1.0 Introduction
This chapter contains a schorlarly understanding of what is social media ,the origin and history of social media,the types of social media channels,the characteristics of social media the negative impacts of social media and the attitude of youth towards social media
1.1 What are social media and new media?
According to Junco et al.2011 social media are “a collection of internet websites,services and practices that support collaboration,community building,participation and sharing.example of social media channels today as noted by Joosteen,( 2012),ranges from networking platforms such as facebook to video sharing sites such as you tube. Rice (1984) defined new media as communication technologies that enable or facilitate user to-user interactivity and interactivity between user and information.
1.2 Types of social media
According to many schorlars social media channels include a diversity of application with different core fiunction and structures ,for example social media channels today include facebook,myspace, linked in,and web blogs just to mention,therefore,there are many types of social media used for different functions; for instance social media for chatting,social media for sending videos e.t.c. Therefore social media have been classified by schorlars depending on their functions,based on this social media are classified into seven types.
There are seven types of social media ,the first type includes the wikis.according to Mayfield,2008;Pfeil,Zaphiris,&Ang,2006 wiki is a communication mechanism to create web based content that require allows its users to create ,modify and disseminate information,a good example of this social media is the wikipedia,another type of social media are web blogs, these according to John V.Pavlik 2013 are web pages of short, frequently update postings by an individual that are arranged chronologically,blogs contain thoughts ,links to sites of interest or whatever the blogger wants to write,a good example is word press.Another type of social media are discussions boards and web forums.John V.Pavlik 2013 describes it as ” a type of online “bulletin board” where internet users can post mesages that can be seen by others coming to the discussion board and in which they can post response to previous messages or posts or create their own discussions on a new topic,an example of this social media is the WELL(Whole earth ‘lectronic link).Another type of social media are socialnetworking sites, according toBoyd;Ellison,2007, they are sites that  enable users to articulate a network of connections of people with whom they wish to  share access to profile information, news, status updates, comments, photos, or other forms of content,example of such site is facebook.Another type of social media is the chat rooms,according to John V.Pavlik,2013 he describes chat room as “a virtual room”in which acommunity of users can visit and talk to each other through text messages in real time,an example of this social media is yahoo.another social media type are the microblogs.Microblogs according to John V.Pavlik,2013 is a technology that allows frequent update of shorter posts and content,an example in this is twitter.the last type of social media is email.John V.Pavlik describes it as an exchange of messages via telecommunication between two people.
1.3 General characteristics of social media
Mayfield ,2008 outlines the characteristic of social media into five: participation,openess,conversationality,community and connectedness.Participation according to Burgoon 2000,participation is the extent to which senders and receivers are actively engaged in in the interaction as opposed to giving monologues,passively observing or luking,its participatory nature allows interested parties an opportunity to engage in an interaction.For example encouraging conrtributions and feedback from everyone who is interested.Another characteristic of social media is openess.Openess according to Mayfield,2008 is defined by the perceived ease of giving and receiving information and comments by its media has few barriers that limits one to access information or make comments, so information can easily travel between sources and users(MeadowsKlue,2007).For example when we have the younger generation sharing information about their lives online via social media sites like facebook.Another characteristic of social media is connectedness,Teixeiria,(1992) describes connectedness as interpersonal ,community and general social ties.connectedness allows people to connect to the outside world and to easily expand their experiences.For example in facebook when we receive friend requests from friends or from friend of a friend.another characteristic of social media is conversationality,Mayfield ,(2008) describes it as the transmission or distribution of of information to an audiece by two way conversation rather than one direction.he gives his description with comparison to traditional media channels which was a one way communication mechanism or rather linear communication ,traditional media channels includes television,radio and newspaper just to mention.The last characteristic of social media is community and commonality, social media allows individuals and organizations to identify and communicate with the people whom they want to be associated with.(Mayfield, 2008) says it does so by offering a mechanism for individuals and organizations to form communities and to develop relationships effectively with others who share some commonality with them. For example, most social networking sites were launched to support demographics in an intimate, private community, such as the early Facebook for college students (Boyd ; Ellison, 2007). While social media helps foster communities, its aim is not simply on creating communities which are more continuous and regular in nature, and centered on a concept or common goal, as opposed to a collection of content. For example, viewers that post various online comments on a news story or video have something in common but might not necessarily be seen as belonging to a community. In other words, social media provides an effective means of developing communities, but its core utility is in linking individuals and organizations with others that share a certain commonality, as determined by their temporal needs and interests at the time of interaction.
1.4 The origin and history of social media
Six Degrees was the first social media site that was founded by a financial analyst and legal professional Andrew Weinreich, and was launched in 1997. Six Degrees was created based on the theory that every person in the world could be connected to each other by just six degrees of separation. The site lasted from 1997 until 2001.Six Degrees was the first to combine personal profiles, instant messaging, friends lists and the ability to search other members friends lists.Six Degrees may have been created a bit before its time. As the site grew, the world of online advertising was in its infancy and Weinreich was unable to keep the site afloat .Later after the closure of Six Degrees another founding father Adrian Scott came up with Ryze which was started in 2001,it was started to help connect business professionals .According to his book About Ryze,2013,”Ryze helps people make connections and grow their network.You can network to grow your business,build your career and life find a job and make sales,or just keep in touch with friends.”
After that social media sites began to explode with popularity with friendster being launched in 2002 by a Canadian computer programmer Jonathan Abrams. The service allowed users to contact other members, maintain those contacts, and share online content and media with those contacts.The site was also used for dating and discovering new events, bands and hobbies. Users could share videos, photos, messages and comments with other members via profiles and 2003,several other sites were launched,linkedin for instance was laumched in 2003 by several founders, Reid Hoffman, Allen Blue, Konstantin Guericke, Eric Ly and Jean-Luc Vaillant it was specifically aimed for business users to form professional networks and business connections.Later the same year MySpace is conceived by staff from Intermix Media (nee eUniverse), including marketer Chris DeWolfe and former computer hacker Tom Anderson.In 2004, Mark Zuckerberg launched ‘The Facebook’. The Facebook was created as social networking for college students.”The facebook”, as it was originally known; the name taken from the sheets of paper distributed to freshmen, profiling students and staff. Within 24 hours, 1,200 Harvard students had signed up, and after one month, over half of the undergraduate population had a profile.The network was promptly extended to other Boston universities, the Ivy League and eventually all US universities. It became in August 2005 ,US high schools could sign up from September 2005, then it began to spread worldwide, reaching UK universities the following month.As of September 2006, the network was extended beyond educational institutions to anyone with a registered email address. The site remains free to join, and makes a profit through advertising revenue.YouTube wasis another social networking site launched in 2005. It was founded by Jawed Karim, Steve Chen and Chad Hurley. They were employees of PayPal. It was a social sharing that let users freely upload and share a video.In 2006 Twitter was launched , it was known as social networking and microblogging site. It let its member to share and exchange 140 character messages. This short message was called as Tweets.More social sites continuued to be launched ,In 2010 several other sites were launched these included instagram,and google buzz.Instagram founders Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger unleashed the photo-sharing platform that, though they didn’t know it at the time,Instagram lets registered users upload photos or videos to the service. Users can apply various digital filters to their images, and add locations through geotags. They can add hashtags to their posts, linking the photos up to other content on Instagram featuring the same subject or overall topic. Users can connect their Instagram account to other social media profiles, enabling them to share photos to those profiles as well. The other one is Google Buzz,it was a social networking, microblogging and messaging tool that was developed by Google and integrated into their web-based email program,gmail, users could share links, photos, videos, status messages and comments organized in “conversations” and visible in the user’s inbox.On October 14, 2011, Google announced that it would discontinue the service and that the existing content would be available in read-only mode. Buzz was discontinued on December 15, 2011 and superseded by Google In 2011, Google launched new product of social networking named Google plus (Google+). Google plus let you have a video chat (hangout) and exchange information.In 2012, The first social scrapbooking that gained 10 million users faster in history launched. This social scrapbooking’s name is Pinterest. In Pinterest, you could create and share album of photos.More of social sites continue to be launched.

1.5 Negative impact of social media on youth today



In this changing environment the organization is not only affected but also the employees working in it are also affected too. Human Resources Management has a vital role to play in managing the organization resources and how employees are treated in the organization (Hassan, Hassan, Khan and Naseem, 2011). Employees are an important asset to every company, business and organization. In fact, the success of every company or business is entirely dependent on the effectiveness of its workforce (Samuel and Chipunza, 2009). A business may invest a lot of resources into its core operations and activities, but without a highly effective human resource, success in the long run cannot be achieved (Ton and Huckman, 2008). Although, there is no standard framework for understanding the employees turnover process as whole, a wide range of factors have been found useful in interpreting employee turnover Kevin et al. (2004).
Employee or labor turnover is defined as the proportion of a firm’s workforce that leaves during the course of a year. It can also be referred to as the rate at which employee leave employment.
There are several ways through which a company or business may improve the effectiveness of their employees. This can be through periodic training programs, constant motivation in the workplace, employee empowerment, promotion and bonus programs, etc. These strategies and activities often require a company to spend a significantly large amount of resources, to ensure that its employees are content with their jobs and work optimally to achieve the set organizational goals and objectives (Glebbeek and Bax, 2004). However, even with the above mentioned efforts, companies and businesses still face the constant threat of high employee turnover rates and thus low employee retention rates.
Therefore, managers must minimize the rate of employee’s turnover process, as a whole wide range of factors has been found useful in interpreting employee turnover. There is a need to develop a fully understanding of the labour turnover, its causes, effects and how to find strategic solutions to this problem.
Abassi et al (200) defined employee turnover as the situation of workers around the labour market; between firms, jobs and occupations; and between the states of employment and unemployment. Also, Price (1997) defined turnover as the ratio of the number of organizational members who have left during the period being considered divided by the average number of people in that organization during the period.
High turnover may be harmful to a company’s productivity if skilled workers are often leaving. Employee turnover can be caused through an employee being dismissed from the organization or an employee retiring. This may be due to internal and external factors. Some internal factors include ;organizational structure, reward packages, increase in demand and better working conditions for particular skilled labor in the firm, the social and cultural factors can influence employee turnover externally.
Queen of Peace Cooperation Credit Union is situated at Madina and has experienced employee turnover as a critical Human Resource issue in recent times. This is a great loss for the company, given the fact that it has spent a lot of resources to perfect the skills of these employees, only to have them leave the company and render their services to other companies.

The efficiency and success of an organization depends mainly on its capacity to retain its employees (Rampur, 2009). High staff turnover may result in an organization not being able to meet its objectives, loss of business of millions of shillings, loss of customers and it can also spoil the good reputation of an organization. However, it has been observed that there has been a challenge on retaining of employees.
In Queen of Peace Cooperation Union there have been incidences where the employees are leaving the organization in large numbers on monthly basis. At times, jumping from one institution to another within the same industry, which results in high cost of undertaking frequent recruitments and training sessions and loss of valuable time to focus on customers. Recruitment, selection and training are a very expensive exercise for any organization because the company has to spend a lot of resources in recruiting and training. Therefore, staff retention should be key for organization’s survival.
1.3.1 Introduction
This chapter includes the method of assessing the need/problem that is employed in the study. It indicates the research design, the workers research instrument, sampling techniques and data analysis.

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1.3.2 Method of assessing
Data collection method can either be quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative is used as a “synonym for any data collection techniques (such as a questionnaire or data analysis procedure such as graphs and statics) that generates or uses numerical data ” (Saunders et al., 2009, p 151). In contrast, qualitative is used as a synonym for any data collection techniques such as an interview or data analysis procedure such as data that generated or use non numerical data” (Saunders et al., 2009, p 151).
The researcher used qualitative method in the design of the study. Qualitative research method involves the use of qualitative data, such as interviews, documents and respondent observation, to understand and explain the problem at hand. According to Denzin and Lincoln (1994), a qualitative research focuses on the interpretation of a phenomenon in their natural settings to make sense in terms of meaning people bring to these settings. So this method involves data collection of personal experiences, introspections, stories about life, interview, observations, interactions and visual text which are significant to people’s life.
1.3.3 Research instrument
The reason for this research is to describe the nature of employee turnover in QPCCU, identify the causes of turnover as well as evaluating employees’ attitude to labour turnover. We collected data from the management and employees. Interview and personal observation were the instrument used by the researches.
1.3.4 Population
The target population of the study consists of all junior and senior staff employees (present and past) personnel of QPCCU. This includes all categories of past and present workers (2015-2018). Madina was chosen for the study because the researcher would have easy access to data. The population will be all senior staff employee and junior employees who will be willing to participate in the study. Management and senior staff employees were selected because they serve as key informants who could be of tremendous help in providing very vital information and other reference materials necessary for the study.
1.3.5 Ethical consideration
The participants would be thoroughly protected. There would be privacy throughout the entire process. The questionnaire will not require the participants to disclose any personal information.

The general purpose or objective of this study is to analyse the natures, causes and effects of employee turnover in Queen of Peace Credit Union (QPCCU). Some specific objectives are to;
1. Identify the causes of labour turnover in QPCCU.
2. Examine the effects of labour turnover on employees’ productivity.
3. Describe the attitude of employees to labour turnover in QPCCU.

1.4.1 Research Questions:
The research questions can be formulated in relation to the purpose of the study. This will help us find some possible solutions or serves as a guide to the study. The study may ask questions like;
• What are the causes of employee turnover in QPCCU?
• What are the effects of the state of labour turnover on employee productivity?
• What is employee attitude to labour turnover in QPCCU?

The credit union (of which QPCCU takes significant part) makes one of the significant credit unions in Ghana. Credit unions are not-for-profit financial cooperatives. In the early stages of development of a nation’s financial system, credit unions are used to meet the demand for financial services that banks could not.
In order to decrease or solve employee turnover, there is a need to understand and put in place effective and efficient factors to benefit QPCCU and Ghana as a country. The study would also broaden our understanding of the causes of employee turnover on the organizational performance.
The study would be of great importance to the top management in coming up with strategies to deal with what is perhaps the number one issue facing the human capital management field, being employee retention.
The research will influence review of human resource policies currently and in the future. The study information will assist in identifying motivational gaps and demonstrates ways of mitigation. As a result of the findings of QPCCU will work towards improving employee satisfaction by meeting their needs and therefore improved performance.