization experience a positive working relationship amongst one another, a sense of mutual respect which allows them to commit themselves to the organization they serve will be formed.

2.5.4 The Management Style of Employers
The style of leadership that the management of an organization adopts to coordinate the activities of its employees greatly affects the commitment of employees to the organization. A suitable management style encourages employee involvement in organizational activities which helps to satisfy their desire for advancement, responsibility, achievement, recognition, empowerment and demand for commitment to organizational goals, aspirations and objectives. Zeffane (1994), suggested that, “to develop employee commitment, morale, loyalty, and attachment to an organization, managers exhibit certain leadership qualities that will motivate and encourage the employees to work harder”.

2.5.5 Job-related Influences
Several job-related influences such as job effort, promotional opportunities, absenteeism, level of responsibility, accountability, withdrawal behaviors, turnover, performance, job role etc. tend to adequately affect organizational commitment. According to Curry et al. (1986), “an ambiguous job role may lead to a lack of commitment and promotional opportunities can enhance or diminish organizational commitment”. Baron ; Greenberg (1990), also stated that “the higher the level of responsibility of a given job, the less monotonous and more exciting it becomes, and, the higher the level of commitment expressed by the employee performing the job”. Therefore, it is necessary that employees are held responsible and accountable for the work they do and level of productivity they deliver to allow them some semblance of motivation, desire and willingness to commit to the organization they serve.
2.5.6 Personal Characteristics of Employees
Organizational commitment can be affected by employees’ personal characteristics such as age, sex, race, education, and experience (Allen & Meyer, 1991). According to Baron & Greenberg (1990), “more experienced and older employees who are satisfied with their personal levels of work performance tend to exhibit higher levels of organizational commitment than employees with less experience and low satisfaction in performance”. This implies that older people tend to be more committed to an organization than younger employees.

2.5.7 Organizational Structure
The structure of an organization also plays an important role in organizational commitment for instance, bureaucratic organizations tend to have a negative effect on organizational commitment. According to Zeffane (1994), “the removal of bureaucratic barriers and the creation of more flexible structures within an organization is more likely to contribute to the enhancement of organizational commitment in terms of employee loyalty and attachment to the organization”.

2.5.8 Better Employment Opportunities
According to Curry et al. (1986), “the existence of employment opportunities can affect organizational commitment in the workplace”. “Employees who believe that they stand a chance of finding a better job become less committed to the organization they serve. But, when there is lack of other employment opportunities, the level of organizational commitment is high” (Vandenberghe et al., 2002). “More often, membership in organizations is usually based on continuance commitment, where employees are continuously calculating the risks of staying and leaving” (Allen & Meyer, 1991).

2.5.9 The Working Environment
The working environment is also another factor that affects organizational commitment. Some factors that can affect the working environment of organizations are organizational ownership and human resource practices (recruitment and selection). “When employers and employees are stockholders within the organization, it gives them a sense of belonging and importance” (Klein, 1987). According to Subramaniam & Mia (2001), “managers who participate in the decision-making process of an organization tend to have a high level of organizational commitment than managers who do not have the chance to participate”.

2.6 Relating Compensation Management to Organizational Commitment
According to Bhattacharya & Sengupta (2014), “compensation is the remuneration received by an employee in return for his/her contribution to the organization. It is an important aspect of human resource management that enables organizations to motivate their employees and enhance overall organizational effectiveness, performance, and commitment. Adequate compensation packages also serves the need for attracting and retaining the best employees”. Tessema & Soeters (2006), described compensation as a “critical component of the employment relationship which includes direct payments and indirect payments in the form of employee benefits and incentives used to motivate employees to strive for higher levels of productivity”. An adequate compensation package often motivates and satisfies employees thus, organizations always strive to ensure that employees are well-paid.
Compensation management is one of the main essence of human resource management practices and it typically includes salary, wages, incentives, bonuses, perquisites, fringe benefits, commissions etc. It can be described as a systematic approach to providing monetary value to employees in exchange for work done or service rendered. It requires integrating employees’ processes and information with organizational processes, activities and strategies to achieve organizational goals and objectives. Ash (1993), described compensation management as an “essential tool needed to integrate employees’ efforts with strategic business objectives by encouraging the employees to do the right things thereby improving overall efficiency at the workplace”. According to Wiley (2007), “the easiest way to boost and increase the morale, productivity, and work quality of employees in an organization is to effectively reward the employees”.
It is therefore very important to remember that developing and implementing a meaningful and cost-effective compensation policy is one of the crucial challenges faced by organizations. “Employees generally prefer jobs that reward them on the basis of what they perceive as economically justifiable” (Robbins, 2005). “Adequate compensation management plans sends a clear message to the employees of an organization informing them about expected attitudes and behaviors and how those attitudes and behaviors will be rewarded” (Schell ; Solomon, 1997). This means that, effective compensation management is one of the surest ways organizations can motivate their employees to do better and influence their performance. Appropriate compensation management tends to motivate employees to remain loyal to the organization and in turn, the organizational performance increases. “Higher compensation packages tend to retain employees because such employees are more satisfied, committed and loyal” (Chiu et al., 2002). This means that when employees feel they are not being rewarded as expected, it will decrease their job satisfaction and their motivation may suffer, leading to low morale, low quality performance and low organizational commitment.
A good, consistent and reliable compensation management system benefits an organization and its employees in several ways such as increased job satisfaction – employees tend to be satisfied with their work and strive to do more when the organization rewards their efforts fairly and adequately, improved motivation to work – when an organization’s compensation plan satisfies the needs, wants, and desires of its employees, the employees are more likely to act in a positive way and increase their productivity, reduced absenteeism – adequately managed compensation policies encourages employees with the zeal, drive and enthusiasm to work harder and be more productive on the job, decrease in turnover – when employees are adequately compensated for the work they do, they become willing to remain with the organization they work for and exhibit loyalty to the organization.

2.7 Theoretical Review
Understanding the relationship between compensation management and organizational commitment would require an analysis of some motivational theories. The theoretical review will look into theories formulated with respect to the field of compensation management and how it can affect organizational commitment. The main theories discussed for the purpose of this study are the equity theory, expectancy theory and the need theory.

2.7.1 Equity Theory
The equity theory postulated by John Adams in 1963 says that an employee who perceives inequity in his/her rewards seeks to restore equity. The theory states that people will be better motivated if they are treated equitably and demotivated if they are treated inequitably. Equity theory is concerned with people’s perceptions of how they are being treated in relation to others. To be dealt with equitably is to be treated fairly in comparison with another group of people (a reference group) or a relevant other person. Equity involves feelings and perceptions, and it is always a comparative process. It is not synonymous with equality, which means treating everyone alike. That would be inequitable if they deserved to be treated differently. Equity theory is linked with the “felt-fair” principle as defined by Jaques (1961), which states in effect that pay systems will be fair if they are felt to be fair. The theory emphasizes equity in the pay structure of employees’ remuneration and provides the view that the behavior of employee is largely influenced by the extent to which the employee interprets fairness in compensation or rewards for his/her input.
Employees’ perceptions of how they are being treated by their organizations are of utmost importance to them. The dictum “a fair day work for a fair day pay” is a sense of equity felt by employees. When employees perceive inequity, it can result in lower productivity, higher absenteeism, or increase in turnover. According to the equity theory, employees tend to reflect on the ratio of their inputs and outputs to that of other employees. When there is a perceived imbalance, it often leads to conflicts and dissatisfaction in the workplace such employees may feel inclined to take actions such as decreasing their inputs, negotiating higher pay, or ultimately leaving the organization (Adams, 1963). Equity theory acknowledges that motivation does not just depend on one’s own beliefs and circumstances but also on what happens to other people. More specifically, equity theory suggests that employees create a “mental ledger” of the outcomes (or rewards) they get from their job duties and the inputs (or contributions and investments) they put into their job duties (Colquitt et al., 2009).

2.7.2 Expectancy Theory
The expectancy theory which was first proposed by Victor Vroom in 1964 focuses on the link between rewards and behavior. It predicts that an individual will act in a certain way based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. The expectancy theory describes the cognitive process that employees go through to make choices among different voluntary responses (Vroom, 1964). It states that the actions of an individual are driven by expected consequences and motivation is the product of expectancy, instrumentality, and valence. The Vroom’s expectancy theory can be expressed with the equation: Motivation = (Expectancy) × (Instrumentality) × (Valence)
Expectancy refers to the belief that an employees’ increase in effort will lead to an increase in productivity. It is usually affected by available resources e.g. raw materials, time, money, skills, support (supervisor support or correct information on the job) and so on. Expectancy (E?P) represents the belief that exerting a high level of effort will result in the successful performance of some task (Colquitt et al., 2009). More technically, it is a subjective probability, ranging from 0 (no chance) to 1 (mortal lock) that a specific amount of effort will result in a specific level of performance.
Instrumentality refers to the belief that if an employee performs well, a valued outcome will be received. It is usually affected by a clear understanding of the relationship between performance and outcomes, mutual trust in the employers who will take the decisions on who gets what outcome, and fairness and transparency of the process that decides who gets what outcome. Instrumentality (P?O) represents the belief that successful performance will result in some outcome(s) (Colquitt et al., 2009). More technically, it is a set of subjective probabilities, each ranging from 0 (no chance) to 1 (mortal lock) that a successful performance will bring a set of outcomes. The term instrumentality makes sense because when you consider the meaning of the adjective “instrumental”. We say something is instrumental when it helps attain something else.

Finally, valence refers to the importance that an employee places upon an expected outcome. For valence to be positive, the employee must prefer attaining the outcome to not attaining it. It reflects the anticipated value of the outcomes associated with performance. Valences can be positive, negative or zero. Salary increases, bonuses and more informal rewards are typical examples of “positively valenced” outcomes, whereas disciplinary actions, demotions, and terminations are typical examples of “negatively valenced” outcomes (Colquitt et al., 2009). This way, employees are more motivated when successful performance helps them attain attractive outcomes, such as bonuses, while helping them avoid unattractive outcomes, such as disciplinary actions.
2.7.3 Need Theory
The basis of the need theory as postulated by Abraham Maslow in 1954 is the belief that an unsatisfied need creates tension and disequilibrium. To restore the balance a goal is identified that will satisfy the need, and a behaviour pathway is selected that will lead to the achievement of the goal. All behaviors are therefore motivated by unsatisfied needs. Not all needs are equally important to a person at any one time (Maslow, 1954). Some may constitute a more powerful drive towards a goal than others, depending on the individual’s background and situation. Complexity is increased because there is no simple relationship between needs and goals. The same need could be satisfied by a number of different goals. The stronger the need and the longer its duration, the broader the range of possible goals.
At the same time, one goal may satisfy a number of needs. A new car provides transport as well as an opportunity to impress the neighbours. The best-known contributor to needs theory is Abraham Maslow who formulated the concept of a hierarchy of needs, which starts from the fundamental physiological needs and leads through safety, social and esteem needs to the need for self-fulfilment, the highest need of all. In the words of Maslow, “man is a wanting animal and only an unsatisfied need can motivate behavior”, and the dominant need is the prime motivator of behavior. This is the best-known theory of needs, but it has never been verified by empirical research.

2.7.4 Selected Theory for the Study
The theory selected for the purpose of this research is the equity theory. The equity approach recognizes that individuals are concerned not only with the absolute amount of money they are paid for their efforts but also with the relationship of this amount to what others are paid. They make judgement as to the relationship between their inputs and outputs with the inputs and outputs of others. “Based on one’s inputs such as effort, education and competence, one compares their outputs such as salary levels, raises and other factors with the outputs of others and when an imbalance in their input output ratio relative to others is perceived, tension is created” (Hills et al., 1994). Such comparison may result in lower productivity, withdrawal behaviors, low commitment, increased absenteeism etc. This tension provides the basis for motivation, as one strives for what he perceives as equity and fairness. “To get relief, the employee may decrease his inputs while holding his output constant, or increase his outputs while holding inputs constant, possibly resulting in fighting the system, increased absenteeism, or other undesirable behaviors” (Colquitt et al., 2009). This is in line with the work of Adams (1963), who stated that “if an organization’s first goal of attracting capable employees into the organization is to be achieved, the personnel must perceive that the compensation offered is fair and equitable”.

Equity is concerned with felt justice according to natural law or right. Homan’s exchange theory predicts greater feelings of equity between people whose exchanges are in equilibrium. According to Adams (1963), “when an employee receives compensation from the employer, perceptions of equity are affected by two elements namely; the ratio of compensation to one’s inputs of fort, education, training, endurance of adverse working conditions, and so on, and, the comparison of this ratio with the perceived ratios of significant other people with whom direct contact is made”. Equity usually exists when a person perceives that the ratio of outcomes to inputs is in equilibrium both internally with respect to self and in relation to others. Employees’ contributions exceed their outcomes of money resulting dissatisfaction often leads to efforts to re-establish equilibrium, such as “borrowing” from the supply room to increase rewards, trying to adversely affect the effort and pay of others, convincing self that pay is not out of line, quitting or frequently absenting oneself from the organization, promoting labor organization, and so on. “The equity theory has been used to motivate employees based on the level of needs the employee is looking to fulfil” (Samad, 2007).

It is a general practice the world over that employees make comparisons between themselves and their co-workers. They perceive what they get from a job situation (outputs) in relation to what they must put into it (inputs). They also compare their output-input ratio with the output-input ratio of their fellow-workers. “If a person’s ratio and that of others are perceived to be equal a state of equity is said to exist. If they are unequal, inequity exists i.e., the individual considers himself as under rewarded or over rewarded” (Adams, 1963). According to Mathis & Jackson (2011), “when an employee perceives a form of inequity in his/her pay, such an employee may; leave the job, engage in withdrawal behaviors, choose a different comparison referent, or even distort either his own or others’ inputs or outputs. This forms the basis of which the equity theory was chosen as the selected theory to guide this study.
2.8 Empirical Review
There have been so many studies by different scholars, authors, researchers and experts exploring the relationship between the concept of compensation management and its impact on job satisfaction, employee performance, organizational performance and organizational commitment. Even though the conclusions of the literature review are slightly different, the positive relationship between compensation and organizational commitment is still being pointed out. Some of such studies and their conclusions includes Frye (2004), Nazir et al. (2013), Osibanjo et al. (2014), Riaz et al. (2016), Idemobi et al. (2011), and so many more.
Nazir et al. (2013), investigated the relationship between compensation organizational commitment in the UK higher education sectors. The study focused on the academic staff at two universities of technology and a quantitative research approach was employed with a semi-structured questionnaire comprising a 5-point likert scale to determine the influence of compensation on organizational commitment. Questionnaires were administered to 279 sample respondents of academic staff. Data was obtained from the 225 respondents and yielded a response rate of 78%. The data collected from the responses were analysed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and AMOS, version 24.0 for windows. Three main data analysis techniques were employed for the analysis of the study namely; descriptive statistics, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling (SEM). The scholars concluded that employees are social agents needed to run educational institutions and the UK higher education system provides financial and non-financial rewards to employees which motivates and encourages them to put in their best effort in their jobs.

Idemobi et al. (2011), explored the extent to which compensation management can be used as a tool for improving organizational performance in a typical public sector organization specifically focusing on the Anambra State Nigerian Civil Service. The study also aimed to determine if efforts of the employees were commensurated with financial compensations. A Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient of 0.995 was found during the data analysis and a Z-test score of 1.28 was found which revealed the significance of the coefficient of correlation at a 5% level of significance. The scholars revealed that financial compensation for staff members in the public service do not have a significant effect on their performance and that financial compensation received were not commensurated with staff efforts. The study further found that reform programmes of the government do not have a significant effect on the financial compensation policies and practices in the public sector due to poor compensation management. Based on the findings, it was recommended that for any public service organization such as the Anambra State of Nigeria Civil Service Commission to improve the performance of employees, they should offer financial compensation that will be specifically designed to link it with performance.

Osibanjo et al. (2014), analyzed the impact of compensation on the job performance and retention of employees at a private university in Ogun State. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of compensation packages on employees’ job performance and retention in a private university in Ogun State, Nigeria. A model was developed and tested using 111 questionnaires which were completed by academic and non-academic staff of the university. The collected data were carefully analyzed using simple percentage supported by structural equation modelling to test the hypotheses and relationships that existed among the dependent and independent variables. The results revealed a strong relationship between compensation packages and employees’ performance and retention. The summary of the findings indicated a strong correlation between the tested dependent and independent variables (salary, bonus, incentives, allowances, and fringe benefits). The scholars recommended that, management and decision makers should endeavour to review compensation packages at various levels in order to earn employees’ satisfaction and prevention of high labour turnover among the members of staff.

Frye (2004), examined the concept of equity-based compensation and its effect on organizational performance. Using two samples, the researcher discovered that firms have come to rely more heavily on equity-based compensation than in the past. A significant, positive relation between Tobin’s q and the percentage of employee compensation that is equity-based was discovered within the sample of the study. Frye concluded the research based on the data collected and analyzed that there is a positive relationship between the two variables and equity-based compensation motivates employers to increase organizational value. Frye further argued that, for human capital intensive organizations, compensation plays a crucial role in attracting and retaining highly skilled employees.
Opkara (2004), conducted a research on the impact of compensation and leadership on job satisfaction. A sample of 360 IT managers were selected from business organizations in Nigeria were used for the research. The results from the findings of the study suggested that IT managers were satisfied with their job, co?workers and supervision, whereas they were dissatisfied with their pay and the promotion system. The results of the regression analyses utilized during the data analysis also showed that personal characteristics, compensation and leadership were significant predictors of job satisfaction. Okpara concluded that if employees are satisfied with their work environment, compensation and leadership, they will improve their productivity and be more committed to their organization.
Riaz et al. (2016), studied the impact of job stress on employee loyalty. The study was conducted at the nursing sector of DHQ Hospital of Okara, Pakistan. Using the simple random sampling technique, questionnaires were distributed to a sample size consists of 100 nurses and the responses were analyzed he using the SPSS software. The Cronbach’s alpha, Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis were used to interpret the data collected. Results from the findings of the study revealed that job stress positively impact on employee loyalty. The researchers also concluded that compensation in the form of salaries and incentives effectively enhances motivation of employees and attracts and maintain the employees efficiently.
Callahan ; Rutledge (1995), studied the impact of compensation policy on organizational performance. Both scholars reported and concluded that compensation is most significantly related to firm size and short-term profit divided by sales or performance. They further interpreted their data and results as an indication that compensation is not directed toward long-term maximization of shareholder wealth. Aslam et al. (2015), examined the effect of reward and compensation system on the performance of employees in Pakistan’s banking sector. The researchers analyzed the study and data collected using the ANOVA and linear regression analysis and concluded that rewards, benefits, incentives, salary and compensation shows a great effect on the performance of employees by boosting the efficiency of employees.

These studies and many more indicates that the concept of compensation and compensation management, is closely related to the formation of job satisfaction, organizational performance and organizational commitment in the workplace. Appropriate and adequate remuneration often motivates employees to work harder to satisfy their needs and in turn not only commit to the organization they serve but also achieve organizational goals and objectives.

2.9 Gap to be filled in the Literature
Every employee joins an organization with certain motives and expectations like security, good working conditions, psychological needs, better prospects and so on. Financial institutions play a vital role in the economy and industrial sector of a country such as encouraging industrial production and creating value by manufacturing and processing the country’s businesses activities as well as providing business support services to entrepreneurs.
“Adequately compensating employees who serve such organizations is of utmost importance as it tends to motivate them to put in their best and achieve success” (Noble ; Mokwa, 1999). Organizational commitment on the other hand, is of real importance for organizations in the corporate world. Researchers and theorists differentiate organizational commitment from job commitment, which refers to the involvement of a person into his profession, whereas organizational commitment refers to the intentions of employees to remain the part of an organization as a whole. Organizational commitment leads to retaining employees and attaining better levels of their performance. These two concepts, compensation management and organizational commitment, are of utmost importance to most managers.
It is evident that appropriate and adequate compensation management has a significant relationship on organizational performance and commitment. However, the various literature reviewed is low on development financial institutions in Nigeria like the Nigerian Bank of Industry Limited. Therefore, this study aims to fill that gap. Commitment in organizations like the Nigerian Bank of Industry (BOI) Limited is an important concept that is necessary for management to investigate in order to ensure the wellbeing and welfare of its employees.

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
This study is aimed at examining the impact of compensation management on organizational commitment in a Nigerian public sector, using the Nigerian Bank of Industry Limited as a case study. This chapter focuses on the methods employed in the study for the collection of data, describing the choice and description of instruments used for data collection, the population under study, and, the sample size and sampling procedure.

3.2 Research Design
A research design can be described as the specification of the method for collecting and analyzing data needed for a research study. “A research design assists in generating primary and secondary data needed for the analysis, discussions, conclusions and recommendations of a research study” (Burns ; Bush, 2006). The research design also helps to ascertain the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable. “A research design is a set of advanced decisions that makes up the master plan specifying the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing the needed information. Knowledge of the needed research design allows the researcher to plan in advance so that the study may be conducted in less time and save costs” (Burns ; Bush, 2006).
For the purpose of this study, the researcher used the exploratory research design. This type of research design refers to a systematic method of data collection that explores the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. According to Burns ; Bush (2006), “an exploratory research design involves gathering information in an informal and unstructured manner”. This research design was chosen because it is an effective, cheap, easy-to-conduct approach that is often used in data collection. The exploratory research design obtains information by gathering data from a sample population under study with the use of questionnaires and, secondary data is relied on for background information.

3.3 Population of the Study
“A population refers to the entire group under study as specified by the research objectives of a research study” (Burns ; Bush, 2006). The population of this study consists of the entire staff at Nigerian Bank of Industry Limited. The total number of employees at the Nigerian Bank of Industry (BOI) Limited retrieved from the Human Resource Department records as at December 2017 is four hundred and sixty eight (468).

3.4 Sample and Sampling Procedure
“A sample refers to the subset of the population that suitably represents the entire group under study” (Burns ; Bush, 2006). Since the study is focused on the impact of compensation management towards organizational commitment at the Nigerian Bank of Industry Limited, it is important to select a sample size that forms a significant representative of the total staff at Nigerian Bank of Industry Limited.

The sampling procedure used to collect data for this study is the simple random sampling procedure. This procedure was chosen because it provides each employee in the sample population an equal and independent chance of being selected and it is often appropriate when responses are expected to vary across the sample population. The employees sampled from the total population comprised of assistant banking officers, banking officers, senior banking officers, assistant managers, deputy managers, managers, senior managers, principal managers, assistant general managers, deputy general managers and general managers at the organization.
Slovin’s 1960 formula, which shows the relationship between the total population and the sample size, was used to determine the actual sample size selected from the population under study. The Slovin’s formula is expressed as thus:

Where; 1 is a constant value, n is the sample size, N is the population size and e is the error tolerance or margin of error to be decided by the researcher. Using the total population of 468 employees at Bank of Industry and an error tolerance of 5%, the sample size was therefore calculated as follows:
N = 468, e = 5% = 0.05

0000n = 215.6
n ? 216
This describes how the actual sample size of 216 was selected as a representative of the total population to be sampled for the study. Thus, questionnaires were randomly distributed to 216 employees at Nigerian Bank of Industry (BOI) Limited.

3.5 Data Collection Method
The data used for the purpose of this study was collected from primary and secondary sources. “Primary data refers to information that is developed or gathered by the researcher specifically for the research under study. Secondary data refers to data that have been previously gathered by someone other than the researcher and/or for some other purpose than the research under study” (Burns ; Bush, 2006). For the secondary source of data, the researcher made use of secondary information from textbooks, journals, published sources and online documents. For the primary source of data, a drop-off survey was conducted by the researcher. A drop-off survey, sometimes called drop and collect, is a self-administered survey in which the researcher approaches a prospective participant, introduces the general purpose of the survey, and leaves it with the participant to fill out on his or her own. “Drop-off surveys must be self-explanatory because they are left with the participants to fill without assistance” (Burns ; Bush, 2006).
To appreciate the impact of compensation management on the organizational commitment among employees at the Nigerian Bank of Industry Limited, questionnaires were used to collect primary data. The questionnaires were distributed personally by the researcher to the sample population with a cover letter attached to the questionnaire explaining the aim of the study, instructions for completing the questionnaire and reassurance of the respondents’ confidentiality of any personal information disclosed. The reason questionnaires was chosen as a method of data collection is because it allowed the researcher to collect back the completed questionnaires in a short period of time while saving cost. Questionnaires are an efficient and effective way to obtain data from a large number of respondents (Sekaran & Bougie, 2010). The questionnaire was self-explanatory and respondents completed it individually and anonymously with little/no supervision.
The questionnaire was structured into four sections;
Section A aimed to obtain information about respondents’ general information which included gender, marital status, designation, and years of work experience.

Sections B, C and D was structured in line with the research objectives, questions, hypothesis of the study in order to determine the respondents’ perspective on the forms of BOI’s compensation policy, the extent of compensation management at BOI and finally, the extent of organizational commitment at BOI.

A five-point likert-type scale was used to rate respondents’ responses. The ratings used were defined as follows: 1 = Strongly Disagree, 2 = Disagree, 3 = Neutral, 4 = Agree and 5 = Strongly Agree. Respondents were required to select the rating that was best suited to answer each question.

3.6 Data Analysis Method
One of the most common data analysis tool used by most researchers is the Statistical Package of the Social Sciences (SPSS). With this study, the researcher used the SPSS software, version 25.0, to analyze all of the data gathered and collected.
Descriptive and analytical techniques were used for the analysis of the collected data. The descriptive techniques used were frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation which displays the variation and dispersion of all the data collected and analyzed while the analytical techniques used to analyze the data were Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis. The Pearson correlation coefficients measures the degree of linear association and direction between two variables into a number ranging from – 1.0 to + 1.0. According to Burns & Bush (2006), “a positive correlation coefficient signals an increasing linear relationship whereas, a negative correlation coefficient signals a decreasing relationship between the two variables”. Linear regression analysis on the other hand, is a predictive analysis technique in which one or more variables are used to predict the level of another variable with the use of a straight line formula. “Linear regression analysis is directly related to correlation by the underlying straight line relationship whereby the independent variable is used to predict the dependent variable” (Burns & Bush, 2006).

To test the understated hypotheses of the study, the researcher used the one-sample t-test on the SPSS software. The one-sample t-test is a statistical procedure used to determine whether a sample comes from a population with a specific mean. With all hypothesis tests, the sample is the only source of current information about the population therefore, the sample results are used to determine if the hypothesis about the population is accepted or rejected (Burns & Bush, 2006). Specifically, “the one-sample t-test compares a sample mean (computed from a set of observed values) to a hypothesized mean and determines the likelihood that the observed difference between the sample and hypothesized mean occurs by chance. The chance is reported as p-value” (Burns & Bush, 2006).

3.7 Limitations of the Methodology
As expected, employees tend to be reluctant to disclose information about their jobs for fear of being discovered in the future, especially when it borders on the job and organization they serve. Thus, convincing the respondents about the study been strictly for research purpose posed a challenge.

The study was limited to the Nigerian Bank of Industry(BOI) Limited, to determine the impact of compensation management on organizational commitment with a total sample size of only 155 employees of the bank, so the findings cannot be over generalized.
All elements of the study were computed on the basis of the perceptions of employees regarding their compensation and organizational commitment. This study is limited to use of the employees’ perceptional measures. It is possible that the exposure and working environment at BOI contributed significantly to their perceptions of the influence of compensation policy on organizational commitment.

Budgetary constraints also played a constraining part in the conduction of the study because data was gathered from only one sector of the many Development Finance Institutes available in Nigeria and thus, the results cannot be deemed as fully useful for the rest of the sectors.

The procedure used for the data collection in this study is very common. The data collection was done by questionnaire method. Other data collection methods could have been considered for the research purpose some of which includes; group discussions, observations, situational analysis etc.

The study was conducted in the perspective of compensation management and its impact on organizational commitment. There are a number of other dimensions that could have been considered in this study such as employee turnover intentions, employee productivity, job satisfaction, training and development, and many other human resource practices.

CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
4.1 Introduction
This chapter is focused on the analysis of all the data collected from the drop-off survey using the questionnaires. It includes the frequency distribution tables, the linear regression analysis as well as the interpretations made from the analysis of all the collected data.

4.2 Overview of Data Collection
A total of 216 questionnaires were distributed randomly to the selected staff of the sample population. However, only a total 155 questionnaires were fully completed and returned in due time by the respondents to the researcher. 48 out of the 216 questionnaires were disregarded and considered as ineligible for use for the study due to incomplete responses from the respondents and, 13 questionnaires were not returned by some respondents due to their tight work schedules, refusal to participate or their inability to complete the questionnaire.

4.3 Response Rate
155 questionnaires out of the 216 distributed were used in the analysis of the study. The response rate was calculated as thus:
QUOTE × 100 QUOTE
= 0.717%
? 72%
This means that the study achieved a response rate of approximately 72% indicating a reliable response rate.

4.4 Analysis of Data
The analysis of data was conducted with the data developed from the primary and secondary data collection sources. The analysis was conducted to examine the impact of compensation management on organizational commitment at BOI. Descriptive and analytical techniques on the SPSS software were applied to determine the mean, standard deviation, frequency, percentages, correlation coefficients and linear regression analysis of the variables. These statistics were used to evaluate the nature, variation, dispersion, strength and direction of the relationship of the study variables. Finally, the one-sample t-test on the SPSS software was applied to test the understated hypotheses of the study.

4.4.1 General Information of Respondents
Section A of the questionnaire required the respondents to provide information about their sex, age, marital status, designation, educational qualification and number of working years at BOI. The table below represents the distribution of the respondents’ general information.

Table 1: General Information of Respondents
VARIABLE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE (%)
GENDER Male 73 47.1
Female 82 52.9
Total 155 100
MARITAL STATUS Single 39 25.2
Married 76 49.0
Divorced 30 19.4
Widowed 10 6.5
Total 155 100
DESIGNATION Junior level 83 53.5
Middle level 58 37.4
Senior level 14 9.0
Total 155 100
WORK EXPERIENCE Less than 1 yr 42 27.1
1 to 5 yrs 67 43.2
5 to 10 yrs 39 25.2
More than 10 yrs 7 4.5
Total 155 100
Source: Field Survey, SPSS (April, 2018).

From the results in Table 1; the gender distribution indicated that out of the 155 respondents, 73 were males representing 47.1% and 82 were females representing 52.9% of the sample population. The marital status data indicated that 39 of the respondents were single representing 25.2%, 76 out of the respondents were married representing 49.0%, 30 of the respondents were divorced representing 19.4% and finally, 10 of the respondents were widowed representing 6.5% of the sample population. The designation distribution indicated that 83 of the respondents were junior level staff representing 53.5%, 58 were middle level staff representing 37.4%, and only 14 were senior level staff representing 9.0% of the sample population. Finally, the data from the work experience of employees indicated that 42 of the respondents have served with BOI for less than a year representing 27.1%, 67 respondents have served with BOI for a period of 1 to 5 yrs representing 43.2%, 39of the respondents have served with BOI for a period of 5 to 10 years representing 25.2%, and only 7 of the respondents have served with BOI for more than 10 years.

4.4.2 Forms of Compensation at BOI
Section B of the questionnaire was structured to determine the respondents’ view on the direct and indirect compensation policy at BOI. The results of the respondents’ view on the direct compensation policy at BOI are represented in Table 2a.

Table 2a: Direct Compensation at BOI
VARIABLE SD D N A SA Mean Sd
Financial rewards are reflective of individual skills and efforts 0
(0%) 11
(7.1%) 5
(3.2%) 38
(24.5%) 101
(65.2%) 4.477 0.862
Financial rewards compares favorably to that provided in similar firms 17
(11.0%) 18
(11.6%) 3
(1.9%) 41
(26.5%) 76
(49.0%) 3.909 1.402
Financial rewards includes allowances for extra duties and responsibilities 2
(1.3%) 2
1.3%) 1
(0.6%) 62
(4.0%) 88
(56.8%) 4.496 0.705
Financial rewards are reviewed to accommodate market changes 5
(3.2%) 2
(1.3%) 0
(0%) 63
(40.6%) 85
(54.8%) 4.425 0.844
BOI takes care of taxes before employees’ base pay is provided 1
(0.6%) 3
(1.9%) 1
(0.6%) 63
(40.6%) 87
(56.1%) 4.496 0.677
Profit sharing is done in the bank at the end of each year 6
(3.9%) 5
(3.2%) 0
(0%) 65
(41.9%) 79
(51.0%) 4.329 0.940
I am satisfied with the financial rewards I receive at BOI 23
(14.8%) 12
(7.7%) 1
(0.6%) 54
(34.8%) 65
(41.9%) 3.812 1.431
SD = Strongly Disagree, D = Disagree, N = Neutral, A = Agree, SA = Strongly Agree, Sd = Standard Deviation
Source: Field Survey, SPSS (April, 2018).

From the results in Table 2a, about 89.7% of the respondents indicated that the financial rewards provided at BOI are reflective of their individual skills and efforts (4.477); some of the respondents also answered in the affirmative that the financial rewards they receive at BOI compares favourably to that provided in similar organizations (3.909); more than half of the respondents also indicated that BOI includes allowances for extra duties and responsibilities (4.496); some of the respondents also indicated that the financial rewards of the firm are reviewed to accommodate market changes (4.425). Finally, most of the respondents also noted that; BOI takes care of employees’ taxes (4.496); profit sharing is done at the bank (4.329); and 76.7% of the respondents indicated that they are satisfied with the financial rewards they are being offered at BOI (3.812).

The results of the respondents’ view on the indirect compensation policy at BOI are represented in Table 2b.

Table 2b: Indirect Compensation at BOI
VARIABLE SD D N A SA Mean Sd
Non-financial rewards are adequate enough to satisfy my needs 7
(4.5%) 7
(4.5%) 0
(0%) 47
(30.3%) 94
(60.6%) 4.380 1.027
Non-financial rewards compares favorably to that of similar firms 10
(6.5%) 6
(3.9%) 0
(0%) 57
(36.8%) 82
(52.9%) 4.258 1.098
Non-financial rewards includes protection programs 6
(3.9%) 7
(4.5%) 0
(0%) 61
(39.4%) 81
(52.3%) 4.316 0.978
Non-financial rewards at BOI provides pay for time not worked 7
(4.5%) 5
(3.2%) 0
(0%) 66
(42.6%) 77
(49.7%) 4.296 0.974
Non-financial rewards includes services and perquisites 15
(9.7%) 18
(11.6%) 1
(0.6%) 55
(35.5%) 66
(42.6%) 3.896 1.329
I am satisfied with the non-financial rewards I receive at BOI 0
(0%) 1
(0.6%) 7
(4.5%) 67
(43.2%) 80
(51.6%) 4.458 0.616
SD = Strongly Disagree, D = Disagree, N = Neutral, A = Agree, SA = Strongly Agree, Sd = Standard Deviation
Source: Field Survey, SPSS (April, 2018).

From the results in Table 2b, 90.9% of the respondents indicated that the non-financial rewards provided at BOI are adequate enough to satisfy their needs (4.380); 89.7% of the respondents also indicated that the non-financial rewards they receive compares favourably to that provided in similar organizations (4.258); about 91.7% of the respondents answered to the affirmative that the non-financial rewards at BOI includes protection programs such as pensions, insurance etc. (4.316); 92.3% of the respondents indicated that BOI non-financial rewards provides pay for time not worked e.g. sick leaves, holidays etc. (4.296); and about 78.1% of the respondents indicated that BOI’s non-financial rewards includes services and perquisites e.g. the use f the company car, low-cost meals etc. (3.896). Finally, 94.8% of the respondents expressed their satisfaction with the non-financial rewards they receive at BOI (4.458).

4.4.3 Compensation Management at BOI
Section C of the questionnaire required the respondents to provide their insight on the overall compensation management at BOI. The results of the respondents’ view on the compensation management at BOI are represented in Table 3.

Table 3: Compensation Management at BOI
VARIABLE SD D N A SA Mean Sd
BOI has a well-organized compensation system 6
(3.9%) 5
(3.2%) 1
(0.6%) 65
(41.9%) 78
(50.3%) 4.316 0.944
The existing compensation system is applicable to all the employees 69
(44.5%) 44
(28.4%) 11
(7.1%) 20
(12.9%) 11
(7.1%) 2.096 1.293
BOI communicates its compensation policy to employees 16
(10.3%) 12
(7.7%) 0
(0%) 41
(26.5%) 86
(55.5%) 4.090 1.340
BOI’s compensation recognizes skill, effort and commitment 28
(18.1%) 19
(12.3%) 8
(5.2%) 27
(17.4%) 73
(47.1%) 3.632 1.587
Job designation is essential in BOI’s compensation management 1
(0.6%) 1
(0.6%) 0
(0%) 68
(43.9%) 85
(54.8%) 4.516 0.606
I am satisfied with BOI’s compensation management system 0
(0%) 0
(0%) 0
(0%) 33
(21.3%) 122
(78.7%) 4.787 0.410
SD = Strongly Disagree, D = Disagree, N = Neutral, A = Agree, SA = Strongly Agree, Sd = Standard Deviation
Source: Field Survey, SPSS (April, 2018).

From the results in Table 3, about 92.2% of the respondents confirmed that BOI has a well-organized compensation system (4.316); most of the respondents indicated that the existing compensation system at BOI is applicable to all the employees (2.096); about 82% of the respondents indicated that BOI communicates its compensation policy to every employee (4.090); some of the respondents also expressed that BOI’s compensation policy recognizes skill, effort and commitment (3.632); almost all of the respondents, a total of 98.7%, answered to the affirmative that job designation is essential in BOI’s compensation management (4.516). Finally, all of the respondents expressed their satisfaction with the compensation management system at BOI (4.787).

4.4.4 Organizational Commitment at BOI
Section D of the questionnaire required the respondents to provide their insight on the overall organizational commitment at BOI. The results of the respondents’ view on the organizational commitment at BOI are represented in Table 4.

Table 4: Organizational Commitment at BOI
SD D N A SA Mean Sd
The rewards I receive inspires me to offer more services to BOI 0
(0%) 0
(0%) 0
(0%) 71
(45.8%) 84
(54.2%) 4.541 0.499
I wish to keep working in BOI in the next ten years 2
(1.3%) 1
(0.6%) 0
(0%) 68
(43.9%) 84
(54.2%) 4.490 0.668
I am happy and proud to work and serve at BOI 6
(3.9%) 11
(7.1%) 29
(18.7%) 50
(32.3%) 59
(38.1%) 3.935 1.097
I am comfortable participating in BOI’s activities even without pay 34
(21.9%) 30
(19.4%) 16
(10.3%) 21
(13.5%) 54
(34.8%) 3.200 1.605
My career advancement would suffer if I leave BOI 38
(24.5%) 33
(21.3%) 0
(0%) 22
(14.2%) 62
(40.0%) 3.238 1.702
Equity in BOI’s compensation mgmt. inspires me to commit 22
(14.2%) 27
(17.4%) 12
(7.7%) 39
(25.2%) 55
(35.5%) 3.503 1.474
Good work relationships influences my willingness to remain at BOI 7
(4.5%) 11
(7.1%) 1
(0.6%) 52
(33.5%) 84
(54.2%) 4.258 1.086
I have enjoyed several benefits from BOI that inspires me to work harder 1
(0.6%) 3
(1.9%) 2
(1.3%) 65
(41.9%) 84
(54.2%) 4.471 0.686
I am satisfied with the mgmt. of compensation, I wish to remain 5
(3.2%) 9
(5.8%) 3
(1.9%) 57
(36.8%) 81
(52.3%) 4.290 0.993
SD = Strongly Disagree, D = Disagree, N = Neutral, A = Agree, SA = Strongly Agree, Sd = Standard Deviation
Source: Field Survey, SPSS (April, 2018).

From the results in Table 4, all of the respondents answered to the affirmative that the rewards they receive at BOI inspires them to offer more services to the organization (4.541); about 98.1% of the respondents indicated that they wish to be in BOI in the next ten years (4.490); some of the respondents indicated that they are happy and proud to work and serve at BOI (3.935); about 48.3% of the respondents also indicated that they are comfortable working at BOI even without pay (3.200); about 54.2% of the respondents indicated that their career advancement would suffer if they leave the organization (3.238); some of the respondents also expressed that the equity in BOI’s compensation management inspires them to commit to the organization (3.503); about 87.7% of the respondents answered to the affirmative that good working relationships at BOI influences their willingness to commit to the organization (4.258); most of the respondents also indicated that the benefits they receive inspires them to work harder (4.471); and finally, 89.1% of the respondents indicated that they have experienced consistent career advancement hence, wish to remain at BOI.

4.4.5 Pearson Correlation Analysis
Pearson correlation coefficient was undertaken to measure the degree of linear association and direction between the independent variable, compensation management and the dependent variable, organizational commitment. The results obtained are represented in Table 5.

Table 5: Pearson Correlation Coefficients
CM OC
CM Pearson Correlation 1 .822**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 155 155
OC Pearson Correlation .822** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 N 155 155
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

CM = Compensation Management, OC = Organizational Commitment
Source: Field Survey, SPSS (April, 2018).

From the results in Table 5, the coefficient indicates that there is a strong positive relationship between compensation management and organizational commitment (r = 0.822, p = 0.000). This shows that if BOI maintains and improves on its compensation management system, the overall organizational commitment will experience a likely increase as well.
4.4.6 Linear Regression Analysis
To validate the statistical results from the Pearson correlation coefficient analysis, the linear regression analysis was used to show that compensation management is significantly associated with organizational commitment. The linear regression analysis is a predictive model used to predict the value of one dependent variable from the values of two or more independent variables by the use of a straight line formula. The formula for the straight line relationship is given as:
y = a + bx
Where, y is the dependent or predicted variable, x is the independent variable, a is the intercept or point where the line cuts the y axis when x = 0 and, b is the slope or change in y for any 1 unit change in x.
The linear regression model was used to assess the extent of the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable. The results obtained are represented in Tables 6a, 6b and 6c.

Table 6a: Linear Regression Analysis
Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .822a .676 .674 .34643
a. Predictors: (Constant), Compensation Management
Source: Field Survey, SPSS (April 2018).

From the results in Table 6a, R is known as the coefficient of correlation. The value of R indicates that there is a positive correlation between the independent and dependent variables of the study. This means that there is a positive relationship between BOI’s compensation management and organizational commitment. This means that, employees are likely to produce better results when they are compensated effectively. From the results of the analysis, R (0.822) signifies that there is an 82.2% correlation between compensation management and organizational commitment at BOI.

R Square on the other hand is known as the coefficient of determination. The value of R Square indicates that a change in the dependent variable can be accounted for by a change in the independent variable. From the results of the analysis, R Square (0.676) signifies that a 67.6% change in the dependent variable is accounted for by the independent variable. This means that, compensation management has a 67.6% effect on organizational commitment at BOI and a change in organizational commitment at BOI is caused by changes in BOI’s compensation management. This reflects the role of the compensation management system on the organizational commitment at BOI. The value of R Square is not up to 100% because there are other variables such as working conditions, motivation, employee participation etc. which can account for the changes in the organizational commitment at BOI.

Table 6b: Analysis of Variance
ANOVAa
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

1 Regression 38.348 1 38.348 10.797 .000b
Residual 18.362 153 .120 Total 56.710 154 Dependent Variable: Organizational Commitment
Predictors: (Constant), CM
CM = Compensation Management
Source: Field Survey, SPSS (April 2018).

Table 6b indicates the analysis of variance. The results indicate a positive and significant F value of 107.797 (Sig. = 0.000). This shows that there is a positive and significant relationship between compensation management and organizational commitment.

Table 6c: Regression Coefficients
Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.

B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) .906 .204 4.444 .000
CM .810 .045 .822 17.875 .000
a = Dependent Variable: Organizational Commitment, CM = Compensation Management
Source: Field Survey, SPSS (April 2018).

Table 6c indicates the regression coefficients. The intercept, 0.906, represents the estimated average value of organizational commitment when compensation management is zero. The slope of compensation management (CM), 0.810, means that a change in organizational commitment would be 0.810 when compensation management increases by 1. Under the CM row, a significant t value of 17.875 (Sig. = 0.000 was obtained). This shows that the coefficients obtained for compensation management could reliably predict the organizational commitment at BOI. Thus, the following straight line equation was derived:
OC = 0.906 + (0.810 * CM)
Where, OC = organizational commitment which is the dependent variable, 0.096 is the intercept, 0.810 is the slope and, CM = compensation management which is the independent variable.

4.4.7 Hypotheses Testing
To test the hypothesis of the study, the researcher applied the one-sample t-test to determine if the hypotheses of the study would be accepted or rejected. The significance of the one-sample t-test is determined through the p-value. “The lower the p-value, the more certain we can be that there is a statistically significant difference between the observed and hypothesized mean” (Burns & Bush, 2006). The decision rule for the one-sample t-test is given as thus:
If p < 0.05, reject the null hypothesis.
If p ? 0.05, accept the null hypothesis.
Table 7: One-Sample T-Test
Test Value = 3
N Mean Mean Difference Sd Std. Error Mean t df Sig. (2-tailed) 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower Upper
DC 155 4.7871 1.7871 .41069 .03299 54.176 154 .000 1.7219 1.8523
IC 155 4.3161 1.3161 .94494 .07590 17.340 154 .000 1.1662 1.4661
WR 155 4.4258 1.4258 .84476 .06785 21.013 154 .000 1.2918 1.5598
CM 155 4.4581 1.4581 .61622 .04950 29.458 154 .000 1.3603 1.5558
DC = Direct Compensation, IC = Indirect Compensation, WR = Work Relationships, CM = Compensation Management, N = Population, Sd = Standard Deviation, t = t statistic, df = Degrees of Freedom
Source: Field Survey, SPSS (April 2018).

Hypothesis 1: There is no form of compensation management that affects organizational commitment. Questions 7 and 13 of the questionnaire filled by the sample population required the respondents to indicate their level of satisfaction with the direct and indirect compensation they receive at BOI. The responses collected were used to test for Hypothesis 1. From Table 7, under the DC row, the mean score (4.79 ± 0.41) was higher than the normal score of 3.0, a statistically significant difference of 1.79 (95% CI, 1.72 to 1.85), the p-value = 0.000, t (154) = 54.176. Under the IC row, the mean score (4.32 ± 0.95) was higher than the normal score of 3.0, a statistically significant difference of 1.32 (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.47), the p-value = 0.000, t (154) = 17.340. The results indicates that there is a statistically significant difference between means (p < 0.05) and, therefore, we can reject the null hypothesis that there is no form of compensation management that affects organizational commitment i.e. H1 is rejected. This means that, indeed the forms of compensation, direct compensation and indirect compensation, affects organizational commitment in the workplace.
Hypothesis 2: There is no factor that influences organizational commitment. Question 26 of the questionnaire filled by the sample population required the respondents to indicate the extent to which good working relationships (which is one of the factors that influence organizational commitment, pg. 15) at BOI affects their willingness to commit to the organization. The responses collected were used to test for Hypothesis 2. From Table 7, under the WR row, the mean score (4.43 ± 0.84) was higher than the normal score of 3.0, a statistically significant difference of 1.43 (95% CI, 1.29 to 1.56), the p-value = 0.000, t (154) = 21.013. The results indicates that there is a statistically significant difference between means (p < 0.05) and, therefore, we can reject the null hypothesis that there is no factor that influences organizational commitment i.e. H2 is rejected. This means that, indeed factors such as a good working relationship in a workplace can affect an employees’ willingness to commit to an organization.

Hypothesis 3: There is no significant relationship between compensation management and organizational commitment. Question 28 of the questionnaire filled by the sample population required the respondents to indicate the their level of satisfaction with the overall compensation management at BOI and its effect on their organizational commitment. The responses collected were used to test for Hypothesis 3. From Table 7, under the CM row, the mean score (4.46 ± 0.62) was higher than the normal score of 3.0, a statistically significant difference of 1.46 (95% CI, 1.36 to 1.56), the p-value = 0.000, t (154) = 29.458. The results indicates that there is a statistically significant difference between means (p ; 0.05) and, therefore, we can reject the null hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between compensation management and organizational commitment i.e. H3 is rejected. This means that, indeed compensation management positively affects the organizational commitment of employees in a workplace.
Table 8: Summary of Hypothesis Decision
Hypothesis Statement Decision
1 There is no element of compensation management that affects organizational commitment Rejected
2 There is no factor that influences organizational commitment Rejected
3 There is no significant relationship between compensation management and organizational commitment Rejected
Source: Field Survey, SPSS (April 2018).

4.5 Discussion of Results
The discussion of results includes all of the responses and analysis and gathered from the survey through the administration of questionnaires and other data collected during the course of the study. The discussion consists of both the theoretical and empirical findings.

The first research question was centered on the relationship between the forms of compensation and organization commitment from which the results indicated a positive and significant relationship within the two variables. This is in line with a research study conducted by Lambert et al. (2001), which concluded that compensation significantly influences organizational commitment. The results were in alignment of the perception that employees usually take employment where financial and non-financial compensation are generally are utilized to measure their importance or the employee value. The second research question was centered on the factors that influence organizational commitment. From the data analysis of the study, it was observed that factors like good working relationships influence employees’ willingness to commit to the organization they serve. Finally, the third research question was centered on the relationship between compensation management and organizational commitment. From the data analysis of the study, it was observed that employees attached a significant importance to the rewards they receive, how the organization manages and administers their rewards and, the rewards affects on their willingness to commit to the organization.
The findings of this study indicates that compensation management plays a significant and positive role in the determination of organizational commitment which is consistent with those of several studies reviewed such as Frye (2004), Nazir et al. (2013), Osibanjo et al. (2014), Riaz et al. (2016), Idemobi et al. (2011) etc. Adequately managing an organization’s compensation management system affects the level of commitment to the organization by the employees. Based on the results of the data analysis, various details with respect to compensation management and its impact on organizational commitment at Nigerian Bank of Industry (BOI) Limited have emerged. According to Anvari et al. (2011), “an organization’s compensation plan must be organized and well communicated to all of the employees working at the organization”. The results from the data analysis also supports this statement because more than half of the respondents who participated in the survey answered affirmatively to the question that BOI’s compensation policy is well organized and is often communicated to the employees. Most of the respondents were of the opinion that the well-organized compensation management system at BOI is applicable to all the employees. The opinions of the respondents varied in terms of the salary they receive and whether the salary meets their immediate needs. The overall results from the analysis of data also indicated that the compensation management system at BOI indeed has a positive effect on the organizational commitment of the firm. Should there be an improvement in the compensation terms at BOI, an increase in organizational commitment will be experienced and vice versa. This suggestion is consistent with the expectancy theory by Vroom (1964), which states that the perception held by employees’ motivation to work has a direct correlation with performance and, that high performance will result to positive outcomes in the form of rewards or compensation.

As obtained from the literature reviewed, theories of motivation such as expectancy, equity and need theories sees compensation as a predictor of behavior, in other words, compensation can influence a repeat of behavior. From the analysis of the study, we can conclude that the implication for compensation management is that high organizational commitment followed by a monetary and/or non-monetary reward will make future high commitment more likely. By the same token, high commitment not followed by a monetary and/or non-monetary reward will make it less likely in the future. This statement is in line with the expectancy theory (Vroom, 1964), which focuses on the link between rewards and behaviors. Baron ; Greenberg (1990) examined how an organization communicated pay cuts to its employees and the effect on perceived equity. In the course of the research, questions were tactically drawn, included in the research questions and questionnaires were administered in order to satisfy the research objectives and research hypotheses. The results obtained from the study validates that respondents agree that an effective compensation management practice in an organization leads to an improvement in employee productivity, organizational performance and employee commitment towards the organization. The test of the hypothesis was also a further assurance and belief in the fact that compensation management when handled effectively has a positive impact or effect on the commitment of employees.
Compensation management is strategic to an organization’s goals and objectives and thus, should be able to ensure employee and job satisfaction, employee retention, employee development, better organizational performance and organizational commitment. From the results of the study, the findings revealed that there are positive significant relationships among salary, bonuses, commissions, pension plans, insurance etc. and organizational commitment at the Nigerian Bank of Industry (BOI) Limited. Organizations that have better compensation management systems in place set a very positive influence on their employees thereby committing them to the organization and such will be less likely to leave it. Because of the strong relationship between these forms of compensations management, performances and commitment are affected positively. The task in compensation management is to develop policies and strategies that will attract, satisfy, retain and motivate employees thereby leading to employee satisfaction and organizational commitment. This encourages employees to work harder and in turn helps the organization to build a competitive atmosphere in the organization as it supports the achievement of business goals and objectives.

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction
This chapter presents a summary of the key study findings, conclusions and recommendations for further research. It provides a precise and concise framework into the compensation management and organizational commitment at the Nigerian Bank of Industry Limited. It also includes the conclusions drawn from the analysis of the results, and the recommendations made for future policy decisions.
5.2 Major Summary of Findings
Compensation management has been observed by scholars and emphasized to be very fundamental to an organization and in enhancing organizational commitment. For an organization to stand the test of time and to enjoy competitive advantage in a competing environment, effective compensation management systems must be set in place to attract, satisfy, retain and develop skilful employees that will be dedicated and committed to the achievement of the organization’s set goals. According to Noble ; Mokwa (1999), “employee commitment towards an organization is the extent to which an employee identifies with and works towards the organization’s goals and objectives. A reliable, appropriate and adequate compensation management system must be adopted by managers of organizations to reduce absenteeism, withdrawal behaviors and so on within an organization thus, improvement on organizational performance and commitment is guaranteed”. However, for any organization to enjoy sustainability and remain on top, adequate remuneration must be imbedded to the philosophy of the organization that will be of great interest to not only the employees but the organization as well. This can be achieved through a periodical review of the remuneration package by the organization.

Sometimes, certain employees may be satisfied with the little salary they earn and the direct compensation they receive, whilst other employees will be dissatisfied with same salary but satisfied with the job conditions e.g. the leader style, work atmosphere, job role, job responsibility, recognition, and so on (Chhabra, 2001). This often leads to a positive influence on employee motivation, job satisfaction, productivity, and the willingness to commit and remain loyal to the organization. Hence, in designing, implementing, and managing compensation plans for organizations, it must include direct and indirect benefits to adequately motivate, encourage, and satisfy the employees so they strive harder to achieve organizational goals and objectives. In spite of the multiple benefits and advantages of compensation management and its impact on organizational commitment, it cannot still be concluded that having a good compensation management system alone is a solution for the overall success in appraising and managing employee’s performance and commitment. It is therefore the duty of all managers to ensure that the use of appropriate and adequate compensation management systems meets employee’s expectation in order to have good and effective performance and in turn, a willingness to commit.
According to the findings from this study, a good number of direct and indirect compensation packages were received by the employees of the bank. These include base pay, tax reliefs, medical expenses, anticipated retirement package, free health insurance, housing allowance, travel and meal allowance, vacation and leave allowances and bonuses, merit pay and profit sharing. As a result, the findings concluded that employees of the bank were satisfied with these compensation packages. The study further shows that employees’ satisfaction with these compensation packages had a positive effect on their commitment. The management of the Nigerian Bank of Industry (BOI) Limited adopts both the direct (salary, benefits, bonuses, commissions) compensation and indirect (recognition of work done, services and perquisites, pay for time not worked, protection programs) compensation to motivate employees, to raise their moral, improve the strength of the organization, and to maintain and attract efficient employees. Employees of the bank perceived the existing compensation system in the bank as being adequate enough to influence the employee’s commitment as the bank motivates employees with better remuneration and salary to cater for the needs of all employees within the organization.
The study was aimed at examining the impact of compensation management on the organizational commitment at the Nigerian Bank of Industry Limited. Questionnaires were administered to selected staff of BOI. The entire population was estimated at 468 people comprising of both the junior and senior staff and out of this population a sample population of 216 respondents were randomly selected for the study and analyzed. The responses obtained from the self-administered questionnaires and the test of hypothesis using the one-sample t-test method forms the basis of the finding of this study.
In conclusion, the general summary of the findings revealed that:
The Nigerian Bank of Industry (BOI) Limited has a well-organized and efficient compensation management system which is applicable to all the employees.

BOI’s compensation management system has a great impact on employees’ efficiency and commitment of the employees at the organization.
There is a positive and significant relationship between compensation management and organizational commitment and that effective compensation management will lead to a positive impact on the organizational commitment at the Nigerian Bank of Industry (BOI) Limited.

Organizational commitment can also be determined through the use of not only monetary rewards but also non-monetary rewards as well some of which could include; recognition, advancements, responsibilities, leadership roles, effective communication, sense of belonging and involvement, decision making and so on in relation to the concept of compensation management.

5.3 Conclusion
The first basic requirement for effective organizational commitment is to have a common understanding of the standards of performance and commitment required from each employee, and then, compensation management should be set in relation with the organizational goals and objectives. One of the primary responsibilities of management is to make compensation management a regular tool for optimizing the potentials of employees and human resources managers or practitioners should be in the driving seat in ensuring that the system is run in line with the principles of fairness and equity.
Based on the research findings and theoretical literature reviewed, it can be concluded that compensation management positively influences organizational commitment. It can also be said that compensation management leads to better performance, trust in management, strong relationship in the organization and organizational commitment. In addition, Nigerian Bank of Industry (BOI) Limited practices a compensation management system through communicating and involving employees in the development. Furthermore, it can also be concluded that the success of an organization’s compensation management system is in having open communication with the employees, which enables them to be satisfied with the fairness and equity in the management and administration of the firm’s compensation management system.

There is a strong direct relationship between compensation and organizational commitment at BOI thus, as the overall working conditions of employees becomes better, the more their commitment would improve to ensure the growth and development of the bank. The main goal of fulfilling this study was to establish a link between compensation management and organizational commitment of employees at the Nigerian Bank of Industry (BOI) Limited.

5.4 Recommendations
Employers are continually challenged to develop pay practices and procedures that will enable them to attract, motivate, retain and satisfy their employees. The findings of this study can be helpful tools which could be used to provide solutions to individual dissatisfaction to work processes. It is very important to suggest that more research should be conducted on the issues related to compensation management system using many private and public organizations as case studies. It is significant for further studies to be carried out in order to do justice to all issues concerning compensation management. Based on the research analysis, findings and conclusions, this study will be incomplete without the following recommendations and suggestions to the management of the Nigerian Bank of Industry (BOI) Limited and other organizations that may find this research work useful.

Organizations that have established equitable compensation management systems with well-communicated strategies will attract employees and also retain them more than comparable organizations with ineffective compensation management practices. There is need for top leadership in the organizations to establish an effective compensation management system since this will influence the success of attaining the organization’s goals, objectives and vision.

Managers can increase organizational commitment by communicating that they value employees’ contribution and that they care about employees’ wellbeing. The findings from this study will therefore assist senior managers to identify those employee-related issues that can slow productivity, performance and commitment in the workplace. When the employees understand that they are considered, their emotional, normative and continuity attachment towards the organization will increase successively.

Employees with higher levels of organizational attachment will be more willing to work for an organization and to stay as a member of the organization, which brings about higher levels of productivity in the organization. Policy makers could use the findings of this study to develop policies to guide the remuneration of employees in other Development Financial Institutions to ensure uniformity in remuneration and increase in the commitment of employees towards organizations.

Since employees’ efforts are directed towards the achievement of organizational goals and objectives and these efforts goes hand in hand with employees’ abilities, then, the employees’ abilities should be enhanced through training, development, capacity building programs, orientation and re-orientation, counselling programs etc.
Organizations will do well to take employees’ motivation seriously, knowing fully well that employees come to work with expectations and needs they want to satisfy via their work efforts and the compensation they receive.

Managers must ensure to communicate to their employees the compensation attached to each performance target so that each employee know what he/she can expect in exchange for his/her efforts at every level of performance.

Managers must ensure that the compensation offered to the employees are matched to employees’ needs and preferences.

Managers must also ensure that rewards distributed to employees are dynamic and constantly re-evaluated to ensure their transparency and fairness to all employees so as to continue to have their dedication, commitment and loyalty, which is the major drive for keeping contented and satisfied employees, thus, avoiding turnover but ensuring retention of vibrant employees.

Organizations must develop and implement a culture of appreciating employees with recognition awards. Employees thrive in a work environment when there is a frequent feedback and praises from their employers or superiors they are generally motivated to give out their best to help improve organizational performance.

Educational funding is also another way to motivate employees in the workplace. Giving employees the tools and resources to develop themselves by achieving industrial certification and degrees can help to elevate the quality of work produced, provide a meaningful career and incentives that is recognized by all, and ultimately, motivate and encourage the employees to exhibit loyalty and commitment towards the organization.

Organizations can utilize corporate wellness programs as a method of incentivization to encourage employee commitment towards the organization. Studies like Bob (2001), have proven that such programs can be used to boost compensation strategies.

Suggestions for Future Studies
The study focused on only one Development Financial Institution in Nigeria i.e. the Nigerian Bank of Industry (BOI) Limited.
There is the need for a similar research to be carried out in other sectors of the Nigerian economy such as the manufacturing and service sectors where a comparison of the findings can be made.
The study focused on the impact of only one variable (compensation management) on organizational commitment. Other variables, such as motivation, training, job stress, role conflict, role ambiguity etc. which can be related to organizational commitment can also be explored and included in future studies.
In the event of further studies, the sample size to be used should be larger so as to enable the researcher get the required results from the respondents, the researcher should obtain a more representative sample from more organizations and also from different sectors if possible. Increasing the sample size would help to increase the external validity of the results and give more strength in the overall internal and external validity of the results.
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APPENDIX: QUESTIONNAIRE
Nile University Nigeria,
Faculty of Management and Social Sciences
Department of Business Administration
Abuja, Nigeria.
7th April, 2018.
A Questionnaire on the Impact of Compensation Management on Organizational Commitment (A Case Study on Nigerian Bank of Industry Limited)
I, Ohunene Salima Ahmad, an MSc. Management student of Nile University Nigeria, Abuja, under the supervision of Dr. Daniel Cross, humbly writes to invite you to participate in my research study via a written interview.
My topic “The Impact of Compensation Management on Organizational Commitment” is aimed at examining the importance of an effective compensation management system and to explore how compensation motivates/demotivates and encourages/discourages the employees to remain loyal to the organization. This study also seeks to determine how compensation management at Nigerian Bank of Industry Limited influences the organizational commitment of the employees.

Please spare a few minutes of your time to answer the following questions. All personal information provided by the respondents during the course of the interview will be treated as confidential.

Many thanks,
Ohunene Ahmad.

SECTION A
Employees’ General Information
Please tick as appropriate
2161540323850011176004889500Sex: Male Female
52819303238500408178030480002947035241300018465803238500Marital Status: Single Married Divorced Widowed
360680045085002699385336550017094203365500Designation: Junior Middle Senior
How long have you worked at BOI?
35921953429000245300541910001355725457200052165253810000Less than 1 yr 1 – 5 yrs 5 – 10 yrs More than 10 yrs
SECTION B
Forms of Compensation at BOI
FORMS OF COMPENSATION Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree
Direct Compensation 1. Financial rewards are reflective of individual skills and efforts 2. Financial rewards compares favorably to that provided in similar firms 3. Financial rewards includes allowances for extra duties and responsibilities 4. Financial rewards are reviewed to accommodate market changes 5. BOI takes care of taxes before employees’ base pay is provided 6. Profit sharing is done in the bank at the end of each year 7. I am satisfied with the financial rewards I receive at BOI Indirect Compensation 8. Non-financial rewards are adequate enough to satisfy my needs 9. Non-financial rewards compares favorably to that provided in similar organizations 10. Non-financial rewards includes protection programs such as pensions and medical insurance 11. Non-financial rewards at BOI provides pay for time not worked e.g. sick leave, holidays etc. 12. Non-financial rewards includes services and perquisites e.g. company car, low-cost meals etc. 13. I am satisfied with the non-financial rewards I receive at BOI SECTION C
Compensation Management at BOI
COMPENSATION MANAGEMENT Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree
14. BOI has a well-organized compensation system 15. The existing compensation system is applicable to all the employees 16. BOI communicates its compensation policy to employees 17. BOI’s compensation recognizes skill, effort and commitment 18. Job designation is essential in BOI’s compensation management 19. I am satisfied with BOI’s compensation management system SECTION D
Organizational Commitment at BOI
ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree
20. The rewards I receive inspires me to offer more services to BOI 21. I wish to keep working in BOI in the next ten years 22. I am happy and proud to work and serve at BOI 23. I am comfortable participating in BOI’s activities even without pay 24. My career advancement would suffer if I leave BOI due to lack of training and devpt. 25. Equity in BOI’s compensation mgmt. inspires me to commit 26. Good working relationships influences my willingness to remain at BOI 27. I have enjoyed several benefits from BOI that inspires me to work harder 28. I am satisfied with the overall management of compensation at BOI hence, I want to remain at BOI Thanks for your participation.

CHAPTER ONE

CHAPTER ONE
.

1.2 Statements Of Research Problem
Today we live in a technological ‘age ‘and global economy where competition has become knowledge-based. In modern theories of growth and development technological innovation has taken the center stage. Our love for novelty and new gadgets is thus based on practical and theoretical foundations. Moreover, there is growing interest in the relationship between technological innovation (and entrepreneurship) and how it can promote global growth and development. Many industries applied various kinds of newly invented technologies in the making, processing, and development of their products. Some entrepreneurs take advantage of techno logical advancement to outrank their competitors in industrial market. Roughly every ten years new mobile phone technology and infrastructure involving a change in the fundamental nature of the service, non-backwards-compatible transmission technology, higher peak data rates, new frequency bands, and wider channel frequency bandwidth in Hertz becomes available.

It was observed that the mobile internet is an effective tool for gaining access to internet anytime and anywhere through the use of digital devices and enjoy various services available on the internet, which bring much convenience to life. Little or no emphasizes was made on the importance and effect of mobile internet to entrepreneurship development. One of the difficulties in examining the effect of mobile technology on entrepreneurship development is the lack of knowledge on the use of this basic tool of technology for entrepreneurship development.

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Most entrepreneurs of small scale business do not see the use of website as an efficient tool to present their valued product to the public. Though majority of large and medium scale enterprise acknowledged the efficient use of website as key to their business.

It is surprising and shocking to witness that some businesses (small, medium, large) do not have a website or online presence. It is important for entrepreneurs to identify their consumers, so also consumers need to be informed on what you can offer consumers to know what an entrepreneur s could offer that best satisfy need, but could not reach the business constitute a major problem.
Information is valuable because it can affect behavior, a decision or an outcome. It has been said that when you are not informed, you are deformed, therefore there is a need for effective and efficient tool for passing timely and needed information from the top level managers down to the low level workers in an organization.
1.3 Research Questions
In order to empirically address the challenges and hindrances raised above, this study provided solutions to the research questions:
What is the effect of Mobile Internet on business growth?
What is the efficacy of website on product improvement?
How automated information system does bring management effectiveness?
1.4 Objectives of The Study
To analyze the effect of Internet on business growth.

To determine the efficacy of website on product improvement.

To access the relationship between automated information system and management effectiveness.

1.5Research Hypothesis
The study gear towards the studying of the following hypothesis:
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the use of Internet and business growth.

Ho: There is no significant relationship between the use of websites and product accessibility.

Ho: There is no significant relationship between automated information system and management effectiveness
1.6Significance of The Study
For the last decade, scholars who study entrepreneurship development have lent great value by exploring the factors that promotes business growth and development. Although there have been considerable research based on the impact of technology on entrepreneurship development, instability in technology, as new and improved technologies are being invented rendering the previous ones no or less appropriate for entrepreneurship development, this calls for a for a further study to establish the impacts of newly emerging technologies to entrepreneurship development in the 1980s and early 1990s,some researchers start focus on the person who had a personnel history in the entrepreneurial network. They deal with distinctive role played by personal and business set of connections in the new venture and early growth of technology-based entrepreneurial venture.(Birley, 1985; Aldrich and Zimmer, 1986; Johansson, 1987).This study would help to identify the importance of adopting new technologies and innovation in the development of entrepreneurship. The results of this research work carried out identified the barriers to adoption of emerging technologies and understanding solutions is proffered to enhance entrepreneurship development .The key role of emerging technologies to improve productivity and efficiency of business firm. The significant efforts in establishing the importance of information management system to an enterprise identified how database of information is managed to enhance entrepreneurship development. The outcome of this study also helps to establish a need for timely adoption of new emerging technology against the competitors and also explained the importance to business firms, entrepreneurs and academic field of study.
1.7Limitations of the Study
Studies in innovation likewise stress the importance of external linkages and processes at all points along the technology transfer pathway (Tidd et al., 1997). Innovation is seen increasingly as a multi-firm networking process (Rothwell, 1992), involving close collaboration between companies and a consequent linking of technology-push and market-pull factors. This study was carried out in Yale food limited in Ibadan Oyo State; hence this undermines its generalization.

The researchers also experienced reluctance among the respondents to complete the given questionnaire thus limits the number of respondent in the study.

The study used a structured questionnaire which limited the respondents to say more about their feelings with regard to the constraints that affect the adoption of newly invented technologies for entrepreneurship development.

The unavailability of recent and newly invented technologies in Nigeria, which are used in developed countries of the world. An example of such technology is robots. Hence undermines this study to Nigeria.

1.8 Operationalization of Research Variables
The topic has two variables, namely; dependent variable and the independent variable represented by X and Y respectively.
Y=dependent variable: Entrepreneurship development
X=Independent variable: Emerging technology
Y1=Business growth
Y2=Product improvement.

Y3=management effectiveness
Elements of variable X
X1=Mobile internet
X2=Website
X3=Automated information system
1.9 Outline of Chapters
This research work consists of five chapters.
Chapter one consist of background of the study, statement of research problem, objectives, research questions, research hypothesis, significance of the study, limitation of the study, definition of terms.

Chapter two focuses on the literature review on the subject emerging technology as a tool for entrepreneurship development, the theoretical framework, empirical framework and the gap in literature. It discusses relevant literatures on the constructs and variables of the studies. Chapter three focuses on the research methodology, here data analysis is done. Chapter four does justice to the presentation of data analysis. Chapter five dwells on the summary of the findings, conclusions and recommendations for future research study.

1.10 Definition of Terms
Business Growth: The process of improving some measure of an enterprise’s success.

Business growth can be achieved either by boosting the top line or revenue of the business with greater product sales or service income, or by increasing the bottom line or profitability of the operation by minimizing costs. Gilbert et al. (2006) suggested how and where questions are important in the context of the growth of the enterprise. It has been highlighted that growth is a function of the decisions of an entrepreneur, who makes or decide on how to grow internally or externally and where to grow in domestic market or international market.

Product improvement:
Product lifecycles continue to shorten as customer quality expectations continue to increase. In order to remain competitive you must continuously improve product quality and performance while simultaneously holding costs down.

Management effectiveness: management starts at a personal and then moves on to the personnel level. Effective managers become role model for subordinates. They play a vital role in improving the overall effectiveness of the organization by utilizing all available resources. According to Business dictionary, management effectiveness is defined as the degree to which objectives are achieved and the extent to which targeted managerial problems are solved.

Internet: The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.

Website: A website is a collection of related web pages, including multimedia content, typically identified with a common domain name, and published on at least one web serve
Automated information system: An automated information system (AIS) is an assembly of computer hardware, software, firmware, or any combination of these, configured to accomplish specific information-handling operations, such as communication, computation, dissemination, processing, and storage of information.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction
This chapter presents the review of research related studies on conceptual framework, empirical and theoretical framework emerging technology as a tool for entrepreneurship development. Relevant literatures emerging technologies and how it brings about entrepreneurship development will be reviewed. However relevant theories to management, business growth is critically Analyzed and established in this chapter.
2.1 Conceptual Frame work
1.1.1 Entrepreneurship Development
The term entrepreneurship development has been defined in various dimensions (Ndechukwu, 2001, McOliver, 1998, Ameashi, 2006). However referring to the productive transformation of an entrepreneur, a single thread runs through all of them: the ability to identify business opportunities, the ability to be able to harness the necessary resources to use opportunities identified, the ability and willingness to initiate and sustain appropriate actions towards the actualization of business objectives. It is also the coming into existence in society of the class of individuals, who are not limited to pace odds
Entrepreneurship development aims to enlarge the base of entrepreneurs in order to hasten the pace at which new ventures are created. This accelerates employment generations and economic development. Entrepreneurial development ‘focuses on the individual who wishes to start or expand a business. Furthermore, entrepreneurship development concentrates more on growth potential and innovation. Essentially this means the acquisition of skills that will enable an entrepreneur to function appropriately and adequately in terms of Attaining present result based on previous decisions and planning for the future, based on present circumstance. Maintaining and developing the organized capability which makes achievement possible, Coordinating the specialist functions that should enable a firm to perform the technical task in marketing, personnel, research and development, manufacturing, finance and control, especially in the face of changing technology and dynamic industry trend. To perform these functions, the entrepreneurial development process, procedures and skill acquisition must entrench certain skills. These include conceptual skills, human skills and technical skills, which will transform the entrepreneur into a taskmaster, mediator and motivator. Entrepreneurial development depends on the entrepreneurial skills, which affect positively the strategic management and development of entrepreneurial organizations in Nigeria.
2.1.2 The Role and Importance of Entrepreneurship Development
Developing country needs entrepreneurs who are competent to perceive new opportunities and are willing to incur the necessary risk in exploiting them. A developing economy is required to be brought out of the vicious circle of low income and poverty. Entrepreneur can break this vicious circle. Entrepreneurs and helping government can change a developing economy in developed economy.

I.Employment Generation
Entrepreneurs not only give employment to the entrepreneur but also a source of direct and indirect employment for many people in a country. Unemployment is a chronic problem in most of the developing and underdeveloped countries. Entrepreneurs play an effective role in reducing the problem of unemployment in the country which in turn clears the path towards economic development of the nation
Entrepreneurial development is looked at as a vehicle for employment generation through promotion of small business. India, being far more developed and forward looking country than some of the third world countries, can provide lead to entrepreneurial development activities. However, India can benefit from the well- documented success experiences of developed countries like USA, Japan and UK in the field of employment generation and small business promotion.

II. Promotes Capital Formation
Entrepreneurs mobilize the idle funds which lead to capital formation. The funds which are used by entrepreneurs is a mix of their own and borrowed. This leads to creation of wealth which is very essential for development of an economy.

III. Small Business Plan Dynamism
Great dynamism is one of the qualities of the small and medium enterprises. This quality of dynamism originates in the inherent nature of the small business. The structure of small and medium enterprises is less complex than that of large enterprises and therefore facilitates quicker and smoother communication and decision- making. This allows for the greater flexibility and mobility of small business management. Also, small enterprises, more often make it possible for owners, who have a stronger entrepreneurial spirit than employed managers, to undertake risk and challenges.

IV.Balanced Economic Development
Small business promotion needs relatively low investment and therefore can be easily undertaken in rural and semi-urban areas. This in turn creates additional employment in these areas and prevents migration of people from rural to urban areas. Since majority of the people are living in the rural areas, therefore, more of our development efforts should be directed towards this sector. Small enterprises use local resources and are best suited to rural and underdeveloped sector
The growth of industries and business in these areas lead to a large number of public benefits like road transport, health, education, entertainment, etc… Setting up of more industries leads to more development of backward regions and thereby promotes balanced regional development.

V. Innovations In Enterprises
Business enterprises need to be innovative for survival and better performance. It is believed that smaller firms have a relatively higher necessity and capability to innovate. The smaller firms do not face the constraints imposed by large investment in existing technology. Thus they are both free and compelled to innovate.

Entrepreneurship development is accelerating the pace of small firm’s growth in India. An increased number of small firms are expected to result in more innovations and make the Indian industry compete in the international market.

VI. Better Standards Of Living
Entrepreneurs play a vital role in achieving a higher rate of economic growth. Entrepreneurs are able to produce goods at lower cost and supply quality goods at lower price to the community according to their requirements. When the price of the commodities decreases the consumers get the power to buy more goods for their satisfaction. In this way they can increase the standard of living of the people.

VII. Self-reliance
Entrepreneurs are the corner stores of national self-reliance. They help to manufacture indigenous substitutes to imported products which reduce the dependence on foreign countries. There is also a possibility of exporting goods and services to earn foreign exchange for the country. Hence, the import substitution and export promotion ensure economic independence and the country becomes self-reliance.

VII. Facilitates Overall Development:
Entrepreneurs act as catalytic agent for change which results in chain reaction. Once an enterprise is established, the process of industrialization is set in motion. This unit will generate demand for various types of units required by it and there will be so many other units which require the output of this unit. This leads to overall development of an area due to increase in demand and setting up of more and more units. In this way, the entrepreneurs multiply their entrepreneurial activities, thus creating an environment of enthusiasm and conveying an impetus
2.1.3 Technology
Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, or it can be embedded in machines which can be operated without detailed knowledge of their workings. The human species’ use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools.

Emerging technology: Staying on top of current technologies means anticipating future ones.

Emerging technologies are characterized by radical novelty, relatively fast growth, coherence, prominent impact, and uncertainty and ambiguity. In other words, an emerging technology can be defined as “a radically novel and relatively fast growing technology characterized by a certain degree of coherence persisting over time and with the potential to exert a considerable impact on the socio-economic domain(s) which is observed in terms of the composition of actors, institutions and patterns of interactions among those, along with the associated knowledge production processes. It’s most prominent impact, however, lies in the future and so in the emergence phase is still somewhat uncertain and ambiguous. The list of new technologies grows every day. Augmented reality, algorithms, machine-to-machine communications, 3-D printing, and autonomous vehicles information technology, bio-technologies, wireless data communication, and on-demand printing and also advanced robotics help people with a range of different tasks. These technologies are broad-based in their scope and significant in their ability to transform existing businesses and personal lives. They have the potential to ease people’s lives and improve their personal and business dealings. Other technologies include Internet, Automated teller machine (ATM), Website etc. For this purpose this research, my point of focus is on Internet, automated teller machine, website, this is simply because of availability and accessibility in the geographical location of the study.

2.1.4 The Importance and the Impact of the Emerging Technology to an Organization
Easy and fast exchange of information: business has been able to advance in such ways that allow communication across to travel around the globe without leaving their respective offices and homes. They can send and receive information instantaneously. Consider how emerging technology has impacted in organization in the follow way like web conferencing, through mobile internet etc.
Cost Effective: Organization finds that web conferencing is an effective, cost-effective way to handle oversea business. They can hold group meeting, doing a real time training just by via internet. It helps the organization to save a great amount of money in traveling cost while increasing efficiency and productivity.

Safety: Global Positioning Systems, emerging technology business enterprise, home alarms and fires, and cellular technology have helped to make our lives safer in a number of ways. In cases of emergency, instant information is timely passed across for appropriate action, this help to save high risk and losses example simply plug in your destination to GPS. Witness a crime? Report it instantly on your cell phone. In addition, emerging technology has made homes safer with the ability to detect deadly gases and smoke in the home.

Expedite processes: Because of emerging technology, products are made and delivered to store much faster than ever before. In addition, machines and technology help to eliminate or greatly reduce human error.

Finances: TM, or Automated Teller Machines, as well as internet banking, have made it easier for instant payments for goods and services.

2.1.5 Contemporary Examples where Technology is vital to entrepreneurial development
Some significant examples where Technology played an important role in Entrepreneurship Development and an aid to establishment of enterprise as well as the smooth running of business are;
HP Life Program: HP Learning Initiative for Entrepreneurs (HP LIFE) is a global program that trains students, entrepreneurs, and small business owners to apply IT and business skills, so that they can establish and grow a business, build successful companies and create jobs. Face-to-face trainings, tools and e-Learning program address educational needs, improve and strengthen skills and enable Entrepreneurs to move forward.
Flipkart:Flipkart is an Indian E-Commerce company established in 2007 bySachin, Bansal and Binny. It operates exclusively in India, with headquarters at Bengaluru, Karnataka. Flipkart has launched its own product range under the name “DigiFlip” with products including tablets, USBs, and laptop bags. Flipkart has also launched its own range of personal healthcare and home appliances under the brand “Citron”.
HopStop.com which he reportedly sold to Apple in the “billion” dollar range. HopStop.com is a mobile and online application that provides mass transit directions door-to-door mass transit, taxi, walking, biking and hourly car rental directions in major metropolitan markets throughout the U.S., Canada, U.K, France, Australia, New Zealand and Russia. In 2001, HopStop was named one of the 100 fastest growing companies in the US by Inc. magazine. Chinedu also founded Tripology.com, an interactive travel referral service focused on connecting travelers with travel specialists which was later acquired by USA Today Travel Media Group.Konga.com, Nigeria’s largest online shopping portal and DealDey spinoff site. Konga.com.

2.2 Theoretical Framework
Various theories of entrepreneurship have been propounded by thinkers. They can be classified in three categories:
1. Cultural
2. Economic.

3. Sociological
.2.2.1 Cultural Theories of Entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurs are considered to be the seeds of the development of industries. Entrepreneurs play a pivotal role in the process of the promotion and execution of the business. In other words, entrepreneurs are the persons who are responsible for the organizing and managing the business by the judicious utilization of the theories of entrepreneurship. The different theories of entrepreneurship are relevant for the development of the business which helps the beneficiaries to perform better. The objective of these theories is not only to enhance the skills and knowledge of the entrepreneurs but also to help them apply them in the practical world (Chakraborty et al., 2014). The entrepreneurial theories can be divided into sociological, economic and cultural aspects.

There does not exist one universal theory that can be utilized and applied by the entrepreneurs. Every individual is responsible for making cultural choices. Entrepreneurs are one of the important products of culture. It is important for the entrepreneurs to apply their cultural values within the cultural environment. Cultural theory of entrepreneurship helps to influence the stakeholders of their enterprise by instilling in their minds the importance of culture with respect to the business (Chatterji et al., 2013). The cultural theories of entrepreneurship provide a massive knowledge on some traditional and effective theories on entrepreneurship.

The three main theories that focus on the cultural aspects of the entrepreneurship are discussed below.

2.2.2 Hoselitz’s Theory
Hoselitz socio-cultural theory is based on the assumption that every individual is endowed with social and cultural power. According to him entrepreneurs can be developed where the society is well developed. Most of the entrepreneurs hail from a certain socio-economic class. Hoselitz centers on the concept that the culturally marginal people in the society who are considered as culturally developed. and belong to a well-developed society are considered eligible for being entrepreneurs. These sections of the society stimulate the entrepreneurial and economic development (Hofstede, 1993). In this regard, the marginally cultural groups of the society include Jews in medieval Europe, Chinese in South Africa, Indians residing in East Africa etc. (Lounsbury& Glynn, 2001). The basis of Hoselitz is derived from the following viewpoint:
1. Marginal men hypothesis-Hoselitz explained that the marginal men are the pools of the development of entrepreneurs. These marginal men have the potentiality to adjust in variable situations in spite of their ambiguous social and cultural position. In the process of adjustment, they innovate their social behavior.

2. The importance of the managerial and leadership skills- Entrepreneurs must possess extraordinary leadership and managerial skills which would drive them to yield profits. Hoselitz emphasizes on the fact that the managerial and the leadership skills are both necessary for the company as it would not only help to manage the company well but would also motivate the entrepreneurs to lead (Lounsbury and Glynn, 2001).

3. Involvement of specific social classes- The entrepreneurial talents are prevalent in every country but the persons having socio-economic backgrounds are the ones that shine in the entrepreneurial skill. One example can be drawn from India where the Marwaris and the Parsis are the leading social class in the arena of entrepreneurs (Hofstede, 1993).

2.2.3 Peter F. Drucker’s Entrepreneurship Theory
Peter F. Drucker explained that the entrepreneurs are one that are constantly looking for new avenues to change and utilize this change as an opportunity. Drucker’s theory is based on two important factors which are innovation and resources; innovation depends on resources and resources gain importance only when perceived to possess economic value. Innovating new ideas as well as new products or any elements related to his business help him to increase his productivity. Similarly, resources like capital are important to incorporate new innovations. (Simpeh, 2011). The theory explains that there is a complex relationship between the innovation, resources and the behavior of the entrepreneurs. Peter F. Drucker had derived three main points which help to explain the role of the entrepreneurs:
1. Entrepreneurs increase the value and satisfaction of the customer through the efficient utilization of the resources.

2. Entrepreneurs are responsible for the creation of new values.

3. Entrepreneurs must combine the existing materials and the resources (Scholte et al., 2015)
2.2.4 Eco Analysis Framework
J.J. Kao’s conceptual model forms the basis of the ECO Model. The ECO analysis is derived from three key points which are Entrepreneurship, Creativity and Organization. Kao had stated that entrepreneurship and creativity are derived from the interrelationship between three components which are the person, the task and the organizational context (Dacin et al. 2010).

1. The person is regarded as the most important element of this model where new ideas are implemented by the efficient persons. The entrepreneurial talents of a person include skills, motivation, experience and psychological factors (Alvarez and Busenitz, 2007).

2. The task emphasizes on acquiring opportunities, management of resources and implementing leadership qualities which are necessary for the entrepreneurial growth.

3. The organizational context is the concatenation of the creative and entrepreneurial work. For example, the organizational structure affects the entrepreneurial environment.

There is no single entrepreneurial theory that would be enough for any entrepreneur to operate in the competitive environment yet most of the theorist fail to explain different aspects of the entrepreneurship. The cultural theories are one such example where the cultural aspects are considered to motivate the entrepreneurs.

2.2.5 Economic Theory of Entrepreneurship
Many economists revealed that entrepreneurship and economic growth will take place in those circumstances where particular economic conditions are in favor of the business environment. The main advocates of this theory were Papanek and Harris. According to them economic incentives are the main forces for entrepreneurial activities in any country. There are a lot of economic factors which promote or demote entrepreneurship in a country. These factors are: The availability of bank credit ,High capital formation with a good flow of savings and investments ,Supply for loanable funds with a lower rate of interest, Increased demand for consumer goods and services, Availability of productive resources, Efficient economic policies like fiscal and monetary policies ,Communication and transportation facilities.

Economic development was the result of rationalization of technology and accounting systems and the acquisition of capital and its productive use was the main theme of the Weberian thesis. Some scholars have tried to explain the growth of entrepreneurship in terms of regional economic factors, e.i., industrial support to environment in these regions. A question which was analyzed by a researcher is: “Since Jains and Vaisyas were in every corner of India, why was it that only Marwari ad Gujarati Vaisyas and Jains gave lead in entrepreneurship, mostly in Gujarat”. This analysis revealed that Gujarat had environment favorable to business and industry. Thus, its can be concluded that the industrial climate may have a very significant impact on the response of entrepreneurs. However, the group factors, as emphasized by various studies, cannot be ignored altogether.

2.2.6 Technology
Technology drives the development of many new products and markets; it is also a major reason why some products decline (Boyd, Walker and Larreche, 1995).Technology can also substantially influence an industry’s performance. In addition to creating new products, technological developments affect all marketing activities, including communications (making available new media or new selling tools), distribution (opening new channels or modifying the operations and performance of existing ones), packaging (using new materials), and marketing research (using new data collection and analysis methods) (Lekhanyaand Mason, 2013).Achtenhagen (2011) indicates that shortage of working capital to finance exports,identifying foreign business opportunities, limited information to locate/analyze markets and inability to conduct potential overseas customers as major barriers to the internationalization of SMEs. Chiware and Dick (2008) have shown that there is a very low level of technology use among SMEs. According to Yeh, Jung-Ting and Chang (2007), the costs and effort involved with the subsequent implementation of technology are key factors that influence the success of small businesses. Nowadays the use of ICT in enterprises is very important, especially in SMEs that are the majority of companies operating the world (Consoli, 2012). Thus, the adoption and use of ICT can bring benefits in terms of efficiency, effectiveness, innovation, growth and competitive advantages. Muritala, Awolajaand Bako (2012) government should support SMEs with modern technology in order to able them to access to the necessary information relating to business opportunities which would enable them to reduce their operating cost and be more efficient to meet the market competitions.

2.2.7 Challenges of Technology as an Important Player in Entrepreneurial Development
Fragmented Policy and implementation :There is no comprehensive policy of the state on entrepreneurship and innovative technology so far.

i. Inadequate funding of Research and Development (R&D) Little national funding is available for R&D: from 2011 to 2012 it was only 0.88% of gross domestic product (NSTMIS, 2013).Consequentially, even less funding is available to the academic and R&D institutions.

ii.Complex Funding Procedures The funding available through banks and other institutions can be availed only after fulfilling lengthy and complex procedures which creates an obstacle in free growth of entrepreneurship and innovative technology usage.

iii.Defective education system: The general education system is more focused on grades and creativity and innovation are not emphasized which leads to low technology based enterprises.

iii. Industrial Attitude: The overlooking attitude of industry towards development of techno-enterprises is a major hindrance. Moreover there is an attitude of risk-aversion which results it lesser creativity and innovations.
iv. Other Challenges includes: Poor infrastructure, Low capital formation, slow and erratic government decision-making etc.

2.3 Emperical Framework
The basic idea of the research framework is to test model on the key role emerging technologies as a tool for entrepreneurship development. Adoption of newly emerging technology by business organization facilitates high quality output which best satisfy the need and wants of the customers. The evaluation and analysis of emerging technologies provides for improved system of management through quick and efficient system of passing information from the top level managers down to the lower level managers which in turns stimulates entrepreneurship development. The standardization processes and automation of work flows through adoption of newly improved emerging technologies help to keep abreast of the dynamic business environment and the global change. Kuratko et al 2005 argues that technology has attracted the attention of international organizations, business organizations and cooperation in recent years. However, there are limited numbers or empirical studies with very few quantitative studies. Most of this are explanatory type, rigorous hypothesis is lacking, little variety in research design is applied, and most of them are based on small sample size. The use of User Centered Design principles, utilizing personas and scenarios will help to identify possible successful technologies by giving a deeper understanding of how a user for instance a female small business owner will interact with a particular technology (e.g. mobile internet such as a PDA) in a specific organizational context such as IT small business. The development process of any systems and products for the small business sector includes: formulating the design concept of the products, participating actively in the detailed product design, providing an evaluation framework to assess the usability/usefulness of the artifact/products (action research/co-design), and performing the usability testing (iterative design) (Burke, Castro, Singh and Turner, 2002). The approach to development in this project includes the application of User Centered Design methodologies that has been tested within a number of contexts and is discussed further in Beekhuyzen, von Hellens, Morley, & Nielsen (2003) and Astbrinkand Beekhuyzen(2003).

(Aldrich and Whetten, 1981) establish that firm’s technological relation set has no empirical existence as a coordinating association but is purposely constructed for the analysis. Villa and Curran (1999) explains that new trends and technologies continue to affect how business is conducted, which market it serves, and how it provides those services, hence there is a need for further studies in this course.

2.4 Gap in Literature
The significance of emerging technologies as a tool for entrepreneurship development is to be researched. This study intends to bring together two streams of research emerging technologies in relation to Yale Foods Limited in Plot 1B, Block 1, Oluyole Industrial Estate Ibadan, Oyo State.

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction
The aim of this chapter is to present the philosophical assumptions underpinning this research, as well as to introduce the research strategy and the empirical techniques applied. Other issues to be addressed include research design, study population, sample size determination, source of data collection techniques, sample frame, research instruments, sampling techniques, validity of research instruments, methods of data collection with data gathered, comprehensive information relating to emerging technologies as a tool for entrepreneurship development.
3.1Research Design
A design is used to structure the research, to show how all of the major parts of the research project; the samples or groups, measures, treatments or programs, and methods of assignment work together to try to address the central research questions. It is concerned with the relationship between the constructs of the research work.

The researcher intends using the descriptive research method. The research method and design used in any research is substantially determined by the research problems. Since this research is a fact finding study, descriptive research method will be selected in order to appraise the role of emerging technologies as a tool for entrepreneurship development. The descriptive approach is based on answers to certain relevant research questions.

3.2 Population of the Study
According to Mason (1997), the population of a study is the collection of all possible individuals, objects or measurements of interest. For this study, the population consist various levels of management in Yale food. For the purpose of this study, the study population refers to the various levels of employees in Yale foods limited. The study population includes employees of genders, various age groups and educational qualifications and employees at various levels of management. The estimated population of this study was two hundred and forty (240),majorly covers skilled personnel from different levels and departments in Yale foods limited, Ibadan, Oyo State.
3.3Sample Size Determinants
A sample is a finite part of a statistical population whose properties are studied to gain information about the whole (Webster, 1985). When dealing with people, it can be defined as a set of respondents (people) selected from a larger population for the purpose of the survey. A sample can refer to a set of people or objects chosen from a larger population in order to represent that population in order to represent that population to a greater extent (Mason et al,1997).Therefore, the size of the study sample and the way in which it is chosen will certainly have implications for the confidence in the results and the extent to which generalizations can be made. There are several sample size determination techniques. However, for this study, the sample size was gotten by making use of 240 respondents from Yale food ltd Ibadan, making use of Yaroyamane (1964:1980) sampling technique formula, the formula is given as follows
n =N
1+N(e)2
Where, n = sample size,
N = total population of the study “e” is the level of significance (0.05).

E
N = 240, e = 0.05
n = 240
1+240 (0.05)2
= 240
1+240*0.0025
= 240
1+0.6
= 240
1.6 = 150respondents
3.4Sources of Data Collection
The data collection format will depend on the kind of data to be collected. However, in this particular study both primary and secondary data were used.

Primary Data
The researcher intends using various tools in collecting the primary data. These tools would include questionnaires which were structured on the basis of the research hypothesis which was presented to respondents to express their views, opinions and observations. The questionnaire contains both open and closed ended questions to collect data on the subject matter for the study.
Secondary Data
This refers to already published information.

The source of the secondary data was from internet reports relevant to the research, textbooks, journals, earlier publications, the secondary data was used to develop a proper conceptual and theoretical framework for this study, while testing research hypothesis and providing answers to the research questions will be done through the primary data.

3.5Sample Frame
The sample frame for data collection consists of various levels of employees who are involved in day to day management of the company. According to Adebayo (2000), a sample frame is the basic details and specifications of all members of the population from which a sample is to be drawn. it has the quality of every element and it acts as a representative of the population. The sample frame covers only the managers of various departments. Yale foods limited is a large firm with departments producing different products e.g sweets, biscuits, chewing gum, bread etc. with each departments being managed by various levels of managers. The sample frame is purposively selected as a result of closeness in space, time or relationship to the researcher’s point of contact, for effective management of the respondents and cost of efficiency. (Bailey, 1987; Singleton, 1992).

3.6Research Instruments
The questionnaire will be developed to contain the relevant questions that would elicit necessary responses from the respondents and to get hold of appropriate and relevant data that will help to have a better and justifiable result. The questionnaire will be designed on a linked five (5)pointscale grading system which is as follow: Strongly Agree ( SA ),=6,Agreed ( A ) =5, Fairly Agree (FA)=4 Fairly Disagree (FD),=3 Disagree ( D ) = 2, Strongly Disagree( SD ) = 1.

3.7Sampling Techniques
Sampling is defined as the process of selecting representative elements (samples) from a given population (Ojo, 2003).This process enables the researcher to choose elements which sufficiently reflect the relevance features and characteristics of the population from which they are drawn. The sample size will be 240 selected members of Yale food limited in Ibadan,Oyo State Nigeria. The questionnaire techniques will be employed as the data gathering device to elicit relevant responses from the population study. The sampling techniques that will be used for this study is a purposive random sample since respondents cut across various departments of this large manufacturing firm i.e Yale Foods Limited.
3.8Validity of Research Instrument
According to Ojo(2003) validity refers degree which a measuring instrument measures what it is designed to mention .Asika(1991) stated that validity can be defined as the extent to which a measuring instrument measures what it is designed to measure. As sourced from Osuala (1982), validity is usually measured by such questions as: Does the test measure what it is supposed to measure? The emphasis here is on what is being measured.

A number of concepts are in a discussion of validity. At least four types of validity have been identified. These include; the predictive validity which is the ability of an instrument to predict some future events, the concurrent validity which is usually measured by the calculation of a correlation coefficient between the distribution of test scores and some concurrently existing criterion measure ,the content validity which is essentially determined by the process through which the items were selected, the construct validity whereby a researcher devises an instrument in terms of how much the results obtained fits the theoretical formulations that constitute its development, and the face validity which is concerned with the extent to which the researcher believes the instrument is appropriate. For the course of this research study, the face validity will be adopted; Pre-test will be carried out to see how the questionnaire will work out and whether changes will be necessary before the start of the full-scale study. This will afford the opportunity of gaining an insight as to the language or structural problems in the questionnaire for the selected managers in the areas of the study and necessary modification will be done through the guide of my supervisor in order for the questionnaires to achieve it purpose.

3.9Reliability of Research Instruments
Efforts will be made to ensure that the questionnaires are administered to managers and employees of the study area alone. With the assistance of an expert in measurement and evaluation, the questions in the questionnaire will not be ambiguously presented to the respondents. Also, cronbach’s alpha test of reliability will be conducted on the questionnaires to assess the internal consistency of the entire scale.

Reliability Test
cronbach’s alpha test No of Items
689 35
3.10 Method of Data Analysis
In analyzing the data, descriptive statistics will be used to present the personal profile of the respondent’s characteristics (frequency percentage tables, mean and standard deviation)Inferential statistics (cross tabulation, Chi-Square) will be used to test the research hypotheses. This enables the study to ascertain if emerging technologies is an efficient driver of entrepreneurship development .Thus, data that is applicable to study Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) will be used in order to assess the impact and analyze the data, if there is a relationship and the extent of the relationship between the independent variable (Emerging technology) and the dependent variable Entrepreneurship developmentTo study the relationship between the variables under study, For automated information system regression and correlation analysis will be employed in order to ascertain the level of relationship that exists between the variables. This is in line with the work of Yekinni and Ajayi, 2011; Adeniyi and Solomon, 2010 and Owoseni, 2011 as the main statistical method.

,,

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CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4:0 Introduction
This chapter is concerned with the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data gathered from the responses to administered questionnaires. It also includes an empirical testing of hypothesis made about this study and each of their interpretations. It should be noted that Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for analyzing descriptive statistics.

4:1 Presentation of data
The research questionnaire was administered to One hundred and fifty (150) respondents which is the sample size of the study. One hundred and twenty four were fully administered and collected. The table below shows the details at a glance
4:2 Data Analysis and presentation
Table 4.2.1 Analysis of Response Rate
Questionnaire
Respondents Percentage (%)
Returned
150 94.34
Not Returned 9 5.66
Total Distributed 159 100
Source: Field survey, 2017.

4:2:2Frequency Table
Analysis of Demographic Characteristics
A summary of variables that are expected to have important implications on emerging technology as a tool entrepreneurship development is presented in Table 4.2:2. About 37.3% of the respondents were female while 62.7% were male. The implication of these is that more male works in the organization than female. This implies that as a manufacturing business organization more male works in the organization than female.

Table 4.2 also shows that 74.0% of the respondents were between the ages of 30-39years, 26.0% were between the ages of 40 – 49years,. The implication of this is that age range of 30 -39years and 40-49 dominates. This implies that majority of the sampled respondent’s falls within this age range.
Table 4.2, also reveals that 34.0% of the respondents have1-5years working experience in the organization, 23.3% of the respondents have 11-15years working experience in the organization, 33.3% of the respondents have 6-10years working experience in the organization, while 93.0% of the respondents have 0ver 15years working experience in the organization.. This revealed that most of the respondents have been working for long with the organization..

Table 4.2 16% of the respondents are divorced, 46% of the respondents are married 34% of the respondents are single while 4% of the respondents are others. . This revealed that most of the employees of this organization are married.

Table 4:2 also shows that24.7% of the respondents are ND/DIPLOMA holder,28.7% of the respondents are SSCE holder,36% of the respondents are HND/BSC holder, while 10.7% of the respondents are others. This shows that majority of the employees are HND/BSC holders.

Table 4.2:2 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents by their demographic characteristics. N = 140
Demographic characteristicsFrequencyPercentage% Cumulative________
Sex
Male 5637.3 37.3
Female 9462.7100.0
Age
30 – 39years11174.0 74.0
40– 49years 3926.0100.0
Work Experience
1 -5years 51 34.0 34.0
6 – 10years 5033.3 90.7
11-15 35 23.3 57.0
Over 15years 1493.3100.0
Marital Status
Divorce 24 16.0 16.0
Married 69 46.0 62.0
Others 6 4.0 66.0
Single 5134.0 100.0
Educational Qualification
SSCE 43 28.7 28.7
OND/DIPLOMA 37 24.7 69.7
HND/BSC57 36.0 89.0
Over/15years16 10.7 100.0
Source: Field Survey, 2017
Table 4:2:3 Mobile internet and business growth
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 2 1.3 1.3 1.3
Agreed 110 73.3 73.3 74.7
Fairly Agreed 28 18.7 18.7 93.3
Strongly Agreed
Fairly Disagree 10 6.7 6.7 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table 4:2:5 Classifies the respondents based on mobile internet and business growth. It shows that 3(1.3%) of the respondents agreed,110 (73.3%) of the respondents Fairly Agreed,28(18.7%) of the respondents strongly agreed,10(6.7%) of the respondents Fairly disagree. This implies that higher percentage of the respondents agreed.

Frequency Table
Table 4:2:4 Mobile internet keeps customers informed on new products and existing products
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 55 36.7 36.7 36.7
Disagree 5 3.3 3.3 40.0
Strongly Disagree 1 .7 .7 40.7
Fairly Agreed 22 14.7 14.7 55.3
Fairly Disagree 17 11.3 11.3 66.7
Strongly Agreed 50 33.3 33.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table 4:2: 4 Mobile internet keeps customers informed on new products and existing products 55(36.7%) of the respondents agreed,5(3.3%) of the respondents disagree,1(0.7%) of the respondents Stronglydisagreed,22(14.7%) of the respondents fairly agreed,17(11.3%) of the respondents fairly disagreed. This suggests that the respondents strongly agreed with the statements
Table 4:2:5,
Mobile internet encourages business activities within the business internal environment.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 53 35.3 35.3 35.3
Disagree 2 1.3 1.3 36.7
Fairly Agreed 29 19.3 19.3 56.0
Fairly Disagree 13 8.7 8.7 64.7
Strongly Agreed 53 35.3 35.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table 4:2:5 classifies the opinion of the respondents on mobile internet encourages business activities within the business internal environment.53 (35%) of the respondents agreed,2(1.2%) of the respondents disagree,29(19.3%) of the respondents fairly agreed,13(8.7%) of the respondents fairly disagreed,53(35.5%) of the respondents strongly agreed. This suggests that the respondents strongly agreed with the statements.

Table 4:2:6 Most employees have internet accessibility within the organizations
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 56 37.3 37.3 37.3
Disagree 1 .7 .7 38.0
Fairly Agreed 31 20.7 20.7 58.7
Fairly Disagree 15 10.0 10.0 68.7
Strongly Agreed 47 31.3 31.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017.

Table 4:2:6 classifies the opinion of the respondents on most employees have internet accessibility within the organization. It shows 56(37.3%) of the respondents agreed,1(0.7%) of the respondents disagree,31(20.7%) of the respondents fairly disagree,15(10%) of the respondents fairly disagreed,47(31.3%) strongly agreed .this shows that the agreed with this statements
4:2:7 Information are passed to customers through mobile internet
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 61 40.7 40.7 41.3
Disagree 4 2.7 2.7 44.0
Strongly Disagree 1 .7 .7 44.7
Fairly Agreed 27 18.0 18.0 62.7
Fairly Disagree 9 6.0 6.0 68.7
Strongly Agreed 47 31.3 31.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table 4:2:7 classifies the opinion of the respondents on Information are passed to customers through mobile internet. . It shows 61 (40.7%) of the respondents agreed,4(2.7%) of the respondents disagree,1(0.7%) of the respondents strongly disagree,27(18%) of the respondents fairly agreed,9(6.0%) fairly disagreed,47 (31.3%) strongly agreed. This shows that most of respondents support this statements.

Table 4:2:8 Customers use internet connectivity to access this business organization.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 58 38.7 38.7 38.7
Disagree 3 2.0 2.0 40.7
Strongly Disagree 1 .7 .7 41.3
Fairly Agreed 24 16.0 16.0 57.3
Fairly Disagree 17 11.3 11.3 68.7
Strongly Agreed 47 31.3 31.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table 4:2:8 classifies the opinion of the respondents on Customers use internet connectivity to access this business organization. It shows 58(38.7%) of the respondents agreed, 3(2.0%) of the respondents disagree,1(0.7%) of the respondents strongly disagree,24(16.0%) of the respondents fairly agreed,17(11.3%) fairly agreed,47(31.3%) of the respondents strongly agreed .This table shows that the respondents agreed that 8 Customers use internet connectivity to access this business organization.
Table 4:2:9 There has been high increase in business output over the years.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 43 28.7 28.7 28.7
Disagree 2 1.3 1.3 30.0
Strongly Disagree 2 1.3 1.3 31.3
Fairly Agreed 41 27.3 27.3 58.7
Fairly Disagree 8 5.3 5.3 64.0
Strongly Agreed 54 36.0 36.0 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table 4:2:9 classifies the opinion of the respondents on There has been high increase in business output over the years. It shows 43(28.7%) of the respondents agreed 2(1.3%) of the respondents disagree,2(1.3%) of the respondents strongly disagree,41(27.3%) of the respondents fairly agreed,8(5.3%) fairly disagreed.54(36%) of the respondents strongly agreed
Table4:2:10 The organization produces many but related products
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 56 37.3 37.3 37.3
Disagree 7 4.7 4.7 42.0
Fairly Agreed 27 18.0 18.0 60.0
Fairly Disagree 13 8.7 8.7 68.7
Strongly Agreed 47 31.3 31.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table4:2:10 classifies the opinion of the respondents on the organization produces many but related products. It shows 56(37.3%) of the respondents agreed, 7(4.7%) of the respondents disagree, 27(18.0%) of the respondents fairly agree,13(8.7%) of the respondents fairly disagreed, 47(31.3%) strongly agreed.

Table 4:2:11 There is significant increase in the number of employees
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 56 37.3 37.3 37.3
Disagree 3 2.0 2.0 39.3
Strongly Disagree 1 .7 .7 40.0
Fairly Agreed 29 19.3 19.3 59.3
Fairly Disagree 13 8.7 8.7 68.0
Strongly Agreed 48 32.0 32.0 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table4:2:11 classifies the opinion of the respondents on there is significant increase in the number of employees. It shows 56(37.3%) of the respondents agreed,3(2.0%) of the respondents disagree,1(0.7%) of the respondents strongly disagree,29(19.3%) of the respondents fairly agreed,13(8.7%) fairly disagreed.

Table4:2:12 The organization uses new and improved technological machines in production of goods
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 48 32.0 32.0 32.0
Disagree 2 1.3 1.3 33.3
Fairly Agreed 39 26.0 26.0 59.3
Fairly Disagree 13 8.7 8.7 68.0
Strongly Agreed 48 32.0 32.0 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table4:2:12 classifies the opinion of the respondents on the organization uses new and improved technological machines in production of goods. It shows 48(32.0%) of the respondents agreed,2(0.3%) of the respondents disagree,39(26.0%) of the respondents fairly agree,13(8.7%) of the respondents fairly disagreed,48(32%) strongly agreed.

Table4:2:13Customers satisfaction is a major determinant of repeat purchase decision.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 57 38.0 38.0 38.7
Disagree 3 2.0 2.0 40.7
Strongly Disagree 1 .7 .7 41.3
Fairly Agreed 40 26.7 26.7 68.0
Fairly Disagree 10 6.7 6.7 74.7
Strongly Agreed 38 25.3 25.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table 4:2:13 classifies the opinion of the respondents on Customers satisfaction is a major determinant of repeat purchase decision. It shows 57(38.0%) of the respondents agreed,3(2.0%) of the respondents disagree,1(0.7%) of the respondents strongly disagreed,40(26.7%) of the respondents fairly agreed,10(6.7%) fairly disagreed.38(25.5%) of the respondents strongly agreed.
Table 4:2:14 The organization has a functional website
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 49 32.7 32.7 32.7
Disagree 3 2.0 2.0 34.7
Strongly Disagree 2 1.3 1.3 36.0
Fairly Agreed 32 21.3 21.3 57.3
Fairly Disagree 8 5.3 5.3 62.7
Strongly Agreed 56 37.3 37.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table 4:2:14 classifies the opinion of the respondents on the organization has a functional website. It shows 49(32.7%) of the respondents agreed,3(2.0%) of the respondents disagree,2(1.3%) of the respondents strongly disagree,32(21.3%) of the respondents fairly agreed,8(5.3%) fairly disagreed, 56(37.7%) of the respondents strongly agreed.

Table 4:2:15 The organization updates the information on the website efficiently
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1 .7 .7 .7
Agreed 56 37.3 37.3 38.0
Disagree 2 1.3 1.3 39.3
Fairly Agreed 37 24.7 24.7 64.0
Fairly Disagree 9 6.0 6.0 70.0
Strongly Agreed 45 30.0 30.0 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table 4:2:15 Classifies the opinion of the respondents on the organization updates the information on the website efficiently. It shows 56(37.3%) of the respondents agreed,1(0.7%) of the respondents disagree,31(20.7%) of the respondents fairly disagree,15(10%) of the respondents fairly disagreed,47(31.3%) strongly agreed.
4:2:16 New products and existing ones are presented to the world through website
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 63 42.0 42.0 42.0
Disagree 6 4.0 4.0 46.0
Fairly Agreed 18 12.0 12.0 58.0
Fairly Disagree 11 7.3 7.3 65.3
Strongly Agreed 52 34.7 34.7 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table 4:2:16 classifies the opinion of the respondents on New products and existing ones are presented to the world through website. It shows 63(42.0%) of the respondents agreed 6(4.0%) of the respondents disagree,18(12%) of the respondents fairly agree,11(7.3%) of the respondents fairly disagreed,52(34.7%) strongly agreed. This implied that majority of respondents agreed and strongly agreed that on New products and existing ones are presented to the world through website
Table 4:2:17 Complaints and comments of customers are well treated through the website.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 58 38.7 38.7 38.7
Disagree 4 2.7 2.7 41.3
Strongly Disagree 2 1.3 1.3 42.7
Fairly Agreed 37 24.7 24.7 67.3
Fairly Disagree 10 6.7 6.7 74.0
Strongly Agreed 38 25.3 25.3 99.3
Strongly Agreed` 1 .7 .7 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table 4:2:17 classifies the opinion of the respondents on Complaints and comments of customers are well treated through the website. It shows 58(38.7%) of the respondents agreed,4(2.7%) of the respondents disagree,2(24.7%) of the respondents fairly agree,10(6.7%) of the respondents fairly disagreed,38(25.3%) strongly agreed,1(0.7) of the respondents strongly agreed. the table shows that most of the respondents agreed and strongly agreed that complaints and comments are well treated through the website.
Table 4:2:18 The website helps to allow both local and international accessibility.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 54 36.0 36.0 36.0
Disagree 7 4.7 4.7 40.7
Fairly Agreed 34 22.7 22.7 63.3
Fairly Disagree 16 10.7 10.7 74.0
Strongly Agreed 39 26.0 26.0 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table 4:2:18 classifies the opinion of the respondents on The website helps to allow both local and international accessibility. It shows 54(36.0%) of the respondents agreed,7(4.7%) of the respondents disagree,34(22.7%) of the respondents fairly agree,16(10.7%) of the respondents fairly disagreed,39(26%) strongly agreed. This implies that majority of the respondents agreed and strongly agreed with this statements.
Table 4:2:19 Website
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 112 74.7 74.7 74.7
Fairly Agreed 28 18.7 18.7 93.3
Fairly Disagreed 1 .7 .7 94.0
Strongly Agreed 9 6.0 6.0 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table 4:2:19 classifies the opinion of the respondents on website. It shows 112(74.7%) of the respondents agreed,28(18.7%) of the respondents disagree,1(0.7%) of the respondents fairly disagree,9(6.0%) of the respondents strongly agree
Table 4:2:20 there have been significant Over the years changes and improvement in the company’s product
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 53 35.3 35.3 35.3
Disagree 6 4.0 4.0 39.3
Fairly Agreed 26 17.3 17.3 56.7
Fairly Disagree 11 7.3 7.3 64.0
Strongly Agreed 54 36.0 36.0 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table 4:2:20 classifies the opinion of the respondents on there have been significant Over the years changes and improvement in the company’s product. . It shows 53(35.3%) of the respondents agree 6(4.0%) disagreed,26(17.3%)of the fairly agreed,11(7.3%) of the respondents fairly disagree,54(36%) of the respondents strongly agreed .this implies that most the respondents. Agreed and strongly agreed that on there have been significant Over the years changes and improvement in the company’s product.
Table 4:2:21 The organization introduces new product with new taste and quality which satisfy the customers need.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 59 39.3 39.3 39.3
Disagree 5 3.3 3.3 42.7
Strongly Disagree 1 .7 .7 43.3
Fairly Agreed 28 18.7 18.7 62.0
Fairly Disagree 6 4.0 4.0 66.0
Strongly Agreed 51 34.0 34.0 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table 4:2:21classifies the opinion of the respondents on The organization introduces new product with new taste and quality which satisfy the customers need. . It shows 59(39.3%) of the respondents agreed,5(3.3%) of the respondents disagree,1(0.7%) of the respondents strongly disagree,28(18.7%) of the respondents fairly agreed,6(4.0%) fairly disagreed, 51(34.0%) of the respondents strongly agreed. This implies that majority of the respondents agreed and strongly agrees with this statements
Table 4:2:22The recent changes in packaging of product makes it more attractive to customers.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 48 32.0 32.0 32.0
Disagree 4 2.7 2.7 34.7
Strongly Disagree 1 .7 .7 35.3
Fairly Agreed 33 22.0 22.0 57.3
Fairly Disagree 17 11.3 11.3 68.7
Strongly Agreed 47 31.3 31.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table 4:2:22 Classifies the opinion of the respondents on The recent changes in packaging of product makes it more attractive to customers. It shows 48(32.0%) of the respondents agreed,4(2.7%) of the respondents disagree,1(0.7%) of the respondents strongly disagree,33(22%) of the respondents fairly agreed,17(11.3%) fairly agreed.47(31.3%) of the respondents strongly agreed. This implies that majority of the respondents agreed with this statement.
Table 4:2:23 Changes in product increases sales and build brand loyalty
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 49 32.7 32.7 32.7
Disagree 6 4.0 4.0 36.7
Strongly Disagree 3 2.0 2.0 38.7
Fairly Agreed 37 24.7 24.7 63.3
Fairly Disagree 11 7.3 7.3 70.7
Strongly Agreed 44 29.3 29.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table4:2:23 classifies the opinion of the respondents on Changes in product increases sales and build brand loyalty. It shows 49(32.7%) of the respondents agreed 6(4.0%) of the respondents disagree,3(2;0%) of the respondents strongly disagree, 37(24.7%) of the respondents fairly agreed,11(7.3%) fairly disagree, 44(29.3%) of the respondents strongly agreed.

Table 4:2:24 The quality and packaging of goods meets both local and international standard.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 52 34.7 34.7 34.7
Disagree 3 2.0 2.0 36.7
Strongly Disagree 2 1.3 1.3 38.0
Fairly Agreed 30 20.0 20.0 58.0
Fairly Disagree 10 6.7 6.7 64.7
Strongly Agreed 53 35.3 35.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table 4:2:24 classifies the opinion of the respondents on The quality and packaging of goods meets both local and international standard. It shows 52(34.7%) of the respondents agreed,3(2.0%) of the respondents disagree,2(1.3%) of the respondents strongly disagree,30(20%) of the respondents fairly agreed,10(6.7%) fairly disagreed. This implies that most of the respondents agreed and strongly agreed with the statements.

Table 4:2:25 Product Improvement
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Disagree 3 2.0 2.0 2.0
Agreed 108 72.0 72.0 74.0
Fairly Agreed 28 18.7 18.7 92.7
Fairly Disagreed 2 1.3 1.3 94.0
Strongly Agreed 9 6.0 6.0 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table4:2:25 classifies the opinion of the respondents on product improvement. It shows 108(72.0%) of the respondents agreed, 28(18.7%) of the respondents disagree,2(1.3%) of the respondents fairly disagree,3(2.0%) of the respondents fairly disagreed,9(6.0%) strongly agreed.

4.3 Testing of Hypothesis and discussion of findings
HYPOTHESIS 1: There is no significant relationship between mobile internet and business growth
Crosstabs
4.3.1 Case Processing Summary
Cases
Valid Missing Total
N Percent N Percent N Percent
Mobile Internet * Business growth 150 100.0% 0 0.0% 150 100.0%
4.3.2 Mobile Internet * Business growth Cross tabulation
Business growth Total
Agreed Fairly Agreed Strongly Agreed Mobile Internet Count 0 2 0 0 2
Expected Count .0 1.3 .5 .2 2.0
Agreed Count 1 69 20 12 102
Expected Count 1.4 65.3 25.2 10.2 102.0
Fairly Agreed Count 0 19 15 0 34
Expected Count .5 21.8 8.4 3.4 34.0
Fairly Disagreed Count 0 0 1 0 1
Expected Count .0 .6 .2 .1 1.0
Strongly Agreed Count 1 6 1 3 11
Expected Count .1 7.0 2.7 1.1 11.0
Total Count 2 96 37 15 150
Expected Count 2.0 96.0 37.0 15.0 150.0
4.3.3 Chi-Square Tests
Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 24.763a 12 .016
Likelihood Ratio 24.570 12 .017
N of Valid Cases 150 14 cells (70.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .01.

Interpretation
From table 4.3.3 above the Pearson Chi-square X2 value is 24.763 and the p-value is 0.016. The likelihood Chi-square statistics is 24.570 and its p-value is 0.017. Therefore at significant level 0.05 (5%), the relationship between the use of the internet and business growth is statistically significance. Since X2cal;X2Tab we reject the null hypothesis and accept alternative hypothesis. This implies that there is a significance relationship between the use of internet and business growth.

4:3:4 Symmetric Measures
Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .376 .016
N of Valid Cases 150 a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

4:4 HYPOTHESIS 2
Table 4:4:1 Crosstabs
Case Processing Summary
Cases
Valid Missing Total
N Percent N Percent N Percent
Website * Product Improvement 150 100.0% 0 0.0% o150 100.0%
Table 4:4:2 Website * Product Improvement Cross tabulation
Product Improvement Total
Agreed Fairly Agreed Fairly Disagreed Strongly Agreed Website Agreed Count 2 86 17 2 5 112
Expected Count 2.2 80.6 20.9 1.5 6.7 112.0
Fairly Agreed Count 0 15 9 0 4 28
Expected Count .6 20.2 5.2 .4 1.7 28.0
Fairly Disagreed Count 1 0 0 0 0 1
Expected Count .0 .7 .2 .0 .1 1.0
Strongly Agreed Count 0 7 2 0 0 9
Expected Count .2 6.5 1.7 .1 .5 9.0
Total Count 3 108 28 2 9 150
Expected Count 3.0 108.0 28.0 2.0 9.0 150.0
Table 4:4:3 Chi-Square Tests
Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 59.849a 12 .000
Likelihood Ratio 19.249 12 .083
N of Valid Cases 150 a.14 cells (70.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .01.

Interpretation
From table 4.4.3 above the Pearson Chi-square X2 value is 59.849 and the p-value is 0.000. The likelihood Chi-square statistics is 19.249 and its p-value is 0.083. Therefore at significant level 0.05 (5%), the relationship between the use of website and product accessibility is statistically significance. Since X2cal;X2Tab we reject the null hypothesis and accept alternative hypothesis. This implies that there is a significance relationship between the the use of website and product accessibility.

Table 4:4:4 Symmetric Measures
Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .534 .000
N of Valid Cases 150 a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

4:5 HYPOTHESIS 3
4:5:1 Crosstabs
Case Processing Summary
Cases
Valid Missing Total
N Percent N Percent N Percent
Automated Information Systems facilitated high productivity * Management effectiveness 150 100.0% 0 0.0% 150 100.0%
Management effectiveness Total
Agreed Fairly Agreed Strongly Agreed Automated Information Systems facilitated high productivity Count 2 0 0 2
Expected Count 1.3 .4 .3 2.0
Agreed Count 22 10 9 41
Expected Count 25.7 8.5 6.8 41.0
Disagree Count 5 0 0 5
Expected Count 3.1 1.0 .8 5.0
Strongly Disagree Count 1 1 0 2
Expected Count 1.3 .4 .3 2.0
Fairly Agreed Count 29 5 4 38
Expected Count 23.8 7.9 6.3 38.0
Fairly Disagree Count 9 3 0 12
Expected Count 7.5 2.5 2.0 12.0
Strongly Agreed Count 26 12 12 50
Expected Count 31.3 10.3 8.3 50.0
Total Count 94 31 25 150
Expected Count 94.0 31.0 25.0 150.0
Table 4:5:3 Chi-Square Tests
Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 15.097a 12 .236
Likelihood Ratio 19.552 12 .076
N of Valid Cases 150 L
11 cells (52.4%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .33.

Interpretation
From table 4.5.3 above the Pearson Chi-square X2 value is 15.097 and the p-value is 0.236. The likelihood Chi-square statistics is 19.552 and its p-value is 0.76. Therefore more than significant level 0.05 (5%), the relationship between automated information system and management effectiveness is not statistically significance. Since X2cal;X2Tab we accept the null hypothesis and reject alternative hypothesis. This implies that there is significance no significant relationship between automated information system and management effectiveness.

Table 4:5:4Symmetric Measures
Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .302 .236
N of Valid Cases 150 a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.0 Introduction
Chapter five gives an overview of the entire research work as it starts with the summary of the research work from chapter one to chapter four. It explains the research findings from the data gathered from observation and field survey as well as the implications of the findings. It further emphasizes on the supporting theories and previous findings of other researchers related to the study on emerging technology as a tool for development of entrepreneurship, cross tabulation and chi-square approach. The purpose of the study was to investigate if emerging technologies result in entrepreneurship developments satisfaction and organizational performance, a crosstab and chi-square approach, a case study of Yale Foods limited, Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria. In the study, three (3) hypotheses were put forward and tested using crosstab and chi-square analysis.
5.1 Summary of Research Work
This study began with the background to the whole study and was explained based on the past knowledge of what is in the literature. The reason for this research which is the research problem was carefully stated. Four (3) problems were properly identified in the area of emerging technology and entrepreneurship developments. The research drew the objective of the study from the three (3) stated problems. This include; to analyze the effect of internet on business growth , to determine the efficacy of website on product improvement, and to access the relationship between automated information system and management effectiveness. The specific variables that were used in the study include; management effectiveness, product accessibility, business growth, internet, website and automated information system. All these variables were properly explained with adequate citations in the literature review.

Literatures on entrepreneurship developments and technology were reviewed as they relate to the research topic. Also important theories of entrepreneurship such as cultural theory, economic theory and sociological theory were reviewed. It also revealed major contributions and findings of previous scholar and researchers in this field (empirical findings) and lastly the gap to be filled were highlighted.

The research instrument for the study was questionnaire while the research design was survey research design so as to achieve the objectives of the study. SPSS 20.0 were used to test the research hypotheses and describe the demographic characteristics of respondents. Crosstab was used to confirm if any there are any missing values, while chi-square was used for analysis.

5.2Summary of Findings
The findings are divided into two parts which are the theoretical and the empirical findings. The theoretical findings deal with the best theoretical underpinning that goes with the result of the research findings while the empirical findings compare and contrast past findings with this research findings.

Theoretical Findings
The use of emerging technology involves staying on top of current technologies which means anticipating for future ones, the emergence of new technological tools or process disrupt the existing ones through more efficient and effective process. Peter F. Drucker explained that the entrepreneurs are one that are constantly looking for new avenues to change and utilize this change as an opportunity. Drucker’s theory is based on two important factors which are innovation and resources; innovation depends on resources and resources gain importance only when perceived to possess economic value. Innovating new ideas as well as new products or any elements related to his business help him to increase his productivity. Similarly, resources like capital are important to incorporate new innovations. (Simpeh, 2011). The theory explains that there is a complex relationship between the innovation, resources and the behavior of the entrepreneurs. Peter F. Drucker had derived three main points which help to explain the role of the entrepreneurs:
1. Entrepreneurs increase the value and satisfaction of the customer through the efficient utilization of the resources.

2. Entrepreneurs are responsible for the creation of new values.

3. Entrepreneurs must combine the existing materials and the resources (Scholte et al., 2015)
Empirical findings
As stated earlier, the discussion of this study followed the hypotheses raised and tested and are presented as follows
The first hypothesis which stated that there is no significant relationship between the use of internet and business growth was rejected at the Pearson Chi-square X2 value is 24.763 and the p-value is 0.016 ,this show that the relationship between the use of the internet and business growth is statistically significance .this implies that there is significant relationship between internet and business growth ,i.e. internet has positive effects on business growth, this is in the with (Boyd,Walker&Larreche,1995) that affirms that technology drives the development of many new products and markets. Also Yeh, Jung-Ting Chang(2007), opines that the costs and effort involved with the subsequent implementation of technology are key factors that influence the success of small business.

Hypothesis2
The second hypothesis which stated that there is no significant relationship between the use of website and product accessibility” was rejected at Pearson Chi-square X2 value is 59.849 and the p-value is 0.000.This implies that there is a significant relationship between website and product accessibility that is website has positive effect on products accessibility.

Hypothesis3
The third hypothesis which stated that there is no significant relationship between automated information system and management effectiveness” was accepted at the Pearson Chi-square X2 value is 15.097 and the p-value is 0.236. This reveals that there is no significant relationship between automated information system and management effectiveness that is automated information system has a negative effect on management effectiveness.

5.3 Conclusion
The aim of this empirical study is to investigate the relationship between emerging technology and entrepreneurship developments. The study applies a crosstab analysis and chi-square approach and establishes empirical support for some conjectures made in the literatures. Affirming that emerging technology is a vital tool for entrepreneurship development, it becomes expedient to examine how large firms like Yale Foods limited moves through the phases of growth through adoption of newly emerging technology which facilitate entrepreneurship development. This research work shows that small and medium enterprise could develop by keeping abreast of newly emerging technology.

5.4 Contribution to Knowledge
This study contributed to the body of knowledge of entrepreneurship, This study particularly expands the body of knowledge in the area of application of technology in entrepreneurship. The study evaluated the relationship between emerging technology and entrepreneurship development and this will serve as blue print to SMEs on the need to adopt new technology to achieve business growth. The results obtained from this study can also be adopted by small and medium scale enterprises that are not in the study area and other organizations that find the work relevant.

5.5Recommendations
To attain entrepreneurship development in by a nation like Nigeria:
i. there is a need to encourage the adoption of newly emerging technology by SMEs.
Ii .there is a need to ensure for internet connectivity to achieve business goals and objectives.

The business environment is a battle front full of competition, new processes, tools and information are therefore crucial to the success and development of entrepreneurship.

the internet is revolutinalizing the way business is been conducted, therefore there is a need to see it as an important tool to achieve business growth.

5.6 Suggestions for Further Studies
Future research may adopt a more robust perspective by conducting empirical studies into emerging technology in Nigeria by using more companies, unlike this study which was focused on a particular company this will help in increasing the extent of generalization of the whole research work.

This research does not consider the cost benefit analysis of adoption of new emerging technology
There is also a need for further study since there is always a change in technology within a given period of time.

There is need to carry out this research internationally where new, advance, emerging technologies e.g robot.

Limitation of the study
All researches are faced with one limitation or the other, in which this research is not an exception.

The study used a structured questionnaire which limited the respondents to say more about their feeling with regards to the constraints that affect.

There are more advanced technological tools e.g robots in developed countries. the non availability of these technological tools is a limitation to this study. Hence there is need to carry out this research internationally.

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APPENDIX 1
COLLEGE OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCE,
DEPARTMENT OF ENTREPRENEURIAL STUDIES,
FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE,
ABEOKUTA, OGUN STATE.

Dear Sir/Ma,
Questionnaire on the research tittle Emerging technology as a tool for entrepreneurship development in Yale Foods Limited, Oyo State, Nigeria. I am a final year student of the named Institution and Department. I am conducting a research study in partial fulfillment of the award of Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) Degree in Entrepreneurial Studies. The findings will definitely be of immense help to the entrepreneurs. Please kindly provide the appropriate response by ticking the right box to the best of your knowledge of those questions.

I plead for your co-operation and be rest assured that the information obtained from this exercise is purely for academics purpose and will be hold strictly with confidence.

Thanks
Yours faithfully,
_________________
Mustapha Toyyib A.

Researcher.

SECTION A: Personal Data
1.Sex: Male ( ) Female ( )
2.Marital Status: Married ( ) Single ( ) Divorce ( ) Others ( )
3.Age Group: 20-29 ( ) 30-39 ( ) 40-49 ( )
4.Educational Qualification: SSCE ( ) OND/Diploma ( ) HND/BSc. ( ) Others ( )
5.Work Experience: 1-5years ( ) 6-10years ( ) 11-15 ( ) Over 15years ( )
SECTION B
Please tick as; SA-Strongly Agree, A-Agree, FA-Fairly Agree, FD-Fairly Disagree, D-Disagree, SD-Strongly Disagree.

S/N Mobile Internet and Business growth SA A FA FD D SD
B6 Mobile internet keeps customers informed on new products and existing products. B7 Mobile internet encourages business activities within the business internal environment. B8 Most employees have internet accessibility within the organizations B9 Information are passed to customers through mobile internet B10 Customers use internet connectivity to access this business organization. B11 There has been high increase in business output over the years. B12 The organization produces many but related products B13 There is significant increase in the number of employees B14 The organization uses new and improved technological machines in production of goods B15 Customers satisfaction is a major determinant of repeat purchase decision. SECTION C
S/N Website and product improvement SA A FA FD D SD
C16 The organization has a functional website C17 The organization updates the information on the website efficiently C18 New products and existing ones are presented to the world through website C19 Complaints and comments of customers are well treated through the website. C20 The website helps to allow both local and international accessibility. C21 Over the years there have been significant changes and improvement in the company’s product C22 The organization introduces new product with new taste and quality which satisfy the customers need. C23 The recent changes in packaging of product makes it more attractive to customers. C24 Changes in product increases sales and build brand loyalty C25 The quality and packaging of goods meets both local and international standard. SECTION D
S/N Automated Information System and Management effectiveness SA A FA FD D SD
D26. The organization is equipped with computer systems that are locally connected. D27. Information are passed within the organization via Local Area Network (LAN) D28 All sales records and business records are well presented on system and other gadgets in the organization D29 Management passes information and receives reports through automated information system. D30. Automated Information Systems facilitated high productivity D31. Inputs are made available for production of goods adequately without delay in production. D32 Managers monitor every stages of production to achieve high quality products. D33 Employees are motivated to ensure high performance of duties in the organization. D34 The organizations business policies and strategies are made towards the achievement of business goals and objective. D35 Managers ensure feedback from subordinates and attend to every request and information promptly. APPENDIX II
Table 4.2: Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents by their demographic characteristics. N = 140
Demographic characteristicsFrequencyPercentage% Cumulative________
Sex
Male 5637.3 37.3
Female 9462.7100.0
Age
30 – 39years11174.0 74.0
40– 49years 3926.0100.0
Work Experience
1 -5years 51 34.0 34.0
6 – 10years 5033.3 90.7
11-15 35 23.3 57.0
Over 15years 1493.3100.0
Marital Status
Divorce 24 16.0 16.0
Married 69 46.0 62.0
Others 6 4.0 66.0
Single 51 34.0 100.0
Educational Qualification
SSCE 43 28.7 28.7
OND/DIPLOMA 37 24.7 69.7
HND/BSC57 36.0 89.0
Over/15years16 10.7 100.0
Source: Field Survey, 2017
Table 4:2:2
Mobile internet keeps customers informed on new products and existing products
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 2 1.3 1.3 1.3
Agreed 110 73.3 73.3 74.7
Fairly Agreed 28 18.7 18.7 93.3
Strongly Agreed
Fairly Disagree 10 6.7 6.7 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Frequency Table
Table 4:2:3 Mobile internet keeps customers informed on new products and existing products
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 55 36.7 36.7 36.7
Disagree 5 3.3 3.3 40.0
Strongly Disagree 1 .7 .7 40.7
Fairly Agreed 22 14.7 14.7 55.3
Fairly Disagree 17 11.3 11.3 66.7
Strongly Agreed 50 33.3 33.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table 4:2:4 Mobile internets encourages business activities within the business internal environment
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 53 35.3 35.3 35.3
Disagree 2 1.3 1.3 36.7
Fairly Agreed 29 19.3 19.3 56.0
Fairly Disagree 13 8.7 8.7 64.7
Strongly Agreed 53 35.3 35.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
.

Table 4:2:6 6 Most employees have internet accessibility within the organizations
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 56 37.3 37.3 37.3
Disagree 1 .7 .7 38.0
Fairly Agreed 31 20.7 20.7 58.7
Fairly Disagree 15 10.0 10.0 68.7
Strongly Agreed 47 31.3 31.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
4:2:7 7 Information are passed to customers through mobile internet
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 61 40.7 40.7 41.3
Disagree 4 2.7 2.7 44.0
Strongly Disagree 1 .7 .7 44.7
Fairly Agreed 27 18.0 18.0 62.7
Fairly Disagree 9 6.0 6.0 68.7
Strongly Agreed 47 31.3 31.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table 4:2:8 Customers use internet connectivity to access this business organization.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 58 38.7 38.7 38.7
Disagree 3 2.0 2.0 40.7
Strongly Disagree 1 .7 .7 41.3
Fairly Agreed 24 16.0 16.0 57.3
Fairly Disagree 17 11.3 11.3 68.7
Strongly Agreed 47 31.3 31.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table 4:2:9 There has been high increase in business output over the years
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 43 28.7 28.7 28.7
Disagree 2 1.3 1.3 30.0
Strongly Disagree 2 1.3 1.3 31.3
Fairly Agreed 41 27.3 27.3 58.7
Fairly Disagree 8 5.3 5.3 64.0
Strongly Agreed 54 36.0 36.0 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table4:2:10 The organization produces many but related products
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 56 37.3 37.3 37.3
Disagree 7 4.7 4.7 42.0
Fairly Agreed 27 18.0 18.0 60.0
Fairly Disagree 13 8.7 8.7 68.7
Strongly Agreed 47 31.3 31.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table 4:2:11 There is significant increase in the number of employees
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 56 37.3 37.3 37.3
Disagree 3 2.0 2.0 39.3
Strongly Disagree 1 .7 .7 40.0
Fairly Agreed 29 19.3 19.3 59.3
Fairly Disagree 13 8.7 8.7 68.0
Strongly Agreed 48 32.0 32.0 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table4:2:12 The organization uses new and improved technological machines in production of goods
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 48 32.0 32.0 32.0
Disagree 2 1.3 1.3 33.3
Fairly Agreed 39 26.0 26.0 59.3
Fairly Disagree 13 8.7 8.7 68.0
Strongly Agreed 48 32.0 32.0 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table4:2:13Customers satisfaction is a major determinant of repeat purchase decision.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 57 38.0 38.0 38.7
Disagree 3 2.0 2.0 40.7
Strongly Disagree 1 .7 .7 41.3
Fairly Agreed 40 26.7 26.7 68.0
Fairly Disagree 10 6.7 6.7 74.7
Strongly Agreed 38 25.3 25.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 201
Table 4:2:14 24 The quality and packaging of goods meets both local and international standard
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 49 32.7 32.7 32.7
Disagree 3 2.0 2.0 34.7
Strongly Disagree 2 1.3 1.3 36.0
Fairly Agreed 32 21.3 21.3 57.3
Fairly Disagree 8 5.3 5.3 62.7
Strongly Agreed 56 37.3 37.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table 4:2:15 The organization updates the information on the website efficiently
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1 .7 .7 .7
Agreed 56 37.3 37.3 38.0
Disagree 2 1.3 1.3 39.3
Fairly Agreed 37 24.7 24.7 64.0
Fairly Disagree 9 6.0 6.0 70.0
Strongly Agreed 45 30.0 30.0 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
.
4:2:16 New products and existing ones are presented to the world through website
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 63 42.0 42.0 42.0
Disagree 6 4.0 4.0 46.0
Fairly Agreed 18 12.0 12.0 58.0
Fairly Disagree 11 7.3 7.3 65.3
Strongly Agreed 52 34.7 34.7 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table 4:2:17 Complaints and comments of customers are well treated through the website.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 58 38.7 38.7 38.7
Disagree 4 2.7 2.7 41.3
Strongly Disagree 2 1.3 1.3 42.7
Fairly Agreed 37 24.7 24.7 67.3
Fairly Disagree 10 6.7 6.7 74.0
Strongly Agreed 38 25.3 25.3 99.3
Strongly Agreed` 1 .7 .7 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table 4:2:18 The website helps to allow both local and international accessibility.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 54 36.0 36.0 36.0
Disagree 7 4.7 4.7 40.7
Fairly Agreed 34 22.7 22.7 63.3
Fairly Disagree 16 10.7 10.7 74.0
Strongly Agreed 39 26.0 26.0 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017.
Table 4:2:19 Website
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 112 74.7 74.7 74.7
Fairly Agreed 28 18.7 18.7 93.3
Fairly Disagreed 1 .7 .7 94.0
Strongly Agreed 9 6.0 6.0 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table 4:2:20 there have been significant Over the years changes and improvement in the company’s product
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 53 35.3 35.3 35.3
Disagree 6 4.0 4.0 39.3
Fairly Agreed 26 17.3 17.3 56.7
Fairly Disagree 11 7.3 7.3 64.0
Strongly Agreed 54 36.0 36.0 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
.
Table 4:2:21 The organization introduces new product with new taste and quality which satisfy the customers need.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 59 39.3 39.3 39.3
Disagree 5 3.3 3.3 42.7
Strongly Disagree 1 .7 .7 43.3
Fairly Agreed 28 18.7 18.7 62.0
Fairly Disagree 6 4.0 4.0 66.0
Strongly Agreed 51 34.0 34.0 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table 4:2:22The recent changes in packaging of product makes it more attractive to customers.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 48 32.0 32.0 32.0
Disagree 4 2.7 2.7 34.7
Strongly Disagree 1 .7 .7 35.3
Fairly Agreed 33 22.0 22.0 57.3
Fairly Disagree 17 11.3 11.3 68.7
Strongly Agreed 47 31.3 31.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table 4:2:23 Changes in product increases sales and build brand loyalty
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 49 32.7 32.7 32.7
Disagree 6 4.0 4.0 36.7
Strongly Disagree 3 2.0 2.0 38.7
Fairly Agreed 37 24.7 24.7 63.3
Fairly Disagree 11 7.3 7.3 70.7
Strongly Agreed 44 29.3 29.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 20
Table 4:2:24
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agreed 52 34.7 34.7 34.7
Disagree 3 2.0 2.0 36.7
Strongly Disagree 2 1.3 1.3 38.0
Fairly Agreed 30 20.0 20.0 58.0
Fairly Disagree 10 6.7 6.7 64.7
Strongly Agreed 53 35.3 35.3 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
Table:4:2:25
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Disagree 3 2.0 2.0 2.0
Agreed 108 72.0 72.0 74.0
Fairly Agreed 28 18.7 18.7 92.7
Fairly Disagreed 2 1.3 1.3 94.0
Strongly Agreed 9 6.0 6.0 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0 Source: Field survey, 2017
4.3 Testing of Hypothesis and discussion of findings
HYPOTHESIS 1: There is no significant relationship between mobile internet and business growth
Crosstabs
4.3.1 Case Processing Summary
Cases
Valid Missing Total
N Percent N Percent N Percent
Mobile Internet * Business growth 150 100.0% 0 0.0% 150 100.0%
4.3.2 Mobile Internet * Business growth Cross tabulation
Business growth Total
Agreed Fairly Agreed Strongly Agreed Mobile Internet Count 0 2 0 0 2
Expected Count .0 1.3 .5 .2 2.0
Agreed Count 1 69 20 12 102
Expected Count 1.4 65.3 25.2 10.2 102.0
Fairly Agreed Count 0 19 15 0 34
Expected Count .5 21.8 8.4 3.4 34.0
Fairly Disagreed Count 0 0 1 0 1
Expected Count .0 .6 .2 .1 1.0
Strongly Agreed Count 1 6 1 3 11
Expected Count .1 7.0 2.7 1.1 11.0
Total Count 2 96 37 15 150
Expected Count 2.0 96.0 37.0 15.0 150.0
4.3.3 Chi-Square Tests
Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 24.763a 12 .016
Likelihood Ratio 24.570 12 .017
N of Valid Cases 150 14 cells (70.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .01.

4:3:4 Symmetric Measures
Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .376 .016
N of Valid Cases 150 a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

4:4 HYPOTHESIS 2
Table 4:4:1 Crosstabs
Case Processing Summary
Cases
Valid Missing Total
N Percent N Percent N Percent
Website * Product Improvement 150 100.0% 0 0.0% o150 100.0%
Table 4:4:2 Website * Product Improvement Cross tabulation
Product Improvement Total
Agreed Fairly Agreed Fairly Disagreed Strongly Agreed Website Agreed Count 2 86 17 2 5 112
Expected Count 2.2 80.6 20.9 1.5 6.7 112.0
Fairly Agreed Count 0 15 9 0 4 28
Expected Count .6 20.2 5.2 .4 1.7 28.0
Fairly Disagreed Count 1 0 0 0 0 1
Expected Count .0 .7 .2 .0 .1 1.0
Strongly Agreed Count 0 7 2 0 0 9
Expected Count .2 6.5 1.7 .1 .5 9.0
Total Count 3 108 28 2 9 150
Expected Count 3.0 108.0 28.0 2.0 9.0 150.0
Table 4:4:3 Chi-Square Tests
Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 59.849a 12 .000
Likelihood Ratio 19.249 12 .083
N of Valid Cases 150 a.14 cells (70.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .01.

Table 4:4:4 Symmetric Measures
Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .534 .000
N of Valid Cases 150 a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

4:5 HYPOTHESIS 3
4:5:1 Crosstabs
Case Processing Summary
Cases
Valid Missing Total
N Percent N Percent N Percent
Automated Information Systems facilitated high productivity * Management effectiveness 150 100.0% 0 0.0% 150 100.0%
1
Management effectiveness Total
Agreed Fairly Agreed Strongly Agreed Automated Information Systems facilitated high productivity Count 2 0 0 2
Expected Count 1.3 .4 .3 2.0
Agreed Count 22 10 9 41
Expected Count 25.7 8.5 6.8 41.0
Disagree Count 5 0 0 5
Expected Count 3.1 1.0 .8 5.0
Strongly Disagree Count 1 1 0 2
Expected Count 1.3 .4 .3 2.0
Fairly Agreed Count 29 5 4 38
Expected Count 23.8 7.9 6.3 38.0
Fairly Disagree Count 9 3 0 12
Expected Count 7.5 2.5 2.0 12.0
Strongly Agreed Count 26 12 12 50
Expected Count 31.3 10.3 8.3 50.0
Total Count 94 31 25 150
Expected Count 94.0 31.0 25.0 150.0
Table 4:5:3 Chi-Square Tests
Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 15.097a 12 .236
Likelihood Ratio 19.552 12 .076
N of Valid Cases 150 11 cells (52.4%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .33.

.

Table 4:5:4Symmetric Measures
Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .302 .236
N of Valid Cases 150

CHAPTER ONE

CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Background of The Study

Improvisation are materials that are used in absent of the original or ideal object to bring about the same learning effect that the standard material would have brought (ahmed 2008). it seems to be the opposite of teaching, which requires proper planning and advance thinking. Moreover, the students of G.S kabarondo B require the improvisation in other to increase performing especial in chemistry due to lack of the laboratory. it is known worldwide that laboratory equipment and teaching-learning material are factor influencing students ‘performance in science especial in chemistry. Franzer et al.,(1992)stressed that professionally qualified science teacher no matter how well trained, would unable to put his ideas into practice if the school have insufficient of equipment and material necessary for him or her to translate his competence into reality and also TLM are the most important in knowing science in real life. Franzer et al, Abdullah (1982) said that TLM are materials or tools locally made or imported that could make tremendous enhancement of lesson impact if intelligently used. This means that TLM is the most important in useful in teaching and learning science and they affect students’ performance in sciences permanently. Based on Clegg.et-al.(2008) science education in African countries is at most universally in-adequate. He showed that African has the problem in science especial in RWANDA where the big number of students they don’t liked sciences, this brought the problem of lack of doctors, engineers and researchers.

1.2 Statement Problem

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Different educationalists claim that improvisation have a role to play in performance of students in science subject especial in chemistry S1students.when teaching and learning process was done by using improvisation, the performance of S1 learner was increased or improved. The act of teaching and learning by using improvisation is fundamentally concerned with ideas, skills and attitude from teacher to the learner and learner discover the lesson and understand, enjoyable that lesson. During the progression of my observation I have seen that spoken words alone in the learning instruction were ineffective and inefficient in producing out came of learners in performance. After each evaluation done in class, I saw that the result of learner was released out; there had always been failure in the work and quiz prepared.

However, the use of improvisations materials during the lesson especial in S1 chemistry during teaching and learning of science subject (chemistry) is the only way of increasing the performance of the learners.as student conducted an action research at GS KABARONDO B based on information given above, I observed that the learners in ordinary level especially at GS KABARONDO B in S1 students were not performing well in science subjects due to the lack of laboratory resources; therefore, there is a need of using improvisation materials to concretize the lesson or the lesson more understandable.

1.3 Research objectives

This research aimed to attain the following objectives;
To demonstrate the importance of improvisation in performance of learner of S1 in chemistry.
To apply improvisation strategy in improving performance of learners in chemistry subject at GS kabarondo B
To assess the efficacy of this strategy in increasing performance of S1 in chemistry.
1.4 Research Question
This study was guided by the following research question:
What is the importance of Improvisation in of teaching and learning?
how can improvisation be applied in teaching and learning science at GS kabarondo b?
What is the impact of improvisation in teaching and learning science at GS kabarondo B
1.5 Significance of The Study
it is more important for Rwandan community and GS kabarondo B in particular to know the important of teaching and learning by using improvisation in improving the performance of students in science subject especial in chemistry.
The findings from this study will benefit the following people:
For students, improvisation will help them to understand and enjoyable the lesson especial science subject(chemistry).
For teachers, Improvisation will help teacher to improve learner’s attitudes and skills by conducting different experiment during the lesson of chemistry, it produces the big role in increasing the performance of learners. Moreover, teaching and learning by using improvisation materials reduce financial problem in government and GS kabarondo B.
As intern, is very importance to use laboratory resources at GS kabarondo B, as the use of laboratory materials give the learners opportunity to touch, smell or taste objects in teaching and learning process, especial in chemistry S1.
Consequently, the knowledge passed into the students at different levels of educational instructional should be well planned; hence the significance of this studies the students, teachers, curriculum, educational system and the society are large. Moreover, government of RWANDA can use this document to identify problems in teaching and learning science and also to predict solution to these problems or the way of solving them.

SECTION TWO: LITERATURE RIVIEW

2.1 Introductions

In this chapter two we are going to look at concepts, opinions and ideas from authors about improvisation in teaching and learning materials and about learner’s performance. In this chapter, we will look at some theories related to our research.

2.2 Definition of key concept
Improvisation are materials that are used in absent of the original or ideal object to bring about the same learning effect that the standard material would have brought (ahmed 2008).
Teaching and learning materials: According to Beth Lewis (2016) in the field of education, the term TLM (Teaching and Learning Materials) refers to a spectrum of educational materials that teachers use in the classroom to support specific learning objectives, as set out in lesson plans.
Performance: according to business dictionary performance “is the accomplishment of a given task measured against the preset known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost and speed”
2.3 Improvisation in the Teaching of Chemistry.
Teaching and learning by using available local resource(materials) is one way of promote effective teaching and learning in schools. They are materials that are used in absence of the original materials would have brought (ahmed2008). Ndirangu et al (2003) investigated the effective use of improvised materials designed by science teacher during their teaching practice. This study presented evidence that improvised teaching aids designed by science teachers during practice had a great influence in the teaching of science in school. These materials were found to be available and not expensive. The teacher of science should motivate to make their own teaching resource from the local available materials of science.
According to Montuori (2003) taught about ‘the complexity of improvisation and improvisation of complexity” in which he stresses the importance of not reading improvisation as deficiency, but rather as something fundamental to our existence in the world:
Improvisation might be said to serve at least a dual role or allowing us to adapt in our own way to complex environments, and to express our own complexity through the performance of our interaction with the world. the concept of improvisation is, I believe, it is important in education because it increase the performance of learner when it is use in teaching and learning.
Ndikubwayo (2017) said that science should be different subject like history or literature that why the school should have the laboratory well equipped Chemistry, Physics and Biology. these laboratories have everything inside, the teachers not only conduct science experiment but also use improvisation at least once a week and they are highly motivated to do so. When asked how they motivate their future students who will go to primary school and encounter with the problem of the lack of laboratory, the answer given was «they will come up with making their own locally materials as the curriculum requirements include the use of several and locally made materials» Ndikubwayo believes that the teaching and learning by using improvisation, is important in increasing finance of school, and performance of learner.
In addition, according to the statement of Hunk and Zimmer man (2006) which says that if I study hard for next test, I’ m going to do well. this describes that by improvisation of lesson in teaching and learning materials, helps learners to study hard as they become more attentive.
Conclusion
As definition of improvisation said that« They are materials that are used in absence of the original materials would have brought (ahmed2008) » this show us use of improvisation in teaching and learning has great impact in performance of learner.
2.4 Importance of Using Improvisation Materials
Now days, the government and schools in general require the use of low expenses in finance, that is why as teachers we need to use improvisation material in teaching and learning. Improvisation has the importance of increasing the economy of country as per the definition said above.
According to Jeff, S (2014), The reasons for Teachers to use improvisation in the classroom are the following.
. Practice what you preach, improve will make a more positive and creative teacher. yes, is a refreshing answer for students to hear from you, too. improve will make you a better listener in the classroom, and more open to new directions your class might take.
. Discover new stars, you will find there is a group of students who excel at this kind of work and received positive feedback from you and their peers. For many of these students, being a star in an academic setting will be anew feeling. that’s a one of kind motivator and can make a big difference in a child’s life.
. Creating same thing that’s truly shared, creating is a high-level critical thinking skill, and when you have created same thing as a class or group for which no individual can take credit, you have created something very special, indeed.
Perhaps it’s a story your students wrote the beginning of one word at a time. or a new invention that can be examined later individually or in small groups.
. foster collaboration in groups, there is a place for assigning roles among group members, but same times what you want is a true collaboration where everyone pitches in as an assemble. An improvisational component can help with almost any group assignment.
. build public speaking skills, for students who are nervous about getting up in front of the class to present, playing improve games and following directions with their friends can be a great way to prepare. They have the safety of the group and can join in the fun as they feel comfortable. This can make the front of the class seem like a less scary place.
For those students who already have confidence presenting –but need to work on volume and clarity improve provides an opportunity both for them to practice and you to coach them. Moreover, the observational learning theory of Albert Bandura (1977) behavior is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning. This help learner to imitate during teaching and learning by using improvisation and help them to improve in performing in science (chemistry)especial in S1 students.

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1. Introduction
This chapter refers to set of factors influencing students’ performance and technics used to improve student’s performance in science especial in chemistry S1. In this chapter there is same method and procedures used while selecting the study population, research instrument and research design including methods used in data collection and data analysis.
3.2 description of the area of the study
As it is said above the area of our study is GS KABARONDO B which is located in Eastern province, Kayonza district, Kabarondo sector, nearest of ES KABARONDO, at 10m from the principal road Kayonza-Kabarondo.
My action research has been conducted at GS KABARONDO B because, it is where my internship is conducted and even the problem in hand (Improving S1 students’ performance in chemistry through improvisation technique) has been founded there when conducted teaching practice at this school.

3.3. Research population

My research population is composed by the following categories: Learners and Teachers. Research population is 140 among them 134 are students and 6 are teachers

3.4. sampling techniques or sampling procedures
For S1 students, I used stratified random sampling method
For students of senior one 42/140 ×100=30
For teachers 6/140×100=4
3.5 research instruments
This research, the researcher used questionnaires. Questionnaires comprised open, closed and multiple choice questions. The observation and documentation was done to state and confirm the lack of laboratory materials and insufficiency of teaching learning materials while teaching and learning sciences and its increase the effect on students’ performance.
3.5.1. Questionnaire
This method indicates the set of cleared and structured questions to be addressed to the sample chosen to obtained real information and this method was applied to the teachers. I set five questionnaires where each one contains four questions (2multiple-choice questions and 2 open questions) and on the ground, questionnaire was distributed to the five teachers that are available. Before answering, I explained the purpose of the questions asked in order avoiding confusion.
3.5.2. observation
According to Longman dictionary observation is the process of watching something or someone carefully for a period of time.
As teacher to be, during internship conducted at GS Kabarondo B, I have observed the lack of laboratory and insufficiency of teaching learning materials while teaching and learning sciences and its effects on learners’ performance, and from this observation, I had decided to made the research on this problem and find out the possible solutions.

3.6 Conclusion
This chapter described the methods used in data collection, procedures adopted and research materials used that helped to get the reliable and acceptable information. The recorded answers are analyzed and interpreted, that gives this, and also give the conclusion. To do this, I have been supported by information collection methods (questionnaire, and observation) and various technique.
SECTION FOUR: DATA COLLECTION, ANALYSIS AND ENTERPRETATION
4.1. INTRODUCTION
In this chapter four I focus with the collection of information from the respondents; I analyzed them and I interpreted them, the light of the research objectives and research questions.
4.2 importance of improvisation in improving S1 performance in Chemistry
In order to know how students’ performance in learning science subject, researcher asked the question to answer and the data collected are given in the table below.
Table1; learning process at GS KABARONDO B
Which of the following ways do you use in increasing performance in science lessons?
1.Reading note 2.Doing more exercises 3.Explanation from the teacher by using improvisation material
Number of S1A Agree 1 2 7 10
% 10 20 70 100%
Number S1B
Agree 2 3 5 10
% 20 30 50 100%
Number of S1C Agree 4 1 5 10
% 40 10 50 100%

According to the information in the table above, it clear that the learning process in science at GS KABARONDO B is theoretical and practically with use improvisation materials during teaching.
Therefore, this makes learners to understand and enjoyable the lesson.
The results from S1A is higher compared to S1B and S1C as seen in the table above. Because the teaching and learning by using improvisation for S1B and S1c is less than S1A.

4.3 using improvisation strategy to increase performance in S1 at GS kabarondo B
Researcher asked a question to detect whether science teachers show learners the application of science in dairy life. The data collected from respondents are the following;
Table;2 relevance of learning science at GS kabarondo b
How often does teacher tell you the importance of learning science
Always before starting course Same time before starting course None
Number of S1A agree 7 2 1 10
% 70 20 10 100%
Number S1B
agree 5 2 3 10
% 50 20 30 100%
Number of S1C agree 6 3 2 10
% 60 30 20 100%

The data in the table two, show that science teachers provide the application of science in everyday life. When the students learn knowing the real importance of what they learn, this increase their interest and motivation of learning that lesson. According to the data collected there is clear to the difference between S1B and S1C other class where S1A said that teachers always told them the importance of learning science before starting the course, then in senior one, in terms did their best to make sciences enthusiastic and interesting hence they show the relevance of science in daily life by using the application of the theories and professional skills acquired from CE Rukara campus. According to Kelly.J.etal., they confirmed that their study where evaluated the interaction of motivation and ability with study time and its effects on academic performance of learner. The results suggested that none ability variables like motivation and study time significantly interact with ability to influence the academic performance.

4.4 Teaching and learning materials used at GS kabarondo b
The question was asked to know the types of teaching and learning material used at GS KABARONDO B. the answer respondents are the following;
Which teaching and learning material do you often use when learning sciences?
Science books lab materials audio visual material
Number % Number % Number %
14 31.1 20 44.4 15 33.3
30 68.2 25 55.5 30 66.6

According to the result showed in the table above S1A is the one dominant compared to the other classes because of teachers using improvised material in chemistry, moreover the learner have curiosity to know science in deep. This also supported by oyediran, I (2010) that need for definite well planned training program of improvisation for teachers.
This is caused by the fact that the teacher assume improvisation of TLM to be time consuming hence they use a few available laboratory materials. As state by pivio. A (1971) saying that a person uses both auditory and visual stimuli to learn information shows that the use of teaching and learning materials helps learners in the acquisition knowledge.
4.5 Impact of improvisation among S1 students in chemistry subject at GS kabarondo B
The impact of improvisation to S1 students at GS kabarondo B is more described in the table below which shows the performance of S1 learners before and after teaching Chemistry by using improvisation.
Results of evaluation
Class Subject topic Before using improvisation After using improvisation
Participants Pass % Fail % Participants Pass % Fail %
S1A Mixture 43 17 39.5 26 60 43 40 93 3 7
S1B Mixture 45 16 35.5 29 64 45 35 77.7 10 22.2

As it is observed in the table above, the number of students who pass were increase from 17 up to 40 in S1A and from 16 up 35 in S1B, this explained the importance of improvisation in education especial in chemistry.
4.6 Insufficient of teaching and learning material at GS kabarondo B
A question was asked to teachers to detect the availability of TLM. the data collected are given in the following table.
Question Responses
Do you have enough TLM to teach science subject? Yes
5 %
83.3 No
1 %
16.66
If yes which type of TLM do you have? Improvised Lab material

According to the table above, it is clear that TLM are insufficient at GS kabarondo B as shown by respondents answer. The remaining part of respondent re plied that the teaching and learning material that are available are mostly improvised ones. Moreover, using improvised instructional material assists the teacher economically and also allow students interaction which makes students to understand well the lesson. And also it helps the students use the intellectual ability during learning and teaching process. This helped by oyediran, I (2010) said that the countries rely on improvisation skills to overcome the problem of insufficient and learning materials.
4.7 frequency of using TLM at GS KABARONDO B
I have seen the insufficient of TLM at GS KABARONDO B research had curious to know how often teachers teach by using TLM. The data is given below
How often do you teach science subjects by using TLM?
Sometime Always Never
Respondents Number % Number % Number %
Teachers 4 66.6 2 33.3 0 0.0

The result in the table above shows that many of the teachers sometimes use TLM while teaching sciences. Shortage of TLM at GS KABARONDO B, teachers arrange themselves to improvise teaching learning materials. Therefore, observation has shown that some teachers do not use TLM for most of the topics taught and when they try to use them, same times these TLM are different instruction materials to help learners to learn and understand what they learn.
Improvisation help learners to understand the content taught and that TLM help teacher to concretize the science by helping learners to see real life application of science. And so the relevance of TLM to the objective of the lesson and the use of instructional materials are serious considerations utilization to better the learner’s performance. This also proved by Nwachukwu. (2006) that TLM are devices developed or acquired to assist or facilitate teachers in transmitting knowledge, skills and attitude to the learner.
4.8 challenges in using TLM at GS KABARONDO B
Insufficient and the frequency use of TLM, researcher asked a question to detect problems and challenges. The data from respondents are recorded here in table below,
Question Responses
Do you have problems in using TLM when teaching sciences? Yes % No %
5 83.33 1 16.66
If yes, what are those problems? Preparation of TLM % Selection of LM %
4 66.6 2 33.3

Result from the above table show that teachers at GS KABARONDO B meet with challenges in the use of TLM. The many challenges met by the teachers is the preparation of TLM (improvised materials) this because among teachers that we used there, same were not scientist. Inter want to know the root of this problem and challenges, most challenges are insufficient or low time of preparation and low skills of teaching and learning materials. Moreover, the teacher requires to be trained in other to be professional in using local resource(materials) for science teaching. This is also proved by Oyediran. I.(2010) that need for a definite training program of improvisation for teachers.
4.9 teachers’ contribution for the effective teaching and learning process
Reacher asked the question with purpose to know the contribution of teachers to teach effectively and efficiently science at GS KABARONDO B. the result is recorded below.
As the teachers who are at the school which is not well equipped, what is your contribution so as to teach effectively science subjects?
Field study By using lecturing method By using improvised material
Respondents Number % Number % Number %
Teachers 0 0.0 4 66.66 2 33.3

As the table show us, most the teachers have said that they improvise the lesson during teaching and learning, even they have low level in improvisation skills. Whereas other teacher uses field study in order to show the real life application of science. In addition, the teacher require training about how they improvise the lesson in terms of increasing improvisation skill in order to overcome the insufficiency of TLM at GS KABARONDO B. TLM help in the elaboration and performance of experiments and to show the relevance of learning sciences. At complete of study, students get familiar and knowledgeable of naturally occurring scientific processes. This also proved by oyediran, I (2010) that need for definite well planned training program of improvisation for teacher. Most of teachers have showed that teaching and learning material help teachers in delivery the courses. Other respondents have said that teaching and learning materials help learner to be active in the lesson, with this, the performance of students are improved.
The teacher at GS KABARONDO B suggested that to increase the performance of learners in this school, firstly telling the role of experiments in sciences and do many practice in science subjects, increase the teaching and learning by using improvised materials. In addition to that, familiarize learners to use techniques needed to facilitate them in learning science subjects about teaching and learning material used in teaching and learning process depend on the topic and subject.
Conceptualization
In general, this research aims to remove the obstacles of teaching Chemistry in absent or low of teaching materials by increasing the performance of students and increase the country economy. In addition to that The memory of brain remembers faster what we have been observed lather than what we hear. This theory explained the importance of using improvisation during teaching and learning for students, as we have seen in above. Moreover, improvisation is teaching by using local material in absence of teaching material. This improve students’ performance as they learn by observation. as theory said, students improve intellectual knowledge and remember what they have observed during teaching and learning chemistry.

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION, DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction
In this chapter five, I discussed how the research findings fit with research objectives. After discussing every research objective, I had to make conclusion.
5.2 discussion
5.2.1 role of teaching and learning by using improvisation in learning sciences at GS kabarondo B
The presents or absence of improvisation materials affect the level of understanding of students, their performance and their conduct during teaching and learning process. According to the respondents agree that, about the effect of improvisation material during teaching and learning there is positive and negative effect to the performance and understanding of learner.
5.2.2 students out come and understanding in sciences
According to the information collected and to my own observation, the students’ outcomes and understanding in sciences is not as low as allowing but as low as impossible through the use of adequate and available local resource in improvisation of lesson. For improvements in student’s outcomes and understanding sciences, teacher have to show the relevance example in learning sciences in real life and so to meet the intellectual curiosity of learners’ satisfaction.
5.3 conclusion
The role of teaching and learning materials in learning science is shown by research to be important for the performance of students in sciences as they foster the level of understanding in sciences especially when improvised materials are used in a consistent way and specific with the content to be taught.
According to the data collected from our respondents and basing to my observation, I conclude that performance and understanding in science in GS kabarondo B is neither lower nor higher but they require improving in using improvisation materials. The insufficient of teaching and learning materials affect the methodology of teaching and learning.
Finally, the interest of students in science is at medium level and has to be caused by insufficient and effective use of improvisation material during teaching and learning science. The interest give the confidence to the learners in learning science that why we have to use the local resources in teaching and learning as professional teachers will increase the acquisition and performance of learners at higher level.

5.4 recommendation
The researcher recommends that teaching and learning materials by using improvised material should be used as to help to teach when the standard ones are not available in rural areas, where the teaching and learning material are few as trained teachers we have to use the local resources that are available in that region. Also science teachers who have access to teach science are advised to use improvisation to assist the students to discovery the usefulness of materials in environment. Moreover, these material are not expansive, safe and available to use for each student in the lesson if these materials are used.
Furthermore, education departments should set the time table to train teachers to prepare improvisation materials during teaching and learning, especial rural area teachers, beyond these, the researcher recommends that teachers training institution (example ur ce) should incorporate the use of improvisation in their curriculum.

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