Chapter 2

Chapter 2. Literature Review
Conceptual Literature
Citrullus lanatus (Watermelon) is a popular tropical fruit that belongs to Cucurbitaceae family. This fruit is cultivated in the tropical and subtropical, and warm temperate regions of the world. There are around 1000 varieties of watermelon found in different parts of the world (FAO, 2016). According to World Crop Database (2012), Citrullus lanatus (Watermelon) requires hot, and dry climate. This fruit can survive the desert climate when groundwater is available and is sometimes used by people as a source of water. If this fruit is grown under hot and dry climate, the sugar content will be higher than fruits that grew up under cool and humid climate. Even though that it is over ninety percent (90%) water, this fruit is full of nutrients. It provides high levels of vitamins, such as vitamin A, vitamin C, lots of lycopene, and antioxidants, and minerals, and just a small amount of calories. Other benefits include asthma prevention, promoting a healthy digestive tract, reduces inflammation, and prevents dehydration (Ware, 2017). Based on the production of Citrullus lanatus (Watermelon), China ranks first worldwide with seventy percent (70%) of total production. The leading growers aside from China were Turkey with five percent (5%), Iran, United States, and Egypt with two percent (2%). The total production of Citrullus lanatus (Watermelon) worldwide is about 80 million tons (FAOSTAT, __).
Citrullus lanatus (Watermelon) rind, is the green outer part of the Watermelon that is completely edible. It contains an important compound called citrulline, which is a good source of fiber that helps us keeping our digestive tract operating properly. Citrullus lanatus (Watermelon) rind also contains cellulose fiber, which is basic and an important constituent of making a paper. But, Citrullus lanatus (Watermelon) rind is considered by many people as a waste that usually ends up in a compost bin.
Waste or any unwanted matter or material, refers to the range of garbage which was generated by animal and human activities. Waste can be categorized based on material, such as plastic, paper, glass, metal, raw material, and organic waste. Waste categorization may also be based on hazard potential, including radioactive, flammability, and infectiousness. Solid wastes are any discarded, disposed, or abandoned materials from municipal, industrial, and agricultural activities (Buraga, Malana, & Agcaoili, 2014). Therefore, solid waste must be managed properly to ensure the best practices for the environment.
Solid waste management is referred as the generation, storage, collection, transfer or transport, recovery, and disposal of solid waste materials in reducing and eliminating adverse impacts on waste materials on human health and environment to promote the development of the economy and improve the quality of life (Leblanc, 2017).
Paper is one of the solid materials that is thrown away after using. Paper usually ends up in landfills, which creates a very large amount of paper waste. Paper waste refers to a paper that is thrown away as not being useful or helpful. According to Solisco (2017), the worldwide paper consumption has reached approximately 400 million tons per year. Also in the same year, the global demand for paper increased by an average of two percent (2%).
Paper is an important material that was used daily for many purposes worldwide. According to Statistical Portal (__), the worldwide production of paper and cardboard stood over 400 million metric tons in the year 2014. The three largest paper producing countries are China, United States, and Japan. These three countries account for half of the worldwide’s total paper production, while the leading paper importing and exporting countries are Germany and the United States. With over 400 million metric tons of paper consumed globally in 2014, the world’s paper consumption is roughly equal to the amount of paper produced annually. China is the largest paper consumer worldwide, using more than 100 million metric tons annually, followed by the United States with consumption rate of more than 70 million metric tons. However, North America, has world’s highest per capita consumption of paper of any region consuming 221 kilograms per capita.
Nearly 4 billion trees or thirty five percent (35%) of the total trees cut down worldwide are used in paper industries on every continent of the world. As the population increases, the demand and consumption of paper also increases. Finding an alternative material for paper production such as Citrullus lanatus (Watermelon) rind can prevent the shortage of wood resources.