CHAPTER 1

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Non-Planar MOSFET’S were first discovered in 1994 but at that time it was not economically or technological practical to shift from planar to non-planar as it was quite difficult to change and till then there were no difficulties in shrinking traditional MOSFET’S. But in 2005 the shrinking and manufacturing became difficult due to Quantum effects which were increasing exponentially with decrease in size. For further continuation of Moore’s Law we shifted towards the most favorable option Non-Planar MOSFET’s which provide better control of the channel by incorporating more number of gates most famous being FINFET due to ease in manufacturing and fabrication. Today FINFET’s have reached their limit too as the decrease in transistor size was tradeoff for increase in resistive and capacitive parasites. In this study we discuss the structures of Non-Planar MOSFET’S and probable successors of FINFET’S4.
1.1 Need For Study
The study’s aim is to trace the key developments and changes in technologies and structures of traditional MOSFET’S. It compiles the data from various researches all over the globe in last three decades and provides a brief review of the same. It also provides statistical data and performance graphs for the comparison with planar MOSFET’s. It covers both pros and cons of new technologies both on commercial and technological basis.

1.2 Non-Planar FETs
Non-Planar FET’s are quasi-planar devices. In them the silicon body has been rotated on its edge into a vertical orientation so only source and drain regions are placed horizontally about the body, as in a conventional planar FET. NON PLANAR MOSFET comprises of a conducting channel (usually undoped), surrounded by gate electrodes on either side. This ensures that no part of the channel is far away from a gate electrode. A multigate device employing independent gate electrodes is sometimes called a Multiple Independent Gate Field Effect Transistor (MIGFET)1.

Fig 1 : Non-Planar FET’s general structure1
Traditional planar FET or MOSFET
Dual gate planar FET or DGFET
Tri gate non-planar FET
FINFET
Quadruple gate or Gate all around FET OR GAAFET
Nano wire FET or NWFET
CHAPTER 2: NON-PLANAR VS PLANAR FET’s
Information on the technologies used are given below:
Table 1: Technology characteristics
1016038100
Minimum Gate Supply Fin height / width /
gate length Pitch Voltage pitch
N10 (low Vt) 20nm 64nm 0.7V 30nm/6.7nm/36nm
N28 (low Vt) 30nm 130nm 0.9V –
FinFET devices are able to meet a spec on gm at much lower inversion levels than their planar equivalents, especially for short gate devices (Fig. 1). This characteristic should be exploited when designing with FinFETs as it is at low inversion levels that the highest power efficiencies and intrinsic gain values can be achieved (Fig. 2 and 3). However, the advantage N10 (FinFET) has over N28 (planar) for short gate devices becomes less significant as gate length increases1.

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Graph 1 Normalized transconductance (gm) for |VDS| = VDD. Left side of plot represents gm of PMOS devices (VGS ; 0); right side concerns NMOS devices (VGS ; 0). Higher gm values at lower overdrives can be obtained in N10, especially in the case of PMOS devices1.

FinFETs offer much higher intrinsic gains (gm/gds) than transistors in N28, so long as low inversion biases are used. This is due to the better electrostatic control of the channel FinFETs have over planar devices, especially for short gate devices. This is not the case in N28 where intrinsic gain values rapidly drop when gate lengths scale down. From the figures discussed above, it is apparent that transistors have (at low frequencies) more desirable characteristics at low inversion levels. However, for a given current or gm value, the width of a transistor increases as the overdrive applied is reduced, which increases the surface it occupies and its parasitic capacitance. There is therefore a trade-off between a transistor’s biasing level and its dimensions. One of the effects of high parasitic capacitance is illustrated in graph4 which plots the cutoff frequency fT ? gm/2?Cgg as a function of current density. In this respect, FinFETs perform less well than the planar devices we compare them to. Although their gm is higher for a given current, the ratio of that gm to the gate capacitance (Cgg) of the device is lower in N10 because of extrinsic resistive and capacitive parasitics4.

108267519050

Graph 2 Power efficiency of NMOS and PMOS devices as a function of current density, |VDS| = VDD. Curves show N10 FinFET has higher gm/I ratios than N28 planar, but this efficiency gap reduces as gate length increases4.

140296015240
Graph 3 Intrinsic gain of NMOS and PMOS devices as a function of current density, |VDS| = VDD. At low current densities, higher intrinsic gains are achieved in N10. Even short gate devices can attain over 30dB of gain, which is not the case in N284.

146639216510
Graph 4 Cutoff frequency (calculated as fT ? gm/2?Cgg) of NMOS and PMOS devices as a function of current density, |VDS| = VDD. N28 planar devices are able to reach higher cutoff frequencies because they suffer from less parasitics, both resistive and capacitive4.

2.1 Dual Gate FET
Traditional downscaling device technologies have been serving the microelectronic industry over the last three decades. Scaling with new materials & new device structures are now continually improving the performance of device technologies. DG-MOSFETs seem to be a very promising candidate owing to its excellent SCEs suppression, higher drive current and transconductance, lower leakage current, better DIBL and better scaling capability compared to the bulk MOSFETs19.

There are six different structures for DG- MOSFET :-

Fig 2(a) Gate Stack Double Gate19

Fig 2 (b) GS-DG-Single Halo19
847710-152903

Fig 2 (c) GS-DG-Double Halo19
843294113842
Fig 2(d) GS-DG Tri-material19
8149263337

Fig 2(e) GS-DG Tri-material Single Halo 19

Fig 2 (f) GS-DG Tri-material Double Halo19
In the structures, the channel length (L) and Source/Drain length (LS/LD) is kept as 40nm. The silicon thickness (TSi) as 10nm and a uniform density ND as 1020 cm-3 is taken. The channel is doped with impurity concentration of NA=1016 cm-3. In each case the effective oxide thickness is 1.1625nm. The thickness of SiO2 and equivalent HfO2 are 1nm, 0.1625nm respectively. To get equivalent thickness of the high -k as 0.1625nm, the physical thickness is 1nm. The work function for the gate electrode is assumed as 4.8ev for single material DG-MOSFETs. The channel engineering SH and DH was implemented in GS-DG models in a ratio of 1:4 and 1:2:1 respectively with NA= 1018 cm-3 as shown in Figure 1(b) &(c). The control gate M1 (toward the source side) and screening gates M2 and M3 (toward the drain side) are the gate electrodes with lengths LM1, LM2 and LM3 (LM1: LM2:LM3 = 1:2:1) and with metal work functions q?M1, q?M2 and q?M3 (4.8ev, 4.6ev &4.4ev)20.

CHAPTER 3: MANUFACTURING AND FABRICATION
SOI wafers are thermally oxidized to pro-duce 50-nm silicon films with a 50 nm hard-mask oxide. Phosphorus implants are used to achieve n-type channel doping in the range of 13 cm3 to 18 cm3. A double-resist process is used to define narrow gates and large-area patterns simultaneously. 250-nm optical G-line resist is patterned first and hard baked at 170 C; 200-nm SAL-601 is subsequently coated and patterned using e-beam exposure providing critical gate dimensions down to 30 nm. The two resist patterns are then transferred to the SOI with a single re-active ion etch (RIE). After the silicon fins are etched, 2.5-nm sacrificial oxide is grown and removed to improve the gate side-wall surface prior to gate oxidation without seriously undercut-ting the buried oxide.

The gate stack includes a 50-m oxide hard mask on top of 240-nm in-situ boron-doped Si0.5Ge0.5 on 1.8-nm SiO gate oxide. The SiGe gate composition is chosen to provide the desired threshold voltage. The gate-to-drain misalignment tolerance is 100 nm, but tighter tolerances can be achieved with improved e-beam stepping software. The triangular hard-mask shape and the trapezoidal gates are a result of using CHF3 during part of the Si RIE. After double-layer spacers of 37.5-nm nitride on 10-nm oxide are formed, arsenic and phosphorus ions are implanted to form the source and drain. A 600C anneal is used to re crystallize any portion of the silicon fin amorphized by the heavy As implant. This is followed by a short 900C activation anneal and a 450C forming gas anneal. 21

Fig. 3 Fabication of MOSFET
3.1 Electron Beam Lithography
Electron-beam lithography (often abbreviated as e-beam lithography) is the practice of scanning a focused beam of electrons to draw custom shapes on a surface covered with an electron-sensitive film called a resist (“exposing”). The electron beam changes the solubility of the resist, enabling selective removal of either the exposed or non-exposed regions of the resist by immersing it in a solvent (“developing”). The purpose, as with photolithography, is to create very small structures in the resist that can subsequently be transferred to the substrate material, often by etching.

The primary advantage of electron-beam lithography is that it can draw custom patterns (direct-write) with sub-10 nm resolution. This form of maskless lithography has high resolution and low throughput, limiting its usage to photomask fabrication, low-volume production of semiconductor devices, and research and development.

Electron-beam lithography systems used in commercial applications are dedicated e-beam writing systems that are very expensive (> US$1M). For research applications, it is very common to convert an electron microscope into an electron beam lithography system using a relatively low-cost accessory. Such converted systems have produced linewidths of ~20 nm since at least 1990, while current dedicated systems have produced linewidths on the order of 10 nm or smaller. 10

Fig. 4: (a) Writing strategy in bell laboratories Electron Beam Exposure “EBES” 10
(b) Schematic view of EBES 10

Fig. 5 Schematic view of patterning metal by lift-off. The undesired metal
is removed by rapidly dissolving exposed and developed resist 10

6.2 Resist Layer
Resist layer should be sensitive to imaging radiation (in our case an electron beam) and resistant to the subsequent etching of underlying circuit material or to whatever other process is used to transfer the pattern from the resist to the circuit material. Such processes include lift-off and selective plating, and even ion implantation in which the resist pattern acts as a barrier to the ion beam. The main requirements of a resist film are that:
It is sufficiently sensitive to the electron beam.

It is sufficiently robust to survive the subsequent pattern transfer process.

It is sufficiently thick to be effectively free from defects.

It affords adequate resolution of the pattern.

The resist can be stripped after the pattern has been transferred. 21
CHAPTER 4: FINFET’S
In 1989, Hisamato et al. fabricated a double-gate SOI structure which they called a fully-depleted lean channel transistor (DELTA). This was the first reported fabrication of a FinFET-like structure. FinFETs have attracted increasing attention over the past decade because of the degrading short-channel behavior of planar MOSFETs. While the planar MOSFET channel is horizontal, the FinFET channel (also known as the fin) is vertical. Hence, the height of the channel (FIN) determines the width of the FinFET. This leads to a special property of FinFETs known as width quantization. This property says that the FinFET width must be a multiple of FIN, that is, widths can be increased by using multiple fins. Thus, arbitrary FinFET widths are not possible. Although smaller fin heights offer more flexibility, they lead to multiple fins, which in turn leads to more silicon area. On the other hand, taller fins lead to less silicon footprint, but may also result in structural instability. Typically, the fin height is determined by the process engineers and is kept below four times the f in thickness.

Although FinFETs implemented on SOI wafers are very popular, FinFETs have also been implemented on con-ventional bulk wafers extensively. Figure 3 shows FinFETs implemented on bulk and SOI wafers. Unlike bulk FinFETs, where all fins share a common Si substrate (also known as the bulk), fins in SOI FinFETs are physically isolated. Some companies prefer the bulk technology because it is easier to migrate to bulk FinFETs from conventional bulk MOSFETs. However, FinFETs on both types of wafers are quite comparable in terms of cost, performance, and yield, and it is premature to pick a winner.

Fig. 6 FINFET device schematic4
Trigate FETs, referred to interchangeably as FinFETs, are a variant of FinFETs, with a third gate on top of the fin. Intel introduced Trigate FETs at the 22 nm node in the Ivy-Bridge processor in 2012. The thickness of the dielectric on top of the fin is reduced in Trigate FETs in order to create the third gate. Due to the presence of the third gate, the thickness of the fin also adds to the channel width. Hence, Trigate FETs enjoy a slight width advantage over FinFETs. Trigate FETs also have less gate-source capacitance compared to FinFETs due to additional current conduction at the top surface, but this advantage is diminished by increased parasitic resistance4.

4.1 Fabrication
A thin vertical structure is raised over the surface of the silicon surface. On the either side of the thin fin an oxide layer is deposited. The oxide layer provides isolation between gate and substrate. Poly silicon gate is rolled over vertically raised fin in such a way that the gate rests on oxide on the either side of the high raised fin. Two parts of the fin extends on the either side of the gate. These are called drain and source, same as in case of planar MOSTEs. The fin passes through gate which looks like tunnel. The desired performance can be achieved by varying fin thickness and gate width and types of materials largely. Such a gate structure provides better control over current flowing in the fin. Simulation is done for a proposed FinFET.21

Fig. 7 (a) Physical structure of FinFET
Fig.7 (b) Side view
Fig 7 (c) Top view

Fig. 8 Fabrication Process
4.2 Functioning of FINFETs
The drain to source voltage causes current flow in the fin if there is a suitable gate voltage across source and gate. The gate voltage draws free charges in the fin from substrate and bulk. Due to free charge carriers presence in the channel a source to drain current starts flowing. The threshold voltage is much lower compared to MOSFETs.

Normally, in planar MOSFET, the function of gate biasing is related to drain current control process. Actually drain current will depend upon the channel nature. The channel formation is much dependent upon gate biasing. One side of the gate is parallel to the channel separated by a thin silicon oxide which insulates channel from gate. Though, the control on drain current by gate voltage is quite efficient and sufficient for an operation of MOSFET. As the MOSFET technology is reduced below 22 nm, the MOSFET needs better control on the drain current.

The alternative technique, to have efficient control on drain current, relates to FinFET concept. Here, the channel is surrounded by gate on three sides.4

Graph 5 Drain current vs gate voltage Graph 6 Drain current vs source voltage
4.3 Nanolithography
The semiconductor industry has been stuck with the 193nm lithography even for the most advanced 28nm/22nm nodes now. There are several candidate nanolithography technologies for 14nm, 11nm, 7nm and 1× nm for extreme scaling: multiple patterning lithography (MPL), extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), electron beam lithography (EBL), and so on.

MPL is a natural extension of double patterning lithography (DPL). At the concept level, it just repeats the single patterning lithography by using two or more mask/patterning processes individually to form coarser patterns and then combine them to form finer pitches. Several DPL/MPL technologies have been developed, with different design/process requirements. There are two main types of technologies: litho-etch-litho-etch (LELE) and self-aligned double patterning (SADP). Both of them can be extended for multiple patterning. LELE splits the original design into two masks when the distance between two patterns is less than minimum colorable distance; otherwise, coloring conflict occurs. The different masks are represented by different colors. Coloring conflict can be resolved by inserting stitches to split a pattern into two touching parts. However, stitches lead to yield loss due to overlay error. SADP uses sidewall spacer to help achieve finer pitch and resolution. It first generates the core mask. Then unit-width sidewall spacer will be deposited on all sides of the core mask.
The second mask (trim mask) will trim out wanted patterns. SADP needs more processing steps than LELE, but has better overlay control. However, SADP does not allow any stitch
insertion and neither it allows variable width/spacing in general, thus it puts more layout constraints. All types of DPL/MPL require layout decomposition. To make design is DPL-compliant, early DPL aware physical design such as DPL-aware routing is necessary.6
EUVL wavelength is 13.5nm, which is good for lithographic resolution. However, EUVL still has tremendous technical barriers such as lack of power sources and defect-free masks. EUVL has several unique challenges compared with conventional lithography. First, flare is inversely proportional to the square of the wavelength, thus EUVL suffers much higher flare effect caused by surface roughness and light scattering. Flare will degrade aerial image contrast and wafer pattern uniformity. The second major issue of EUVL is the 3D mask effect such as mask shadowing and multi-layer reflection because EUVL system is not governed by projection masks (as in conventional optical lithography), but reflective mirroring masks. Other key issues with EUVL include line edge roughness (LER) and mask defects.8
EBL is a maskless lithography technology which directly writes layout patterns into the silicon wafer, using charged e-beams. The primary advantage is that the electron wavelength is in the order of 0.001nm which easily beats the diffraction limit of light of other lithography. However, EBL throughput is the biggest bottleneck as the write time is mainly determined by the number of shots.8
4.4 Implementations
A. Intel Broadwell 14
Intel’s 14–nm Broadwell chip was shipped in the second quarter of 2014, initially into laptop computers. It is a dual-core microprocessor with a claimed 1.9 billion transistors and a die size of 82 mm2, which is about 50% shrink compared to the 157 mm2 die used for their 22-nm process generation microprocessor. A replacement metal gate (RMG) process flow, first introduced at the 45-nm process generation, was modified for the 32-nm and 22-nm process generations, and continues with further modifications to be used for transistor fabrication in the 14 nm process. The transistor structure that was completely changed from the traditional planar configuration to a tri-gate fin-based 3D configuration for the 22-nm has been further
refined for the 14-nm generation, to provide 2nd-generation tri-gate transistors for achieving increased density, lower capacitance and lower power.

The fins have a more vertical profile than the 22-nm version, still with rounded tops. As in all Intel’s RMG The minimum fin pitch has shrunk to ~42 nm from ~60 nm, and the minimum gate lengths seen are ~22 nm. Contacted gate pitch (CGP) is ~70 nm. Fin widths vary considerably, from ~7– 11 nm in Fig. 1, and the NMOS fins are wider than PMOS fins. The functional fin height was ~37 – 40 nm, giving a gate wrap-around of ~85 nm; this is the effective gate width for a single-fin transistor.

One of the innovations announced by Intel in their IEDM 2014 paper 2 was the use of solid-state doping to form a diffused sub-fin punch-stopper, doping the fin below the gate area.The gate stack in the 14-nm process appears to be the same as in the 22-nm, using TiN work-function (WF) material for PMOS, and TiAlC for NMOS; with the exception that the PMOS gate fill is predominantly TiAlN, while NMOS gates have tungsten fill – see Fig. 2. While the gate materials are squeezed into an ever smaller volume, the high-k and oxide gate dielectrics are both still ~1.0 – 1.2 nm thick.Again the top of the gate stack was back-etched and filled with dielectric, to allow the use of self- aligned contacts.In the source/drains, the PMOS epi-SiGe takes the planes, whereas the NMOS epi only shows growth at the base. In both cases the contact wraps around the epi without excessive etching of the epi . Titanium was again used as the contact interface metal.

B. Intel Atom “Cherry trail” SoC 14
As in earlier generations, Intel also launched a SoC version of the process, with low-power logic and high-voltage transistors in addition to the high-speed logic devices seen in the CPU process, and also precision passive components.

The SoC process uses a dual-gate oxide flow to form the two groups of transistors; the high-speed and low-power logic devices, and the high-voltage transistors. The high-voltage transistors use a thick gate oxide dielectric and larger gate lengths and pitch to give greater voltage tolerance, similar to the prior RMG generations. The gate stack is the same as the 14-
nm logic process, but as stated the interfacial oxide is considerably thicker at ~4 nm. Gate lengths are of course longer at ~150 nm.

C. Qualcomm MDM9235(TSMC 20 nm HPM HKMG Process) 18
Almost simultaneously to the Intel Broadwell, Qualcomm were shipping their MDM9235 modem, fabricated by TSMC in their 20-nm planar HKMG process.

This was TSMC’s second-generation RMG HKMG process, showing significant changes from their 28-nm version. Minimum contacted gate pitch was reduced to 90 nm, with minimum observed gate length of ~32 nm. The high-k and oxide gate dielectrics are both ~1.3 nm thick.Both the transistor gate structure and the deposition sequence of the metal gates had been modified compared to the 28-nm process. In the new flow, the PMOS gate metal was deposited first and then NMOS gate metal was deposited, the reverse of the 28-nm HKMG process. In addition, the high-k dielectric was deposited after the poly gate removal, as opposed to deposition prior to the sacrificial poly formation.

D. Samsung Exynos 7420 (14 nm Gate-Last HKMG FinFET Process) 22
Samsung launched their 14-nm LPE FinFET process in the applications processor in the Samsung Galaxy S6 mobile phone in early 2015.The minimum CGP was scaled to 78 nm, with the smallest observed gate length ~28 nm, and a fin pitch of ~48 nm. High-k and oxide dielectric thicknesses were both ~1.3 nm.

The fins have vertical sidewalls similar to Intel’s. The functional fin height was ~38 nm, and fin width ~7 nm; giving a gate wrap-around of ~85 nm, the gate width for a single-fin transistor.

As in the other RMG HKMG parts, the PMOS WF layer was formed first, removed, and then the NMOS TiAlC layer was deposited. In the minimum-length gates the fill is TiN, but this appears to be the liner for tungsten fill seen in in longer gates – there is insufficient room for the W to deposit in the short gates.

The epi in both cases has merged, unlike Intel, and there is significant etching of the epi during the contact etch. The growth conditions of the NMOS epi have also produced multiple dislocations in the crystalline structure. In common with Intel, the source/drains are Ti-silicided.

E. Apple APL1022 Application Processor (TSMC 16-nm FinFET)23
TSMC’s first finFET process appeared with some fanfare in the A9 processor in the fall of 2015 in the Apple iPhone 6 and 6 Plus mobile phones. TSMC gave two papers detailing their 16-nm processes 4, 5, neither of which gave any clue of what the transistors actually looked like. The PMOS fin looks slightly slimmer; but the difference is ~6.8 nm vs ~6.2 nm at half-height – or about two atoms! Contacted gate pitch was the same as the 20-nm planar process at 90 nm, and minimum observed gate length was similar at ~30 nm. Fin pitch was ~48 nm. The functional gate height was ~39 nm, and gate wrap-around (gate width) is similar to the other finFETS that we have discussed, at ~85 nm.

The PMOS and NMOS gates; similar to Intel, the top of the gates has been back-etched and capped with silicon nitride, even though it does not appear the contacts are self-aligned. Again, the PMOS WF layer (TiN) was formed before the NMOS, and the NMOS WF layer (TiAlCOF) in the PMOS stack allows less room for the tungsten gate fill. High-k and oxide dielectric thicknesses were both ~1.3 nm.

The PMOS displays the typical diamond shape, with ~55% Ge in the SiGe; but we can see that in the NMOS while there is epi growth, the contact etch has removed much of it (we could almost describe it as a recessed contact). TSMC followed the trend and used titanium silicide on the source/drains. As a foundry SoC process, a dual-gate oxide flow is used for core and I/O devices. Similar to Intel, the gate stacks and source/drain structures appear to be the same as the logic transistors, with a thicker gate oxide (PMOS ~4 nm, NMOS ~ 3.5 nm) and longer gates.

CHAPTER 5: TECHNOLOGY AND TRANSISTOR
BEYOND 7nm
A. NWFET OR Nano wire FET

Fig. 9 Nano wire FET15
A combination of a NW channel with GAA configuration has been recognized as an effective approach to alleviate the short-channel effects (SCEs) occurring to nanometer-scale transistors. On the other hand, Junction Less transistors have also attracted many interests nowadays since it is free from the formidable junction fabrication steps15.

5.1 Fabrication
First n+ poly-Si SID studs were built on a Si substrate that is encapsulated with a nitride/oxide stack. Note that the studs were expanded with a sidewall spacer to shorten the channel length (L). Following the deposition of an in situ phosphorous-doped poly-Si channel layer, a dummy oxide structure with sidewall spacer layers of nitride is subsequently formed. The dummy oxide is selectively removed to leave the nitride hardmask for subsequent etching of the NW channel. The NW became suspended once the top nitride and underlying nitride layers were stripped off. Next, a 10 nm-thick Si02 layer and a 150 nm-thick n+ poly-Si layer were deposited as the gate oxide and electrode, respectively, to complete the formation of the GAA structure1.

Fig. 10 Schematic processes flow for the transistor1
B. III-V NANO Electronics
Recently, there has been much research interest to extend the benefits of transistor scaling to the iii-V Nano electronics and investigate the possibility of incorporating high mobility compound semiconductor as the device channel material in comparison with the conventional Si NMOS devices, these n-channel iii-V transistors exhibit significantly superior intrinsic speed (CV/I) for a given physical gate length. The iii-V devices also show significantly improved energy-delay product over their Si counterparts due to the lower supply voltage (Vcc = 0.5 V) of operation and higher effective mobility. However, for low-power, high-speed ULSI digital logic applications, the iii-V transistors additionally need to have high Ion/Ioff ratio, to minimize the stand-by power consumption. Despite demonstrating superior intrinsic gate delay, exhibit a limited Ion/Ioff range, due to the Schottky metal gate leakage. These results highlight the urgent need for a high quality high-K dielectric/metal gate technology for the iii-V Nano electronic devices. It is likely that the use of a gate dielectric between the metal gate and the iii-V device layers will eliminate such Schottky gate leakage and improve the Ion /loff ratio, while still maintaining device performance. The challenges of incorporating iii-V Nano electronics for ULSl digital logic applications include continued aggressive scaling of the transistor physical dimensions, demonstration of a high quality high-K dielectric interface with iii-V semiconductor, the improvement of the Ion/loff range of the iii-V devices, demonstration of high performance p-channel iii-V devices for complementary logic applications, and, finally, wafer scale integration of these extremely large lattice mismatched iii-V materials system onto the Si platform6.

Fig. 11 Three dimensional MOSFET fabrication 6
C. Absorbance Modulation Optical Lithography (AMOL) (Patterning beyond the diffraction limit)
The size of the smallest features that can be fabricated by means of conventional optical lithography in the semi-conductor industry is fast approaching its limits due to far-field diffraction. Conventionally this is limited to approximately to half the wavelength of the illuminating light. However, Absorbance Modulation Optical Lithography (AMOL), an alternative optical lithographic technique, has been shown to effectively pattern Nano scale features beyond the diffraction limit.

The conventional AMOL process employs a thin layer of a two-state-photo-switchable photochromic material, as an absorbance modulation layer which is exposed simultaneously to wavelength ?2 with a node at the center (experimentally realized by using a standing wave) and uniform illumination at another wavelength ?1. Absorption at the first wavelength ?1 (UV – 325 nm) converts the photochromic layer into a transparent form, while absorption at the 2nd wavelength, ?2 (visible – 647 nm) renders the photochromic layer opaque. It is then possible to squeeze the transmission of ?1 through the photochromic layer by the competing action of the two states of the photochromic material under the influence of the two wavelengths, leading to the formation of a Nano-scale optical probe on the other side. An underlying recording medium such as photoresist layer can capture the ?1 light that transmits through the aperture and thereby record a sub diffraction pattern in the photoresist. One important feature of AMOL is that the size of the pattern in the resist can be scaled according to the ratio of the intensities of ?2 and ?1 instead of simply the absolute intensity of either beams 18.

Fig. 12: (a) Photo-switch-ability of the photochromic molecule used in AMOL
(b) Sample stack with photoresist as a recording medium below the layer of photochromic
molecules and simultaneous exposure at two wavelengths. The sample stack is free from
the presence of any barrier layer. 18
CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE
At the end we conclude that advantages of FINFET outweighs its disadvantages till 7nm for beyond that it suffers from similar short channel effects as Planar MOSFET Nano wire FET still needs many improvements. A change in channel material is also possible but again fabrication and integrating them on silicon chips will be a difficult task. Different designs have also been experimented by companies for better performance.
Further, we can use the following transistors:
Tunnel Field Effect Transistor (TFET) 17
Carbon Nano tube Field-effect Transistor (CNFET) 24
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Elena Gnani, Antonio Gnudi, Susanna Reggiani, Giorgio Baccarani,”Theory of the Junctionless Nanowire FET ” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices,Vol.58, pp.no 2903-2910, 2011.

Suman Datta , Huichu Liu, Vijaykrishnan Narayanan, “Tunnel FET technology: A reliability perspective” in Elsevier, Microelectronics Reliability 54 , pp.no. 861–874, 2014.

Seongjae cho ,Hyungjin Kim, Heesauk Jhon, In man kang, Byung-Gook Park, James.S.Harris, ” Mixed mode simulation of nanowire Ge/GaAs Heterojunction TFET for circuit applications”, IEEE Journal of electron devices society,Vol.1,No.2, pp.no.48-53, 2013.

Material Gate Nanoscale Tunnel Field-Effect Transistor”, IEEE transactions on Electron Devices,Vol.58,No.2, pp.no 404-410,2011
Arvind Soundarapandian, Ramanathan Gandhi, Zhixian Chen, Xiang Li, Navab Singh Sungjoo Lee , “Vertical Nanowire Gate-All-Around p-type Tunneling Field-Effect Transistor With Si0.8Ge0.2/Si Heterojunction,” in International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuit , vol. 32, 2012
Field Effect Transistor, ” IEEE Electron device letters”, vol .34, pp.584-586, 2013
Frank, D.J., R.H. Dennard, E. Nowak, P.M. Solomon, Y. Taur and H.S.P. Wong, 2001. Device scaling limits of Si MOSFETs and their application dependencies. Proc. IEEE, 89: 259-288
Gili, E., T. Uchino, M.M.A. Hakim, C.H.D. Groot, P. Ashburn and S. Hall, 2005. A new approach to the fabrication of CMOS compatible vertical MOSFETs incorporating a dielectric pocket. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on ULtimate Integration of Silicon (ULIS), April 7-8, Bologna, Italy, pp: 127-130
WooJin Kim, et al. “Enjoy the Ultimate WQXGA Solution with Exynos 5 Dual”, EETimes, Jul 2012.

Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Jiangsu University,China, 17 July 2011.

Javey, A., J. Guo, D.B. Farmer, Q. Wang and D. Wang, 2004. Carbon nanotube field-effect transistors with integrated ohmic contacts and high-gate dielectrics. Nano. Lett., 4: 447-450
Appendix A
Tunnel Field-Effect Transistor (TFET)
Device performance can be improved by scaling down of MOSFETs. Sub threshold leakage (OFF state) current is the major short channel effect in Nano scale MOSFET devices and is also highly temperature dependent. It increases with device scaling due to non-scalability of sub threshold slope and sequential decrease in the supply voltage (Vdd), for which the threshold voltage (Vth) has to be decreased to maintain essential device performance. To overcome this issue, alternative transistor designs are needed for energy efficient devices. One such device is the Tunneling Field-Effect Transistor (TFET).

Unlike MOSFET, which has thermionic injection-carrier diffusion as its transport mechanism, TFET uses tunneling as the carrier injection mechanism. Hence, it is possible for TFETs to achieve low OFF state current at room temperature. However, the ON state current of a Si TFET is several magnitudes lower than that of conventional Si MOSFETs due to the fact that Si has relatively larger band gap and effective tunneling mass.
Therefore, devices with weak temperature dependence, novel geometry and different source material are necessary to enhance the device drive current. One such device is to hetero-Junctionless structure using various materials enhance the tunneling current. It is coupled with gate-all-around GAA nanowire structure gives excellent results due to proper electrostatic control of channel by the gate compared to planar devices.

Structure:
The innermost structure is referred to as the Junction less cylindrical core and the gate is all around the cylindrical core depending upon the gate coverage region. Tox and Tsi are the thicknesses of the oxide region and the Junction less cylindrical core respectively. The total channel length is 20 nm and the gate material work function is of the 4.5 – 5.93 eV. Since it is of Junctionless type, the doping concentrations for source, drain and channel are similar and is of the range (Junctionless core) 1019 to 1021.

Fig. 13 Schematic for Tunnel Field Transistor
Appendix B
Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistor
SINGLE-WALL carbon nanotubes (CNs) are considered to be one of the most promising candidates for post-CMOS applications, mainly owing to their smallness and ballistic trans-port properties. The ultrathin body of CNs (of the order of a few nanometers) allows for aggressive channel length scaling while maintaining excellent gate control. In general, a gate-all-around (GAA) structure is expected to be the ideal geometry that maximizes electrostatic gate control in FETs. Combining the ultrathin body of a CN with an GAA device geometry is a natural choice for ultimate device design. Dai et al have shown a CNFET with an “?” shaped dielectric coating exhibiting improved electrostatics. However, a real GAA layout requires both the dielectric and the gate metal to completely wrap around the semiconducting channel.

THE surface of CNs is known to be chemically inert to most reactions. Thin (<3 nm) uniform coating of a CN with a dielectric can only be achieved after modifying the CN surface by introducing some type of functional layer such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). In order to obtain a GAA structure, the CN needs to be freestanding prior to the dielectric and gate metal deposition. Without the assistance from the substrate, dielectric deposition becomes even more challenging.

Fabrication:
After functionalizing the nanotube with NO2, an ALD process is used to deposit a uniform Al2O3 film of 7 nm around the tube. A WN gate of 20 nm, also deposited by the ALD, is then wrapped around the dielectric. The wrapped CNs are then dispersed into solution and drop cast onto the desired substrate.

Fig. 14 Schematic for CNFE Transistor

Chapter 1

Chapter 1. Introduction to Surya Nepal 3
1.1 Competitive Analysis: Potter’s Five Forces 4
Chapter2. Vision 6
Mission 7
2.1 capital structure 7
2.2 Objective 8
2.3 Marketing strategy 8
Chapter 3. VRIN Analysis 8
Chapter 4. SWOT Analysis 9
Chapter5. BCG matrix 13
Chapter 6. Strategic options 14
Chapter 6.1 Ansoff matrix 14
Chapter 6.2. Bowman’s strategy clock 16
Chapter 6.3. Generic strategy 18
Chapter 7. Evaluation 19
Chapter 8. Implementation 20
Chapter 9.Recommendation 22
Chapter 10.conclusion 23
References 24

Chapter 1. Introduction to Surya Nepal

A Report on Surya Nepal Pvt. Ltd
Formally known as Surya Tobacco Company this Surya Nepal Company was established in 1986. Surya Nepal company is a joint venture between British American tobacco having share of 2% Nepalese entrepreneurs holding share of 39% and ITC limited having share of 59%. Recently this company has given a new form to the local cigarette market. Firstly this company has started its product with two brands of cigarette Bijuli and Naulo of which Naulo was fallen later on. The brand of cigarette under it divided are Khukuri, Shikhar, Bijuli and chautari all of them has its own brand extensions. In value Surya Nepal has market share of 70%-75% at the cigarette industry in Nepal. It has 82%-85% sales a high segment and about 60% sales in low segment. This company has strongest and largest market share the strongest distribution network all FMCG company in Nepal. Around 75000 retailers are served through 6000 secondary wholesalers and 60 whole distributions (Limited, S, 2018).

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Figure 1 Surya Nepal Company profile (https://image.slidesharecdn.com/bcgitc-160206124957/95/swot-and-bcg-matrix-of-itc-company-competitive-marketing-4-1024.jpg?cb=1454763044)

1.1 Competitive Analysis: Potter’s Five Forces
Competitive analysis is about gaining the advantage over our competitors. The aim of Porter’s ‘Five Forces’ framework is to identify the key factors in the industrial environment which influence the organisation’s capability to position itself in order to gain competitive advantage. Potters five forces model of competitive analysis is commonly used for developing the strategy of industry. Porter’s Five Force frameworks are:-
1. The threat of new entry,
2. The threat of substitutes,
3. The bargaining power of buyers,
4. The bargaining power of suppliers and
5. The competitive rivalry (CGMA, 2018).

Figure 2 five forces analysis (Porter)(https://image.slidesharecdn.com/sm-161216124538/95/porters-five-forces-model-4-638.jpg?cb=1485067572)

1. The threat of new entry
? The threat of entry of new firm in the cigarette industry of Nepal is very low. The firm that is operating in this market has high power of competition. The establishment cost of cigarette industry is very high whereas the rules and regulations of government is also tough and time consuming (CGMA, 2018).

2. The threat of substitutes
? The substitute products for the brands of Surya Nepal are the products like Khaini, Gutka and Chewing gum (CGMA, 2018).

3. The bargaining power of buyers,

? The bargaining power of buyer of Surya Nepal brand is medium due to the rapid growth of the competitor in the market and due to the little cost occurring to the customer of Surya Nepal for shifting to other brand (CGMA, 2018).

4. The bargaining power of suppliers
? The bargaining power of the supplier in cigarette industry is high because this company has enormous distribution network all over Nepal and demand for its brand is also very high (CGMA, 2018).

5. The competitive rivalry
? Competitors of Surya Nepal brand are very high. Some of the major competitors of the Surya Nepal in the cigarettes industry are:-

i. Janakpur Cigarette Factory
ii. Nepal Tobacco company
iii. Perfect Blends Pvt.Ltd
iv. Seti cigarette Factory
v. Gorkha Lahai Pvt. Ltd (Scribd, 2018).

Chapter2. Vision

Its vision is “to be an internationally bench marked multi-business corporation in Nepal, delighting domestic consumers with a proud “Made in Nepal” (Limited, S, 2018).

Mission
Mission is to create sustainable competitive advantage for the buyers by providing a superior sourcing solution.
To provide a superior smoking experience to all smokers of our brands as well as consumers of other tobacco products (Limited, S, 2018).

2.1 capital structure
The capital structure of SNPL is as follows:
Heading Amount (Rs.)
Authorized capital 65,000,000
Issued capital, subscribed & paid up 20,160,000

Capital share of the shareholders can be summarized as
Shareholders Share (%)
British American Tobacco (BAT) 2%
ITC 59%
Nepalese entrepreneurs 39%
(Limited, S, 2018).

2.2 Objective
• For enhancing the quality of cigarettes
• For being the market leader in the cigarette of Nepal
• For expanding the business and increasing the profit (Limited, S, 2018).

2.3 Marketing strategy
Different product is used to target different category of product
There is variety in the flavor and content of nicotine level of different Surya Nepal cigarette product.
Constantly pursue newer and better processes, products, services and management practices (Image.slidesharecdn.com, 2018).

Chapter 3. VRIN Analysis
VRIN framework was established by American professor Jay Barney in 1991. By focusing on four essential qualities of VRIN framework business can achieve the competitive advantage:

Value
? “We are always customer-focused and will always strive to surpass customer expectation in terms of value, product quality and satisfaction.”
? Generally Surya Nepal Company focuses on their responsibility towards generating economic value for the country. And they are also focusing on the demands of the customers that meet the expectations of customers (Campus, 2018).

Rareness
? Surya Nepal’s Combined Community Vision and CSR Strategy are knitted everywhere and are in arrangement with the specified importance of the Government of Nepal (Famuyide, S. 2018).
Imitability
? To grab the market share Surya Nepal often update the brands of its product in order to survive and attract more customer (Famuyide, S. 2018).

Non-substitutable
? This Company has many SBUs of the product which assist it to perceive its customers, (Famuyide, S. 2018).

Chapter 4. SWOT Analysis

SWOT Analysis is an implementation in which managers find the administrative strength (S), and weakness (W) and environmental opportunities (O) and threat (T). After the organization has recognized its capitals, its need to find out which of its resource are valuable and represent the weakness and strength for the organization (Limited, S, 2018).

Strengths:
In this field Surya Nepal is one of the oldest Company Brand Loyalty
. In Nepal most popular brands of cigarettes are being produced by this company. As it provides better quality of products to its customers and fulfills their requirement it has become more popular in the market. And because this company has become popular it has gained high market share (Limited, S, 2018).

As mentioned earlier about popularity and leadership of its product, most of the customers are loyal towards its product. Customer gets the best quality of product as demanded which has boosted its brand loyal. Many smokers those who smoke of other brands may shift to its products but it’s hardly seen that its customers shifting to other products. Habits die hard, like many of the customers had said that they are having health problems with switching brand too (Limited, S, 2018).

Price
It is seen that generally cigarette’s price rise with time and quality. Satisfied consumers can pay higher prices to the product. Surya is however gradually changing its prices but the sales is still growing as it has the products for all the categories of people (Limited, S, 2018).

Few competitors
As this company is leader in the market, some of its competitors are JCF (YAK) and NCF (MARLBORO) (Limited, S, 2018).

Innovation
Surya Nepal private limited constantly pursue newer and superior processes, services, products and management practices. Hence, all this will help the company to grab more market share and attract more customers (Limited, S, 2018).
Weaknesses:

Distribution

Distribution will play great role on the sales of cigarette product. Sales of this product will raise more good as the distribution will play a good role. So this company must have a great distribution channel. The retailers of Surya Nepal Company receive the products from the whole sellers or the daily sales service. Though they are doing their work properly, there are creating constraints that are affecting the distributions. These can be overcome only by using wide distribution channel as well as effective daily sales services (Limited, S, 2018).

Opportunities
Launch of new brands
Surya has a great market share in the section of cigarette it can easily introduce new brands in the marketplace according to the changing trends (Limited, S, 2018).

New filter brands
As most of people are becoming more health conscious and as they have increasing preference of filtered cigarettes, Surya Nepal can also launch different new quality cigarettes like cigar and global varieties in the market (Limited, S, 2018).

Premium
As this company is the producer of most sellable FMCG creation in country Nepal, Surya Nepal has high chance to earn premium in the products as well as other new segments against its Brand images (Limited, S, 2018).

Huge capital
As this company is a combined company between Nepal and British company , Surya Nepal has huge capital capacity which can be very helpful in grabbing market opportunity (Limited, S, 2018).

Threats

Monetary and Fiscal Policy
With the change in tax slabs every year, each brand is placed under different tax slabs according to the cigarettes. So the prices of its brand can increase each and every year. This might result customers to switch into cheaper brands or even quit smoking (Limited, S, 2018).

Competitors
In the market Surya Nepal is operating as the monopolistic, competing only with foreign products. But due to the liberalization and encouragement policy of the government in the private participation during the 80’s different organization started coming into the bazaar (Limited, S, 2018).

WHO
WHO is working hard in increasing awareness to consumers about health hazard associated with cigarette smoking habits. This has decreased in the level of smokers (Limited, S, 2018).

Employee resistance
Employees’ resistance and various trade unions’ actions can impose severe threat to Surya Nepal. Like: – the employees of this company stood on hunger strike after the official shut down of garment factory of Surya Nepal (Limited, S, 2018).
Chapter5. BCG matrix
Figure 2 BCG matrix of Surya Nepal (https://image.slidesharecdn.com/surya-nepal-presentation-150326011248-conversion-gate01/95/surya-nepal-12-1024.jpg?cb=1427350448)
BCG matrix Analysis
Above figure clearly states that the brand of Surya Nepal product has relatively high market share along with high market growth rate. Hence this company is Star in the market. Similarly this company has great chance of cash cow for the next.

Chapter 6. Strategic options
Chapter 6.1 Ansoff matrix

Figure 3 Ansoff matrix (https://www.edrawsoft.com/templates/images/marketing-ansoff-matrix.png)
Market penetration
Surya Nepal is selling high volume of its existing product on existing market and it has high market share of 70%-75%. They are more aware of their competitors and focus more on competing with their competitor. This is the pricing strategy of Surya Nepal (Bartleby.com, 2018).
Figure 4 pricing strategy of Surya Nepal (https://image.slidesharecdn.com/surya-nepal-presentation-150326011248-conversion-gate01/95/surya-nepal-26-638.jpg?cb=1427350448)
Market development
Surya Nepal is selling its entire product to the existing market. As its product quality meets the international stander this company is planning to sell its product to the new market to gain the foreign market share (Bartleby.com, 2018).
Product development
Surya Nepal is fully engaged on creating new product. After researching Surya Nepal came to know about the changing demand of the customer and finally thought to produce new product that will be totally different with their competitor in the existing market. They are coming up with flavor in Surya cigarette (Bartleby.com, 2018)
Diversification
Here Surya Nepal will launch its new product of cigarette in new market (Bartleby.com, 2018).

Chapter 6.2. Bowman’s strategy clock

Figure 5 Bowman’s strategy clock (https://www.toolshero.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/bowman-strategy-clock-template-toolshero.jpg).

? Bowman’s Strategic Clock is a model that explores the options for strategic positioning – i.e. how a product should be positioned to give it the most competitive position in the market.
The purpose of Bowman’s Strategic clock is to illustrate that a business will have a variety of options of how to position a product based on two dimensions – price and perceived value (tutor2u, 2018).

a. Low price and low added value
As this company is providing its product khukuri costing rupee 5/piece which provides value equal to its price. Similarly it would be more beneficial to the consumer as well as to the company if it produces and sale the next product costing lower then Khukuri and Bijuli with low value (tutor2u, 2018).

b. Low price
According to Bowman’s strategy Surya Nepal should reduce the price of its product (khukuri and Bijuli) costing lower than its competitor product ‘Sahara’. As a result this will reduce the level of profit in sales of each product but generates high profit in overall sales (tutor2u, 2018).

c. Differentiation
Although Surya Nepal Company is providing product (Surya cigarette) costing equal to its competitor on which customers are freely paying because of its brand loyalty and quality. Hence this company should introduce more flavored product in their cigarettes in future (tutor2u, 2018).

d. Risky High margin
According to Bowman’s strategy this is a high risk positioning strategy. Before price of Surya cigarette was rupee 10/ piece but later on this company by taking high risk against its competitor it increases its price to rupee 15/ piece providing equal value as before and started earning more profit. Despite this all customers not even worried to Switch to others product because of its brand loyalty and quality. Therefore this company can generate more profit in future by raising its price higher and taking the risk of increasing the price (tutor2u, 2018).

Chapter 6.3. Generic strategy

Figure 6 Generic Strategy (https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQ3eknyTvaesC5VPcmml8T6AXeGKOkYPeIo5oRs0PahtAn07R0H1w)
The two basic types of competitive advantage combined with the scope of activities for which a firm seeks to achieve them, lead to three generic strategies for achieving above average performance in an industry: cost leadership, differentiation, and focus (Anon, 2018).

Cost leadership
Mostly tobacco is grown in Terai region of country Nepal itself as it has the weather- wet, hot and humid and topography plains, suitable for the cultivation of tobacco. Hence this company will offer best quality of product in low cost by competing its competitor (Anon, 2018).

Differentiation
Their product is vast different from their competitor. They provide better quality of cigarettes to the customer offering low and affordable price (Anon, 2018).

Cost focus
Surya Nepal focuses on getting advantage of cost over its target segments that provides benefit to the company (Anon, 2018).

Differentiation focus
Surya Nepal is focusing on differentiation towards its target segment that fulfills the objective (Anon, 2018).

Chapter 7. Evaluation

Strategies /Evaluation Strategic direction Vision Market strategy
Ansoff matrix ? ? X
Bowman’s clock X ? X
Generic strategy ? ? ?

After evaluating the Ansoff matrix, from the table above it is clearly shown that it is moving towards the strategic direction and successfully following its vision. But it is lacking its marketing strategy because government of Nepal has banned the advertisement of cigarette.

Similarly this table represents that Bowman’s clock is not following strategic direction rather it is only focusing on pricing strategy. Beside this vision of company is followed and they do not have the proper marketing strategy.

Finally talking about the third strategy known as Generic strategy, it is meeting all the criteria’s of the evaluation which can be the best strategy that Surya Nepal can choose.

Chapter 8. Implementation
The above strategy can be implemented through SAF analysis:

Suitability
As Generic strategy meets all the criteria by focusing on cost leadership, differentiation, cost focus and differentiation focus. By this all Generic strategy will fulfill all the environmental aspects along with profitability that meet the needs of the company to operate more success in future. Hence this strategy is suitable for Surya Nepal in future (Oxford College of Marketing Blog, 2018).

Accessibility
According to SAF analysis accessibility is measuring the risk of implementing the strategy, return in terms of financial benefit and acceptable for all the stakeholders.
Surya Nepal can use Generic strategy which can be easily accessible because it has cost leadership and focuses on the cost redemption which shows that there is less risk in terms of finance of the company. If they don’t have any financial risk the stakeholders will easily accept the strategy (Oxford College of Marketing Blog, 2018).

Feasibility
As Surya Nepal is the highest market share holder in cigarette industry it has huge capital, machineries, workers, management which can make Generic strategy a feasible strategy in real world, (Oxford College of Marketing Blog, 2018).

Chapter 9.Recommendation

By analyzing all the strategy of Surya Nepal some suggestions are been provided to the company Surya Nepal for operating more better and grab more market share in future:
i. Surya Nepal should come up with new flavor in cigarette.

ii. Surya Nepal should more focus on its vision.

iii. Surya Nepal should produce cigarette with low price then its competitor that provides added value to its customer.

iv. For earning more profit this company should not raise its price occasionally which on one side harms its customer and on other side its competitor may sale more and grab its market share. Due to this company may suffer.

v. Along with the profitability Surya Nepal should also focus on environmental aspects and on interest of its stakeholders.

Chapter 10.conclusion

Summarizing the above report, Surya Nepal is the leading cigarettes producing and offering organization in Nepal. Surya Nepal has more market share than its competitor i.e. 70%-75% of market share in the cigarette industry is occupied by Surya Nepal. The Surya Nepal is totally consumer based and produces cigarettes as indicated by the need and want of its customer. It has distinctive brands with various flavor and quality added to its product line. The Surya Nepal has picked up the competitive advantage over its rivals in view of its brands augmentation like Surya light, Shikhar lights, and many packets. It has additionally extraordinary brands for value pricing to costumers. Brands like Surya are for the higher class consumer where as Khukuri and Bijuli are for individuals those who are belonged to low class. The joint wander with ITC Ltd. India and BAT has likewise helped Surya Nepal picked up the aggressive predominance. Surya Nepal Pvt Ltd is known as extravagances item for the people of Nepal.

References
Limited, S. (2018). Surya Nepal Private Limited. online Bishopdl.blogspot.com. Available at: http://bishopdl.blogspot.com/2012/01/surya-nepal-private-limited.html Accessed 10 May 2018.
Anon, (2018). online Available at: https://www.ifm.eng.cam.ac.uk/research/dstools/porters-generic-competitive-strategies/ Accessed 17 May 2018.
Bartleby.com. (2018). Kfc Marketing Plan Essay – 1816 Words | Bartleby. online Available at: https://www.bartleby.com/essay/Kfc-Marketing-Plan-FKY7S43VC Accessed 15 May 2018.
Campus (2018). Surya nepal. online Slideshare.net. Available at: https://www.slideshare.net/nrazn/surya-nepal Accessed 11 May 2018.
CGMA. (2018). Porter’s Five Forces of Competitive Position Analysis. online Available at: https://www.cgma.org/resources/tools/essential-tools/porters-five-forces.html Accessed 17 May 2018.
Famuyide, S. (2018). VRIN Framework/VRIO Analysis. online Business Analyst Learnings. Available at: https://businessanalystlearnings.com/ba-techniques/2017/5/1/vrin-frameworkvrio-analysis Accessed 19 May 2018.
Image.slidesharecdn.com. (2018). online Available at: https://image.slidesharecdn.com/surya-nepal-presentation-150326011248-conversion-gate01/95/surya-nepal-19-638.jpg?cb=1427350448 Accessed 16 May 2018.
Oxford College of Marketing Blog. (2018). Using The SAF Strategy Model to Evaluate Strategic Options. online Available at:https://blog.oxfordcollegeofmarketing.com/2018/02/25/evaluating-strategic-options-using-saf-strategy-model/ Accessed 16 May 2018.
Scribd. (2018). Surya Nepal | Cigarette | Brand. online Available at: https://www.scribd.com/document/143917074/Surya-Nepal Accessed 12 May 2018.
tutor2u. (2018). Bowman’s Strategic Clock (Strategic Positioning) | tutor2u Business. online Available at: https://www.tutor2u.net/business/reference/strategic-positioning-bowmans-strategy-clock Accessed 16 May 2018.

Chapter 1. Introduction to Surya Nepal 3
1.1 Competitive Analysis: Potter’s Five Forces 4
Chapter2. Vision 6
Mission 7
2.1 capital structure 7
2.2 Objective 8
2.3 Marketing strategy 8
Chapter 3. VRIN Analysis 8
Chapter 4. SWOT Analysis 9
Chapter5. BCG matrix 13
Chapter 6. Strategic options 14
Chapter 6.1 Ansoff matrix 14
Chapter 6.2. Bowman’s strategy clock 16
Chapter 6.3. Generic strategy 18
Chapter 7. Evaluation 19
Chapter 8. Implementation 20
Chapter 9.Recommendation 22
Chapter 10.conclusion 23
References 24

Chapter 1. Introduction to Surya Nepal

A Report on Surya Nepal Pvt. Ltd
Formally known as Surya Tobacco Company this Surya Nepal Company was established in 1986. Surya Nepal company is a joint venture between British American tobacco having share of 2% Nepalese entrepreneurs holding share of 39% and ITC limited having share of 59%. Recently this company has given a new form to the local cigarette market. Firstly this company has started its product with two brands of cigarette Bijuli and Naulo of which Naulo was fallen later on. The brand of cigarette under it divided are Khukuri, Shikhar, Bijuli and chautari all of them has its own brand extensions. In value Surya Nepal has market share of 70%-75% at the cigarette industry in Nepal. It has 82%-85% sales a high segment and about 60% sales in low segment. This company has strongest and largest market share the strongest distribution network all FMCG company in Nepal. Around 75000 retailers are served through 6000 secondary wholesalers and 60 whole distributions (Limited, S, 2018).

Figure 1 Surya Nepal Company profile (https://image.slidesharecdn.com/bcgitc-160206124957/95/swot-and-bcg-matrix-of-itc-company-competitive-marketing-4-1024.jpg?cb=1454763044)

1.1 Competitive Analysis: Potter’s Five Forces
Competitive analysis is about gaining the advantage over our competitors. The aim of Porter’s ‘Five Forces’ framework is to identify the key factors in the industrial environment which influence the organisation’s capability to position itself in order to gain competitive advantage. Potters five forces model of competitive analysis is commonly used for developing the strategy of industry. Porter’s Five Force frameworks are:-
1. The threat of new entry,
2. The threat of substitutes,
3. The bargaining power of buyers,
4. The bargaining power of suppliers and
5. The competitive rivalry (CGMA, 2018).

Figure 2 five forces analysis (Porter)(https://image.slidesharecdn.com/sm-161216124538/95/porters-five-forces-model-4-638.jpg?cb=1485067572)

1. The threat of new entry
? The threat of entry of new firm in the cigarette industry of Nepal is very low. The firm that is operating in this market has high power of competition. The establishment cost of cigarette industry is very high whereas the rules and regulations of government is also tough and time consuming (CGMA, 2018).

2. The threat of substitutes
? The substitute products for the brands of Surya Nepal are the products like Khaini, Gutka and Chewing gum (CGMA, 2018).

3. The bargaining power of buyers,

? The bargaining power of buyer of Surya Nepal brand is medium due to the rapid growth of the competitor in the market and due to the little cost occurring to the customer of Surya Nepal for shifting to other brand (CGMA, 2018).

4. The bargaining power of suppliers
? The bargaining power of the supplier in cigarette industry is high because this company has enormous distribution network all over Nepal and demand for its brand is also very high (CGMA, 2018).

5. The competitive rivalry
? Competitors of Surya Nepal brand are very high. Some of the major competitors of the Surya Nepal in the cigarettes industry are:-

i. Janakpur Cigarette Factory
ii. Nepal Tobacco company
iii. Perfect Blends Pvt.Ltd
iv. Seti cigarette Factory
v. Gorkha Lahai Pvt. Ltd (Scribd, 2018).

Chapter2. Vision

Its vision is “to be an internationally bench marked multi-business corporation in Nepal, delighting domestic consumers with a proud “Made in Nepal” (Limited, S, 2018).

Mission
Mission is to create sustainable competitive advantage for the buyers by providing a superior sourcing solution.
To provide a superior smoking experience to all smokers of our brands as well as consumers of other tobacco products (Limited, S, 2018).

2.1 capital structure
The capital structure of SNPL is as follows:
Heading Amount (Rs.)
Authorized capital 65,000,000
Issued capital, subscribed & paid up 20,160,000

Capital share of the shareholders can be summarized as
Shareholders Share (%)
British American Tobacco (BAT) 2%
ITC 59%
Nepalese entrepreneurs 39%
(Limited, S, 2018).

2.2 Objective
• For enhancing the quality of cigarettes
• For being the market leader in the cigarette of Nepal
• For expanding the business and increasing the profit (Limited, S, 2018).

2.3 Marketing strategy
Different product is used to target different category of product
There is variety in the flavor and content of nicotine level of different Surya Nepal cigarette product.
Constantly pursue newer and better processes, products, services and management practices (Image.slidesharecdn.com, 2018).

Chapter 3. VRIN Analysis
VRIN framework was established by American professor Jay Barney in 1991. By focusing on four essential qualities of VRIN framework business can achieve the competitive advantage:

Value
? “We are always customer-focused and will always strive to surpass customer expectation in terms of value, product quality and satisfaction.”
? Generally Surya Nepal Company focuses on their responsibility towards generating economic value for the country. And they are also focusing on the demands of the customers that meet the expectations of customers (Campus, 2018).

Rareness
? Surya Nepal’s Combined Community Vision and CSR Strategy are knitted everywhere and are in arrangement with the specified importance of the Government of Nepal (Famuyide, S. 2018).
Imitability
? To grab the market share Surya Nepal often update the brands of its product in order to survive and attract more customer (Famuyide, S. 2018).

Non-substitutable
? This Company has many SBUs of the product which assist it to perceive its customers, (Famuyide, S. 2018).

Chapter 4. SWOT Analysis

SWOT Analysis is an implementation in which managers find the administrative strength (S), and weakness (W) and environmental opportunities (O) and threat (T). After the organization has recognized its capitals, its need to find out which of its resource are valuable and represent the weakness and strength for the organization (Limited, S, 2018).

Strengths:
In this field Surya Nepal is one of the oldest Company Brand Loyalty
. In Nepal most popular brands of cigarettes are being produced by this company. As it provides better quality of products to its customers and fulfills their requirement it has become more popular in the market. And because this company has become popular it has gained high market share (Limited, S, 2018).

As mentioned earlier about popularity and leadership of its product, most of the customers are loyal towards its product. Customer gets the best quality of product as demanded which has boosted its brand loyal. Many smokers those who smoke of other brands may shift to its products but it’s hardly seen that its customers shifting to other products. Habits die hard, like many of the customers had said that they are having health problems with switching brand too (Limited, S, 2018).

Price
It is seen that generally cigarette’s price rise with time and quality. Satisfied consumers can pay higher prices to the product. Surya is however gradually changing its prices but the sales is still growing as it has the products for all the categories of people (Limited, S, 2018).

Few competitors
As this company is leader in the market, some of its competitors are JCF (YAK) and NCF (MARLBORO) (Limited, S, 2018).

Innovation
Surya Nepal private limited constantly pursue newer and superior processes, services, products and management practices. Hence, all this will help the company to grab more market share and attract more customers (Limited, S, 2018).
Weaknesses:

Distribution

Distribution will play great role on the sales of cigarette product. Sales of this product will raise more good as the distribution will play a good role. So this company must have a great distribution channel. The retailers of Surya Nepal Company receive the products from the whole sellers or the daily sales service. Though they are doing their work properly, there are creating constraints that are affecting the distributions. These can be overcome only by using wide distribution channel as well as effective daily sales services (Limited, S, 2018).

Opportunities
Launch of new brands
Surya has a great market share in the section of cigarette it can easily introduce new brands in the marketplace according to the changing trends (Limited, S, 2018).

New filter brands
As most of people are becoming more health conscious and as they have increasing preference of filtered cigarettes, Surya Nepal can also launch different new quality cigarettes like cigar and global varieties in the market (Limited, S, 2018).

Premium
As this company is the producer of most sellable FMCG creation in country Nepal, Surya Nepal has high chance to earn premium in the products as well as other new segments against its Brand images (Limited, S, 2018).

Huge capital
As this company is a combined company between Nepal and British company , Surya Nepal has huge capital capacity which can be very helpful in grabbing market opportunity (Limited, S, 2018).

Threats

Monetary and Fiscal Policy
With the change in tax slabs every year, each brand is placed under different tax slabs according to the cigarettes. So the prices of its brand can increase each and every year. This might result customers to switch into cheaper brands or even quit smoking (Limited, S, 2018).

Competitors
In the market Surya Nepal is operating as the monopolistic, competing only with foreign products. But due to the liberalization and encouragement policy of the government in the private participation during the 80’s different organization started coming into the bazaar (Limited, S, 2018).

WHO
WHO is working hard in increasing awareness to consumers about health hazard associated with cigarette smoking habits. This has decreased in the level of smokers (Limited, S, 2018).

Employee resistance
Employees’ resistance and various trade unions’ actions can impose severe threat to Surya Nepal. Like: – the employees of this company stood on hunger strike after the official shut down of garment factory of Surya Nepal (Limited, S, 2018).
Chapter5. BCG matrix
Figure 2 BCG matrix of Surya Nepal (https://image.slidesharecdn.com/surya-nepal-presentation-150326011248-conversion-gate01/95/surya-nepal-12-1024.jpg?cb=1427350448)
BCG matrix Analysis
Above figure clearly states that the brand of Surya Nepal product has relatively high market share along with high market growth rate. Hence this company is Star in the market. Similarly this company has great chance of cash cow for the next.

Chapter 6. Strategic options
Chapter 6.1 Ansoff matrix

Figure 3 Ansoff matrix (https://www.edrawsoft.com/templates/images/marketing-ansoff-matrix.png)
Market penetration
Surya Nepal is selling high volume of its existing product on existing market and it has high market share of 70%-75%. They are more aware of their competitors and focus more on competing with their competitor. This is the pricing strategy of Surya Nepal (Bartleby.com, 2018).
Figure 4 pricing strategy of Surya Nepal (https://image.slidesharecdn.com/surya-nepal-presentation-150326011248-conversion-gate01/95/surya-nepal-26-638.jpg?cb=1427350448)
Market development
Surya Nepal is selling its entire product to the existing market. As its product quality meets the international stander this company is planning to sell its product to the new market to gain the foreign market share (Bartleby.com, 2018).
Product development
Surya Nepal is fully engaged on creating new product. After researching Surya Nepal came to know about the changing demand of the customer and finally thought to produce new product that will be totally different with their competitor in the existing market. They are coming up with flavor in Surya cigarette (Bartleby.com, 2018)
Diversification
Here Surya Nepal will launch its new product of cigarette in new market (Bartleby.com, 2018).

Chapter 6.2. Bowman’s strategy clock

Figure 5 Bowman’s strategy clock (https://www.toolshero.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/bowman-strategy-clock-template-toolshero.jpg).

? Bowman’s Strategic Clock is a model that explores the options for strategic positioning – i.e. how a product should be positioned to give it the most competitive position in the market.
The purpose of Bowman’s Strategic clock is to illustrate that a business will have a variety of options of how to position a product based on two dimensions – price and perceived value (tutor2u, 2018).

a. Low price and low added value
As this company is providing its product khukuri costing rupee 5/piece which provides value equal to its price. Similarly it would be more beneficial to the consumer as well as to the company if it produces and sale the next product costing lower then Khukuri and Bijuli with low value (tutor2u, 2018).

b. Low price
According to Bowman’s strategy Surya Nepal should reduce the price of its product (khukuri and Bijuli) costing lower than its competitor product ‘Sahara’. As a result this will reduce the level of profit in sales of each product but generates high profit in overall sales (tutor2u, 2018).

c. Differentiation
Although Surya Nepal Company is providing product (Surya cigarette) costing equal to its competitor on which customers are freely paying because of its brand loyalty and quality. Hence this company should introduce more flavored product in their cigarettes in future (tutor2u, 2018).

d. Risky High margin
According to Bowman’s strategy this is a high risk positioning strategy. Before price of Surya cigarette was rupee 10/ piece but later on this company by taking high risk against its competitor it increases its price to rupee 15/ piece providing equal value as before and started earning more profit. Despite this all customers not even worried to Switch to others product because of its brand loyalty and quality. Therefore this company can generate more profit in future by raising its price higher and taking the risk of increasing the price (tutor2u, 2018).

Chapter 6.3. Generic strategy

Figure 6 Generic Strategy (https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQ3eknyTvaesC5VPcmml8T6AXeGKOkYPeIo5oRs0PahtAn07R0H1w)
The two basic types of competitive advantage combined with the scope of activities for which a firm seeks to achieve them, lead to three generic strategies for achieving above average performance in an industry: cost leadership, differentiation, and focus (Anon, 2018).

Cost leadership
Mostly tobacco is grown in Terai region of country Nepal itself as it has the weather- wet, hot and humid and topography plains, suitable for the cultivation of tobacco. Hence this company will offer best quality of product in low cost by competing its competitor (Anon, 2018).

Differentiation
Their product is vast different from their competitor. They provide better quality of cigarettes to the customer offering low and affordable price (Anon, 2018).

Cost focus
Surya Nepal focuses on getting advantage of cost over its target segments that provides benefit to the company (Anon, 2018).

Differentiation focus
Surya Nepal is focusing on differentiation towards its target segment that fulfills the objective (Anon, 2018).

Chapter 7. Evaluation

Strategies /Evaluation Strategic direction Vision Market strategy
Ansoff matrix ? ? X
Bowman’s clock X ? X
Generic strategy ? ? ?

After evaluating the Ansoff matrix, from the table above it is clearly shown that it is moving towards the strategic direction and successfully following its vision. But it is lacking its marketing strategy because government of Nepal has banned the advertisement of cigarette.

Similarly this table represents that Bowman’s clock is not following strategic direction rather it is only focusing on pricing strategy. Beside this vision of company is followed and they do not have the proper marketing strategy.

Finally talking about the third strategy known as Generic strategy, it is meeting all the criteria’s of the evaluation which can be the best strategy that Surya Nepal can choose.

Chapter 8. Implementation
The above strategy can be implemented through SAF analysis:

Suitability
As Generic strategy meets all the criteria by focusing on cost leadership, differentiation, cost focus and differentiation focus. By this all Generic strategy will fulfill all the environmental aspects along with profitability that meet the needs of the company to operate more success in future. Hence this strategy is suitable for Surya Nepal in future (Oxford College of Marketing Blog, 2018).

Accessibility
According to SAF analysis accessibility is measuring the risk of implementing the strategy, return in terms of financial benefit and acceptable for all the stakeholders.
Surya Nepal can use Generic strategy which can be easily accessible because it has cost leadership and focuses on the cost redemption which shows that there is less risk in terms of finance of the company. If they don’t have any financial risk the stakeholders will easily accept the strategy (Oxford College of Marketing Blog, 2018).

Feasibility
As Surya Nepal is the highest market share holder in cigarette industry it has huge capital, machineries, workers, management which can make Generic strategy a feasible strategy in real world, (Oxford College of Marketing Blog, 2018).

Chapter 9.Recommendation

By analyzing all the strategy of Surya Nepal some suggestions are been provided to the company Surya Nepal for operating more better and grab more market share in future:
i. Surya Nepal should come up with new flavor in cigarette.

ii. Surya Nepal should more focus on its vision.

iii. Surya Nepal should produce cigarette with low price then its competitor that provides added value to its customer.

iv. For earning more profit this company should not raise its price occasionally which on one side harms its customer and on other side its competitor may sale more and grab its market share. Due to this company may suffer.

v. Along with the profitability Surya Nepal should also focus on environmental aspects and on interest of its stakeholders.

Chapter 10.conclusion

Summarizing the above report, Surya Nepal is the leading cigarettes producing and offering organization in Nepal. Surya Nepal has more market share than its competitor i.e. 70%-75% of market share in the cigarette industry is occupied by Surya Nepal. The Surya Nepal is totally consumer based and produces cigarettes as indicated by the need and want of its customer. It has distinctive brands with various flavor and quality added to its product line. The Surya Nepal has picked up the competitive advantage over its rivals in view of its brands augmentation like Surya light, Shikhar lights, and many packets. It has additionally extraordinary brands for value pricing to costumers. Brands like Surya are for the higher class consumer where as Khukuri and Bijuli are for individuals those who are belonged to low class. The joint wander with ITC Ltd. India and BAT has likewise helped Surya Nepal picked up the aggressive predominance. Surya Nepal Pvt Ltd is known as extravagances item for the people of Nepal.

References
Limited, S. (2018). Surya Nepal Private Limited. online Bishopdl.blogspot.com. Available at: http://bishopdl.blogspot.com/2012/01/surya-nepal-private-limited.html Accessed 10 May 2018.
Anon, (2018). online Available at: https://www.ifm.eng.cam.ac.uk/research/dstools/porters-generic-competitive-strategies/ Accessed 17 May 2018.
Bartleby.com. (2018). Kfc Marketing Plan Essay – 1816 Words | Bartleby. online Available at: https://www.bartleby.com/essay/Kfc-Marketing-Plan-FKY7S43VC Accessed 15 May 2018.
Campus (2018). Surya nepal. online Slideshare.net. Available at: https://www.slideshare.net/nrazn/surya-nepal Accessed 11 May 2018.
CGMA. (2018). Porter’s Five Forces of Competitive Position Analysis. online Available at: https://www.cgma.org/resources/tools/essential-tools/porters-five-forces.html Accessed 17 May 2018.
Famuyide, S. (2018). VRIN Framework/VRIO Analysis. online Business Analyst Learnings. Available at: https://businessanalystlearnings.com/ba-techniques/2017/5/1/vrin-frameworkvrio-analysis Accessed 19 May 2018.
Image.slidesharecdn.com. (2018). online Available at: https://image.slidesharecdn.com/surya-nepal-presentation-150326011248-conversion-gate01/95/surya-nepal-19-638.jpg?cb=1427350448 Accessed 16 May 2018.
Oxford College of Marketing Blog. (2018). Using The SAF Strategy Model to Evaluate Strategic Options. online Available at:https://blog.oxfordcollegeofmarketing.com/2018/02/25/evaluating-strategic-options-using-saf-strategy-model/ Accessed 16 May 2018.
Scribd. (2018). Surya Nepal | Cigarette | Brand. online Available at: https://www.scribd.com/document/143917074/Surya-Nepal Accessed 12 May 2018.
tutor2u. (2018). Bowman’s Strategic Clock (Strategic Positioning) | tutor2u Business. online Available at: https://www.tutor2u.net/business/reference/strategic-positioning-bowmans-strategy-clock Accessed 16 May 2018.

CHAPTER 1

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
Children’s behaviour differs from each child which could be affected by many factors in a classroom. In order to run a classroom, a teacher needs to plan effective strategies in order to manage unpredictable behaviour of children. One of the most effective strategy to run a preschool class is by providing verbal and non-verbal rewards (Priya Vijayan, Srikumar Chakravarthi, John Arul Philips, 2016). Verbal and non-verbal rewards encourages a child’s intrinsic motivation in order to behave and perform well. According to Skinner (B.F. Skinner, Ph.D. and Susan M. Markle, Ph.D, 2016), he was convinced that immediate reinforcement contributed significantly to acquiring new skills or knowledge. He also theorized that individual study with frequent reinforcement would produce faster learning.
In a classroom, children behaviour which is reinforced tends to be repeated & strengthened and behaviour which is not reinforced tends to die out-or be extinguished or weakened. However, the researcher is focusing on the positive reinforcement only for this research. The aim of this research is to find out the effectiveness of rewards, whether it is verbal or non-verbal rewards used in classroom to strengthen and improve children’s behaviour and performance.
1.2 Research Problem
The research problem of this study is the effectiveness of rewards in a classroom on children. More specifically, it is a question of whether we could change the children misbehaviour for the betterment by using rewards in the classroom. Misbehaviour in a classroom could lead to several negative effects such as, other children could not concentrate on the learning and the teacher could not achieve his/her teaching objective for the particular lesson. Thus, rewards is one of the way for the teachers and parents to affect the children’s behaviour positively. This leads to our research questions which are how does reward affect the children’s behaviour, how does behaviour differ in boys and girls from the experimental group and how does the rewarded group’s active participation shown through verbal and non-verbal responses.

1.3 Significance of Study
The significance of this research is mainly for early childhood educators, parents and also for policy makers. First of all, this research helps early childhood educators to find out the importance and the effect of rewards towards children’s behaviour. Through this, they could also promote appropriate behaviour while controlling the level of misbehaviour in their preschool classes as well. In addition, the early childhood educators would also find out that rewards could influence children to be motivated in classroom. When the children are motivated, they will learn better by showing interest in classroom and also the learning objectives will be achieved.

Besides that, this research assists parents to know more about the effect of rewards towards their children. Children need to learn in both preschool and also at home. Their behaviour starts at home initially and it develops at school. Thus, parents need to understand the importance of nurturing their children with positive behaviour. In order to do that, reward system at home could help the parents. This research will let the parents know that using rewards to their children will make them attain positive behaviour and also motivated while reducing the undesired behaviour.
Other than that, policy makers could also be benefited by this research. Through this research, policy makers such as the Ministry of Education would understand the significance of rewards towards children. Thus, they would amend or create policies that would incorporate rewards in preschool children’s daily life. This step would change the preschool children for the betterment. With rewards, the children would feel motivated which affects their absorption of knowledge positively.
1.4 Research Objective
The objectives of this research are:
1. To investigate the effect of rewards towards children’s behaviour.

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2. To examine the behaviour difference in boys and girls from the experimental group.

3. To determine children’s active participation from experimental group through verbal and non-verbal responses.

1.5 Research Questions
The research question of this research are:
1. How does reward affect the children’s behavior?
2. How does behavior differ in boys and girls from the experimental group?
3. How does the experimental group’s active participation shown through verbal and non-verbal responses?
1.6 Hypothesis
The hypothesis of this study are:
H0: There is no significant effect of rewards on children’s behaviour.

H1: There is significant effect of rewards on children’s behaviour.

H0: There is no significant behaviour difference between boys and girls from the experimental group.

H1: There is significant behaviour difference between boys and girls from the experimental group.

H0: There is no significant active participation from experimental group through verbal and non-verbal responses.

H1: There is significant active participation from experimental group through verbal and non-verbal responses.

1.7 Research Framework
1.7.1 Conceptual Framework
Independent Variable Rewards
Praises
Stickers & Stationaries 262863517511 Dependent Variable
Children’s BehaviourVerbal Response
Non-verbal Response
Figure 1.1: Conceptual Framework
Table 1 shows the Conceptual Framework of this research. In this study, the Independent Variable is the rewards given to the experimental group which are the praises and also stickers ; stationaries during the activities conducted. The Dependent Variable of this study is the children’s behavior affected by the rewards which are the verbal response and non-verbal response by them in each activity.

1.7.2 Theoretical Framework
4950946943204972766875110963038875111
Theory
1997560368570B.F.Skinner : Reinforcement
Independent Variable Rewards
Praises
Stickers & Stationaries 262863517511 Dependent Variable
Children’s BehaviourVerbal Response
Non-verbal Response
Figure 1.2: Theoretical Framework
Figure 1.7.2 shows the theoretical framework of this study. This study is based on a behaviorism theory which is the reinforcement theory by the B.F.Skinner. According the behaviorist, behaviour which is reinforced tends to be repeated and strengthened, meanwhile the behaviour which is not reinforced tends to die out-or be extinguished and weakened. In this theory, there are 2 different types of reinforcement are stated, which are the positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. However, in this study, only the positive reinforcement is focused.

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
This chapter describes about Literature Review of this study. There are two subtopics such as Rewards ; Verbal and Non-Verbal Responses and Gender Difference ; Behaviour which are relevant to this study.

2.2 Rewards ; Verbal and Non-verbal Response
In this study, verbal and non-verbal response is understood as the children’s performance and their behaviour which has been influenced by the rewards given to them. Previous researcher Evgenia Theodotou (2014) explained the influence of rewards on students’ intrinsic motivation to learn and the findings support the positive impact of intrinsic motivation on children’s learning which leads to the better performance and behaviour. The researcher strong believe that, rewards can reinforce and at the same time forestall young children’s willingness to learn. Besides that, according to B.F.Skinner’s, a fundamental aspect of operant conditioning is that if the occurrence of response is followed by a reinforcing stimulus which is rewards in our study, then the rate of response will increase positively (B.F. Skinner, Ph.D. and Susan M. Markle, Ph.D, 2016).

2.3 Gender Difference & Prosocial Behaviour
Prosocial behavior, for the purposes of this study, is understood as any action that, as it happens, benefits others, or promotes harmonious relations with others (Erin R. Baker, Marie S. Tisak, John Tisak,2015). In this study, it is related to several actions such as helping, sharing, being nice and listening. Previous researcher found that studies utilizing questionnaire measures show girls to be more prosocial than boys, whereas studies using observational measures ?nd few if any sex differences in the frequency of prosocial behaviour (Eisenberg et al,2006).

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
This chapter discusses about this study’s research design, location of study, sample of study and also the sampling technique. Besides that, the research procedure, data collection, instrument of study and also the data analysis of this study have been included in this chapter.

3.2 Research Design
This study is based on quantitative research design. Specifically, this study is an experimental quantitative study. Experimental research seeks to determine if a specific treatment influences an outcome. This impact is assessed by providing a specific treatment to one group and withholding it from another and then determining how both group scored on an outcome.
3.3 Location of Study
The location of this study is at a preschool in SJK (T) Batu Caves. It is a government preschool and there are 2 classes called Jeyam and Vetri. This preschool is located in Batu Caves, Selangor.
3.4 Sample of Study
Experimental Group
The experimental group consists of 15 participants where in each activity either 8 boys and 7 girls or 8 girls and 7 boys participated. All the participants were aged 6 years old. Throughout the activities, they were praised and were given stickers or stationaries at the end of the activity. All the 15 participants were chosen randomly from Jeyam class.

Controlled Group
The controlled group consists of 15 participants where in each activity either 8 boys and 7 girls or 8 girls and 7 boys participated. All the participants were aged 6 years old as well. Throughout the activities, they were not given any verbal or non-verbal rewards. 10 out of 15 participants were chosen from Jeyam class and remaining 5 participants were chosen randomly from Vetri class.

3.5 Sampling Technique
The sampling techniques that were chosen for this study were convenience sampling and simple random sampling techniques. The convenience sampling technique were chosen in order to choose the location of this study. Besides that, simple random sampling also was used to choose the participants randomly from Vetri class as 5 participants was shortage because the Jeyam class only had 25 participants and the researcher needed 30 participants.
3.6 Research Procedure

Figure 3.1: Research Procedure
3.7 Data Collection
Activity 1
Participants
Thirty 6 years old children (15 boys and 15 girls) were tested in this experiment. All participants were native Tamil speakers, were recruited from a government preschool in Batu Caves, Selangor and were from mixed socioeconomic backgrounds.

Design
Each child underwent a treatment and a test phase. For the treatment phase, children were randomly assigned to one the two conditions which are the Verbal and Non-verbal Reward Condition and Controlled Condition. The test phase for this experiment was Puzzle sharing Task.

Procedure
Children were tested in a quiet classroom in their school. All testing was done by one female experimenter who explained and structured the task. As for the materials, I’ve used 9 big puzzle pieces which contained different pictures. This task was done by children in a group of 3 from each of their group. Each session was video recorded and lasted about 5 minutes for each of the group.

The puzzles were placed in front of a group of 3 children and introduced to them the original picture of the puzzle that they need to create. In order to make the activity more valuable, I’ve created a slightly competitive setting by telling participants that whoever shares the puzzles with their partner and complete the puzzle faster wins the game.
The treatment phase consisted of two conditions which are the Verbal ; Non-verbal Reward Condition and Controlled Condition. 15 children were randomly assigned to undergo these 2 conditions where one of it was the Rewarded Group were constantly praised and motivated by the experimenter throughout the activity. Besides that, they were also informed that stationaries will be provided as gift for them if they share the puzzle with their partner and complete the puzzle faster. On the other hand, the Controlled Group children were not given any verbal or non-verbal rewards throughout the activity. The test ended when all the children completed the puzzle task.

Activity 2
Participants
Thirty 6 years old children (15 boys and 15 girls) were tested in this experiment. All participants were native Tamil speakers, were recruited from a government preschool in Batu Caves, Selangor and were from mixed socioeconomic backgrounds.

Design
Each child underwent a treatment and a test phase. For the treatment phase, children were randomly assigned to one the two conditions which are the Verbal and Non-verbal Reward Condition and Controlled Condition. The test phase for this experiment was Memory Card task.

Procedure
Children were tested in a quiet classroom in their school. All testing was done by one female experimenter who explained and structured the task. As for the materials, I’ve used 6 pieces of cards that contained 3 pairs of pictures. This task was done by children individually from each of their group (15 children- Rewarded Group, 15 children- Non-Rewarded Group). Each session was video recorded and lasted for about 1+ minute.

The cards were placed (the picture facing them) in front each child and let them observe the cards for 10 seconds. In order to make the activity more valuable, I’ve created a slightly competitive setting by telling participants that whoever completes the memory card task faster wins the game. Then, they have started the task in finding the pair for each picture.
The treatment phase consisted of two conditions which are the Verbal ; Non-verbal Reward Condition and Controlled Condition. 15 children were randomly assigned to undergo these 2 conditions and one of it was the Rewarded Group were constantly praised and motivated by the experimenter throughout the activity. Besides that, they were also informed that sticker will be provided as gift for them if they complete Memory Card task faster. On the other hand, the Controlled Group children were not given any verbal or non-verbal rewards throughout the activity. The test ended when all the children completed the Memory Card task.

Activity 3
Participants
Thirty 6 years old children (15 boys and 15 girls) were tested in this experiment. All participants were native Tamil speakers, were recruited from a government preschool in Batu Caves, Selangor and were from mixed socioeconomic backgrounds.

Design
Each child underwent a treatment and a test phase. For the treatment phase, children were randomly assigned to one the two conditions which are the Verbal and Non-verbal Reward Condition and Controlled Condition. The test phase for this experiment was Playdough with Theme task.

Procedure
Children were tested in a quiet classroom in their school. All testing was done by one female experimenter who explained and structured the task. As for the materials, I’ve used 8 different colours of play dough (white, black, yellow, green, red, blue, pink, orange) for each group. This task was done by children in a group of 5 children (15 children- Rewarded Group, 15 children- Non-Rewarded Group). Each session was video recorded and lasted about 10 minutes.

First of all, children were informed that they will be creating objects using the colourful playdough given according to their theme. The themes that were given to the children were either ‘Fruit Basket’ or ‘Beach’. In order to make the activity more valuable, I’ve created a slightly competitive setting by telling participants that whoever cooperate with their team members to complete the task given wins the game.

The treatment phase consisted of two conditions which are the Verbal ; Non-verbal Reward Condition and Controlled Condition. 15 children were randomly assigned to undergo these 2 conditions where one of it was the Rewarded Group were constantly praised and motivated by the experimenter throughout the activity. Besides that, they were also informed that smiley faces will be provided as gift for them if they complete the Play Dough Theme activity according to the instruction given. On the other hand, the Controlled Group children were not given any verbal or non-verbal rewards throughout the activity. The test ended when all the children completed the Play Dough Theme task.

3.8 Instrument of Study
In this study, I’ve used checklist as my instrument of study. For Activity 1(Sharing Puzzle Task), I’ve used a checklist which contains 4 items for verbal responses such as ‘Call/invite their partners to share along’ and 6 items for non-verbal responses such as ‘share with their partners in less than 30 seconds’. As for the Activity 2(Memory Card Task), I’ve used a checklist which contains 2 items for verbal responses such as ‘say out words that indicates the child knows which card is the match’ and 6 items for non-verbal responses such as ‘complete the activity within 10 seconds’. Next, for the Activity 3 (Playdough Theme Activity), I’ve used a checklist that contains 3 items for verbal responses such as ‘discuss with the team members regarding the task’ and 5 items for non-verbal responses such as ‘help their group members physically in the task’.

3.9 Data Analysis
In this study, all the raw data was analysed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 24.0. Descriptive statistics were used to obtain the data and percentage. Meanwhile, for inferential statistics, an independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare the significant difference between experimental group’s and controlled group’s behaviour due to the effect of rewards. Besides that, an independent-samples t-test was used to compare the behaviours between boys and girls from experimental group.

CHAPTER 4: RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction
This chapter discusses the descriptive analysis, the influence of rewards on children’s behaviour, influence of rewards on boys and girls from experimental group and active participation through verbal and non-verbal responses from the experimental group.

4.2 Descriptive Analysis
All the participants in the activities were 6 years old. The pie chart below shows the percentage of boys and girls who were in experimental group during Activity 1, Activity 2, and Activity 3.

Figure 4.1: Percentage of Boys and Girls Participants in Each Activity
(Experimental Group)
According to the Figure 4, it shows that in activity 1, there were 53% (8 participants) of girls and 47% (7 participants) of boys participants were tested. In activity 2, 53% (8 participants) of boys and 47% (7 participants) of girls participants were tested. As for Activity 3, it was similar to Activity 1, there were 53% (8 participants) of girls and 47% (7 participants) of boys participants were tested.
4.3 The effect of rewards on children’s score in Activity 1, Activity 2 and Activity 3.

4.3.1 Independent T-Test
Activity 1

Table 4.1: Independent T-Test for Activity 1
According to the independent t-test that was conducted by SPSS, it has been concluded that there was a significant difference in the scores between experimental group and controlled group; t(28)=10.6 , p= 0.00. This test indicates that, the rewards given affected the participants’ performance and behaviour of the experimental group positively compared to the controlled group.
Activity 2

Table 4.2: Independent T-Test for Activity 2
Referring to the independent t-test that was conducted by SPSS for Activity 2, it has been concluded that there was a significant difference in the scores between experimental group and controlled group; t(28)=5.82, p= 0.00. This test indicates that, the rewards given affected the participants’ performance and behaviour of the experimental group positively compared to the controlled group.
Activity 3

Table 4.3: Independent T-Test for Activity 3
According to the independent t-test that was conducted by SPSS for Activity 2, it has been concluded that there was a significant difference in the scores between experimental group and controlled group; t(28)=6.86, p= 0.00. This test indicates that, the rewards given affected the participants’ performance and behaviour of the experimental group positively compared to the controlled group.
4.3.2 Descriptive statistics
Activity 1
Figure 4.1: Scores Obtained by Experimental Group and Controlled Group in Activity 1
The bar graph above shows the scores obtained by the experimental group and controlled group in Activity 1 where they participated in a puzzle sharing task among their partners. As for the result, it shows that the experimental group scored 51 points more than the controlled group because the experimental group has rewards at the end of the activity and were praised throughout the activity.
Activity 2

Figure 4.2: Scores Obtained by Experimental Group and Controlled Group in Activity 2
The bar graph above shows the scores obtained by the experimental group and controlled group in Activity 2 where they participated in a memory card task individually. As for the result, it shows that the experimental group scored 30 points more than the controlled group as the experimental group scored 48 and the controlled group scored 18 only.

Activity 3

Figure 4.3: Scores Obtained by Experimental Group and Controlled Group in Activity 3
The bar graph above shows the scores obtained by the experimental group and controlled group in Activity 3 where they participated in a themed play dough task in a group. As for the result, it shows that the experimental group scored 30 points more as the experimental group scored 61 while the controlled group scored only 31 points.

4.4 Influence of rewards on boys and girls from experimental group
4.4.1 Independent T-Test
Activity 1

Table 4.4: Independent T-Test for Activity 1
According to the independent t-test that was conducted by SPSS, it has been concluded that there was no significant difference between the scores obtained by boys and girls from experimental group as the p value is more than 0.05; t(13)= -0.342 , p= 0.738. This test indicates that, the rewards affects the scores obtained by girls and boys in experimental group equally in Activity 1.
Activity 2

Table 4.5: Independent T-Test for Activity 2
Referring to the independent t-test that was conducted by SPSS, it has been concluded that there was no significant difference between the scores obtained by boys and girls from experimental group as the p value is more than 0.05; t(13)=0.230 , p= 0.822. This test indicates that, the rewards affects the scores obtained by girls and boys in experimental group equally in Activity 2.

Activity 3

Table 4.6: Independent T-Test for Activity 3
According to the independent t-test that was conducted by SPSS, it has been concluded that there was no significant difference between the scores obtained by boys and girls from experimental group as the p value is more than 0.05; t(13)= -0.235 , p= 0.471. This test indicates that, the rewards affects the scores obtained by girls and boys in experimental group equally in Activity 3.

4.4.2 Descriptive Statistics

Figure 4.4: The Difference Between Boys’ and Girls’ Scores in Each Activity
According to the chart in the above, it shows that in Activity 1 which was the puzzle sharing task, 89.5% points were obtained by girls compared to boys who got 88% points. For Activity 2, the highest score, 84.37% points were obtained by boys compared to girls who only got 82.14% points. Lastly, for Activity 3, the girls obtained higher score compared to boys, which was 85% and the boys only got 80%.

4.5 Experimental Group’s Participation through Verbal and Non-verbal Responses.
4.5.1 Descriptive Statistics
Activity Responses Items Percentage (n)
Activity 1
Verbal Responses 1. Say out words to encourage sharing. 66.7% (10)
2. Call/invite their partners to share along. 93.3% (14)
3. Discuss during the activity. 100% (15)
4. Provide words of encouragement for their partners. 80% (12)
Non-Verbal 1. Show excited gestures (e.g smiling, clapping). 100% (15)
2. Share with partners in ;30 seconds. 100% (15)
3. Share with partners in ;30 seconds. 0% (0)
Activity 2
Verbal Responses 1. Say out words that indicates the participant knows which card is the correct match. 53.3 % (8)
2. Answers with excitement. 100% (15)
Non-Verbal Responses 1. Flip the card confidently as knowing the correct match. 100% (15)
2. Complete the activity in ;10 seconds. 66.7% (10)
3. Complete the activity in ;10 seconds. 33.3% ( 5)
Activity 3
Verbal Responses 1. Discuss with the team members regarding the task. 86.7% (13)
2. Encourage the team members. 73.3% (11)
3. Provide guidance verbally to team members. 86.7% (13)
Non-Verbal Responses 1. Help their team members physically in their task. 60% (9)
2. Complete the task in ;10 minutes. 100% (15)
3. Complete the task in ;10 minutes. 0% (0)
Table 4.7: Percentage of Verbal and Non-Verbal Responses by experimental group
Table 4.7 shows the percentage of verbal and non-responses for each items by the experimental group participants in each activity. In Activity 1, for verbal responses criteria, 66.7%, which were 10 out of 15 of the participants said out words to encourage sharing such as ‘let’s share’ or ‘here, have this’ and 93.3%,which were 14 out of 15 participants called or invited their partners to share along the puzzles. Besides that, 100% of the participants discussed with their partners during the activity and 80% which were 12 participants provided words of encouragement for their partners during the activity too. As for the non-verbal responses, 100% of the experimental group participants showed excited gestures such as smiling or clapping and also all of them shared the puzzles with their partners in less than 30 seconds.
Next, in Activity 2, for verbal responses criteria, 53.3%, which were 8 out of 15 participants said out words that indicates that they knew which card is the correct match such as ‘Oh, I know this!’ or ‘This is the one!’ before flipping the cards and 100% of the participants answered with excited tone too. As for non-verbal responses in Activity 2, all of the participants flipped the card confidently as knowing the correct match. 10 out of 15 participants (66.7%) completed the activity in less than 10 seconds while the rest completed the activity in more than 10 seconds.
In Activity 3, for verbal responses criteria, 86.7% of participants (13 participants) discussed with their team members in order to decide each members’ task according to the theme given. Besides that, 73.3% of them, which were 11 out of 15 participants encouraged their team members and 86.7% of the participants (13 participants) provided guidance verbally to their team members throughout the activity such as ‘try to do like this’ or ‘look at mine and follow’. As for the non-verbal responses, 60% of the participants (9 out of 15 participants) helped their team members physically in their task and 100% of the experimental group participants completed the task within 10 minutes.
4.6 Discussion
Based on the result for all the activities, it is confirmed that rewards do influence children’s behaviour. This study’s result is relevant is consistent with previous researches which stated that ‘there was a main effect of reward, with those promised a reward performing better than those who were not'(Sheppard DP, Kretschmer A, Knispel E, Vollert B, Altgassen M, 2015).
During the activities, it can be seen that the children who has been praised and rewarded showed more interest and eagerness to complete the task well compared to the controlled group participants. Besides that, they appeared to be more excited and confident while doing each activity. These responses from the experimental group were cause by the provided praises throughout the activity and the cue provided about the reward to be given at the end of the activity. The praises and rewards had been the motivation for the children to try their level best in each activity such as to share the puzzle with their partners, to memorise the positions of the cards better and to come up with themed play dough creations.
In addition, according to the descriptive statistics, it was shown that girls scored more in 2 of the activities than the boys. Those 2 activities were the group activity in which the participants should show prosocial behaviours in order to get more scores. This finding is similar to previous researchers Alicia A. Bower and Juan F. Casas2 (2015) found that studies utilizing questionnaire measures show girls to be more prosocial than boys. During the activities, I found that the girls participants were more excited and happier due to the praises given throughout the activity and often inquired about the rewards that will be given at the end of the activity. However, with the data obtained from SPSS, it has been concluded that there was no significant difference between the boys and girls participants’ performance which has been affected by the rewards given.

Other than that, based on the Activity 2’s result, 33.3% the experimental group took more than 10 seconds to complete the task. It is because probably those participants are still strengthening short term and long term memory. According to Preoperational stage in Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development, children in this stage have not use cognitive operations such as use logic, transforming and combine (Saul McLeod, 2018) which affects the memory level of a child too. Thus, they are still developing their cognitive operation which caused them to complete the memory task in more than 10 seconds.
CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION, IMPLICATION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Introduction
This chapter discusses several subtopics which are the conclusion of study and implication of study. In addition, limitation of study and recommendation for future researchers also been discussed in this chapter.

5.2 Conclusion of Study
Rewards, whether it is verbal reward or non-verbal reward affects children’s behaviour positively in order to speed the learning, improve performances, reduce misbehaviour and increase prosocial behaviours. It has been proven that rewards affects children’s behaviour positively and it affects boys and girls equally as well. Besides that, it has been concluded that the verbal and non-verbal response from rewarded children were better than the controlled group children where they were not given praises and materialistic rewards. Thus, in my opinion, it is important to include verbal and non-verbal rewards when are dealing with children as it benefits both sides. Thus, the hypothesis achieved for this research are:
H1: There is significant effect of rewards on children’s behaviour.

H2 : There is no significant behaviour difference between boys and girls from the experimental group.

H3: There is significant active participation from experimental group through verbal and non-verbal responses.

5.3 Implications of Study
This study has implications on early childhood educators, parents and also policy makers. This research helps early childhood educators to find out the importance and the effect of rewards towards children’s behavior. Through this, they could also promote appropriate behavior while controlling the level of misbehavior in their preschool classes as well. Besides that, this research assists parents to know more about the effect of rewards towards their children as parents need to understand the importance of nurturing their children with positive behavior. This research will let the parents know that using rewards to their children will make them attain positive behavior and also motivated while reducing the undesired behavior. In addition, through this research, policy makers such as the Ministry of Education would understand the significance of rewards towards children. Thus, they would amend or create policies that would incorporate rewards in preschool children’s daily life
5.4 Limitation of Study
The first limitation of this study is the period given to conduct this study. This factor affects this study as the time to conduct the research and to collect the data were in a short period of time, which caused me to only conduct 3 activities. The following limitation is the sample size of this study. Since the time was limited, only 30 participants were chosen to be the sample size of this study. Next, the access to literature was one of the limitation as for this study, I’ve decided to use the very latest literature within 5 years range and there were not many literature related to this study directly.
5.5 Recommendation for Future Researchers
I would recommend the future researchers to consume more time in order to complete this research. If they would consume more time, they also can increase the sample size and the frequency of activity. Future researchers need to consider this factor because it would increase the level of accuracy for the result. This is because, in the current study, I could not form a significant difference between boys and girls behaviour who has been rewarded even though from the descriptive analysis I found a slight difference. Besides that, I would also recommend the future researchers to conduct their experiments towards children which varies in children’s developments such as emotional development, physical development and cognitive development.
REFERENCES
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APPENDIX
Checklist for Activity 1

Checklist for Activity 2

Checklist for Activity 3