CHAPTER 1

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
Children’s behaviour differs from each child which could be affected by many factors in a classroom. In order to run a classroom, a teacher needs to plan effective strategies in order to manage unpredictable behaviour of children. One of the most effective strategy to run a preschool class is by providing verbal and non-verbal rewards (Priya Vijayan, Srikumar Chakravarthi, John Arul Philips, 2016). Verbal and non-verbal rewards encourages a child’s intrinsic motivation in order to behave and perform well. According to Skinner (B.F. Skinner, Ph.D. and Susan M. Markle, Ph.D, 2016), he was convinced that immediate reinforcement contributed significantly to acquiring new skills or knowledge. He also theorized that individual study with frequent reinforcement would produce faster learning.
In a classroom, children behaviour which is reinforced tends to be repeated & strengthened and behaviour which is not reinforced tends to die out-or be extinguished or weakened. However, the researcher is focusing on the positive reinforcement only for this research. The aim of this research is to find out the effectiveness of rewards, whether it is verbal or non-verbal rewards used in classroom to strengthen and improve children’s behaviour and performance.
1.2 Research Problem
The research problem of this study is the effectiveness of rewards in a classroom on children. More specifically, it is a question of whether we could change the children misbehaviour for the betterment by using rewards in the classroom. Misbehaviour in a classroom could lead to several negative effects such as, other children could not concentrate on the learning and the teacher could not achieve his/her teaching objective for the particular lesson. Thus, rewards is one of the way for the teachers and parents to affect the children’s behaviour positively. This leads to our research questions which are how does reward affect the children’s behaviour, how does behaviour differ in boys and girls from the experimental group and how does the rewarded group’s active participation shown through verbal and non-verbal responses.

1.3 Significance of Study
The significance of this research is mainly for early childhood educators, parents and also for policy makers. First of all, this research helps early childhood educators to find out the importance and the effect of rewards towards children’s behaviour. Through this, they could also promote appropriate behaviour while controlling the level of misbehaviour in their preschool classes as well. In addition, the early childhood educators would also find out that rewards could influence children to be motivated in classroom. When the children are motivated, they will learn better by showing interest in classroom and also the learning objectives will be achieved.

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Besides that, this research assists parents to know more about the effect of rewards towards their children. Children need to learn in both preschool and also at home. Their behaviour starts at home initially and it develops at school. Thus, parents need to understand the importance of nurturing their children with positive behaviour. In order to do that, reward system at home could help the parents. This research will let the parents know that using rewards to their children will make them attain positive behaviour and also motivated while reducing the undesired behaviour.
Other than that, policy makers could also be benefited by this research. Through this research, policy makers such as the Ministry of Education would understand the significance of rewards towards children. Thus, they would amend or create policies that would incorporate rewards in preschool children’s daily life. This step would change the preschool children for the betterment. With rewards, the children would feel motivated which affects their absorption of knowledge positively.
1.4 Research Objective
The objectives of this research are:
1. To investigate the effect of rewards towards children’s behaviour.

2. To examine the behaviour difference in boys and girls from the experimental group.

3. To determine children’s active participation from experimental group through verbal and non-verbal responses.

1.5 Research Questions
The research question of this research are:
1. How does reward affect the children’s behavior?
2. How does behavior differ in boys and girls from the experimental group?
3. How does the experimental group’s active participation shown through verbal and non-verbal responses?
1.6 Hypothesis
The hypothesis of this study are:
H0: There is no significant effect of rewards on children’s behaviour.

H1: There is significant effect of rewards on children’s behaviour.

H0: There is no significant behaviour difference between boys and girls from the experimental group.

H1: There is significant behaviour difference between boys and girls from the experimental group.

H0: There is no significant active participation from experimental group through verbal and non-verbal responses.

H1: There is significant active participation from experimental group through verbal and non-verbal responses.

1.7 Research Framework
1.7.1 Conceptual Framework
Independent Variable Rewards
Praises
Stickers & Stationaries 262863517511 Dependent Variable
Children’s BehaviourVerbal Response
Non-verbal Response
Figure 1.1: Conceptual Framework
Table 1 shows the Conceptual Framework of this research. In this study, the Independent Variable is the rewards given to the experimental group which are the praises and also stickers ; stationaries during the activities conducted. The Dependent Variable of this study is the children’s behavior affected by the rewards which are the verbal response and non-verbal response by them in each activity.

1.7.2 Theoretical Framework
4950946943204972766875110963038875111
Theory
1997560368570B.F.Skinner : Reinforcement
Independent Variable Rewards
Praises
Stickers & Stationaries 262863517511 Dependent Variable
Children’s BehaviourVerbal Response
Non-verbal Response
Figure 1.2: Theoretical Framework
Figure 1.7.2 shows the theoretical framework of this study. This study is based on a behaviorism theory which is the reinforcement theory by the B.F.Skinner. According the behaviorist, behaviour which is reinforced tends to be repeated and strengthened, meanwhile the behaviour which is not reinforced tends to die out-or be extinguished and weakened. In this theory, there are 2 different types of reinforcement are stated, which are the positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. However, in this study, only the positive reinforcement is focused.

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
This chapter describes about Literature Review of this study. There are two subtopics such as Rewards ; Verbal and Non-Verbal Responses and Gender Difference ; Behaviour which are relevant to this study.

2.2 Rewards ; Verbal and Non-verbal Response
In this study, verbal and non-verbal response is understood as the children’s performance and their behaviour which has been influenced by the rewards given to them. Previous researcher Evgenia Theodotou (2014) explained the influence of rewards on students’ intrinsic motivation to learn and the findings support the positive impact of intrinsic motivation on children’s learning which leads to the better performance and behaviour. The researcher strong believe that, rewards can reinforce and at the same time forestall young children’s willingness to learn. Besides that, according to B.F.Skinner’s, a fundamental aspect of operant conditioning is that if the occurrence of response is followed by a reinforcing stimulus which is rewards in our study, then the rate of response will increase positively (B.F. Skinner, Ph.D. and Susan M. Markle, Ph.D, 2016).

2.3 Gender Difference & Prosocial Behaviour
Prosocial behavior, for the purposes of this study, is understood as any action that, as it happens, benefits others, or promotes harmonious relations with others (Erin R. Baker, Marie S. Tisak, John Tisak,2015). In this study, it is related to several actions such as helping, sharing, being nice and listening. Previous researcher found that studies utilizing questionnaire measures show girls to be more prosocial than boys, whereas studies using observational measures ?nd few if any sex differences in the frequency of prosocial behaviour (Eisenberg et al,2006).

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
This chapter discusses about this study’s research design, location of study, sample of study and also the sampling technique. Besides that, the research procedure, data collection, instrument of study and also the data analysis of this study have been included in this chapter.

3.2 Research Design
This study is based on quantitative research design. Specifically, this study is an experimental quantitative study. Experimental research seeks to determine if a specific treatment influences an outcome. This impact is assessed by providing a specific treatment to one group and withholding it from another and then determining how both group scored on an outcome.
3.3 Location of Study
The location of this study is at a preschool in SJK (T) Batu Caves. It is a government preschool and there are 2 classes called Jeyam and Vetri. This preschool is located in Batu Caves, Selangor.
3.4 Sample of Study
Experimental Group
The experimental group consists of 15 participants where in each activity either 8 boys and 7 girls or 8 girls and 7 boys participated. All the participants were aged 6 years old. Throughout the activities, they were praised and were given stickers or stationaries at the end of the activity. All the 15 participants were chosen randomly from Jeyam class.

Controlled Group
The controlled group consists of 15 participants where in each activity either 8 boys and 7 girls or 8 girls and 7 boys participated. All the participants were aged 6 years old as well. Throughout the activities, they were not given any verbal or non-verbal rewards. 10 out of 15 participants were chosen from Jeyam class and remaining 5 participants were chosen randomly from Vetri class.

3.5 Sampling Technique
The sampling techniques that were chosen for this study were convenience sampling and simple random sampling techniques. The convenience sampling technique were chosen in order to choose the location of this study. Besides that, simple random sampling also was used to choose the participants randomly from Vetri class as 5 participants was shortage because the Jeyam class only had 25 participants and the researcher needed 30 participants.
3.6 Research Procedure

Figure 3.1: Research Procedure
3.7 Data Collection
Activity 1
Participants
Thirty 6 years old children (15 boys and 15 girls) were tested in this experiment. All participants were native Tamil speakers, were recruited from a government preschool in Batu Caves, Selangor and were from mixed socioeconomic backgrounds.

Design
Each child underwent a treatment and a test phase. For the treatment phase, children were randomly assigned to one the two conditions which are the Verbal and Non-verbal Reward Condition and Controlled Condition. The test phase for this experiment was Puzzle sharing Task.

Procedure
Children were tested in a quiet classroom in their school. All testing was done by one female experimenter who explained and structured the task. As for the materials, I’ve used 9 big puzzle pieces which contained different pictures. This task was done by children in a group of 3 from each of their group. Each session was video recorded and lasted about 5 minutes for each of the group.

The puzzles were placed in front of a group of 3 children and introduced to them the original picture of the puzzle that they need to create. In order to make the activity more valuable, I’ve created a slightly competitive setting by telling participants that whoever shares the puzzles with their partner and complete the puzzle faster wins the game.
The treatment phase consisted of two conditions which are the Verbal ; Non-verbal Reward Condition and Controlled Condition. 15 children were randomly assigned to undergo these 2 conditions where one of it was the Rewarded Group were constantly praised and motivated by the experimenter throughout the activity. Besides that, they were also informed that stationaries will be provided as gift for them if they share the puzzle with their partner and complete the puzzle faster. On the other hand, the Controlled Group children were not given any verbal or non-verbal rewards throughout the activity. The test ended when all the children completed the puzzle task.

Activity 2
Participants
Thirty 6 years old children (15 boys and 15 girls) were tested in this experiment. All participants were native Tamil speakers, were recruited from a government preschool in Batu Caves, Selangor and were from mixed socioeconomic backgrounds.

Design
Each child underwent a treatment and a test phase. For the treatment phase, children were randomly assigned to one the two conditions which are the Verbal and Non-verbal Reward Condition and Controlled Condition. The test phase for this experiment was Memory Card task.

Procedure
Children were tested in a quiet classroom in their school. All testing was done by one female experimenter who explained and structured the task. As for the materials, I’ve used 6 pieces of cards that contained 3 pairs of pictures. This task was done by children individually from each of their group (15 children- Rewarded Group, 15 children- Non-Rewarded Group). Each session was video recorded and lasted for about 1+ minute.

The cards were placed (the picture facing them) in front each child and let them observe the cards for 10 seconds. In order to make the activity more valuable, I’ve created a slightly competitive setting by telling participants that whoever completes the memory card task faster wins the game. Then, they have started the task in finding the pair for each picture.
The treatment phase consisted of two conditions which are the Verbal ; Non-verbal Reward Condition and Controlled Condition. 15 children were randomly assigned to undergo these 2 conditions and one of it was the Rewarded Group were constantly praised and motivated by the experimenter throughout the activity. Besides that, they were also informed that sticker will be provided as gift for them if they complete Memory Card task faster. On the other hand, the Controlled Group children were not given any verbal or non-verbal rewards throughout the activity. The test ended when all the children completed the Memory Card task.

Activity 3
Participants
Thirty 6 years old children (15 boys and 15 girls) were tested in this experiment. All participants were native Tamil speakers, were recruited from a government preschool in Batu Caves, Selangor and were from mixed socioeconomic backgrounds.

Design
Each child underwent a treatment and a test phase. For the treatment phase, children were randomly assigned to one the two conditions which are the Verbal and Non-verbal Reward Condition and Controlled Condition. The test phase for this experiment was Playdough with Theme task.

Procedure
Children were tested in a quiet classroom in their school. All testing was done by one female experimenter who explained and structured the task. As for the materials, I’ve used 8 different colours of play dough (white, black, yellow, green, red, blue, pink, orange) for each group. This task was done by children in a group of 5 children (15 children- Rewarded Group, 15 children- Non-Rewarded Group). Each session was video recorded and lasted about 10 minutes.

First of all, children were informed that they will be creating objects using the colourful playdough given according to their theme. The themes that were given to the children were either ‘Fruit Basket’ or ‘Beach’. In order to make the activity more valuable, I’ve created a slightly competitive setting by telling participants that whoever cooperate with their team members to complete the task given wins the game.

The treatment phase consisted of two conditions which are the Verbal ; Non-verbal Reward Condition and Controlled Condition. 15 children were randomly assigned to undergo these 2 conditions where one of it was the Rewarded Group were constantly praised and motivated by the experimenter throughout the activity. Besides that, they were also informed that smiley faces will be provided as gift for them if they complete the Play Dough Theme activity according to the instruction given. On the other hand, the Controlled Group children were not given any verbal or non-verbal rewards throughout the activity. The test ended when all the children completed the Play Dough Theme task.

3.8 Instrument of Study
In this study, I’ve used checklist as my instrument of study. For Activity 1(Sharing Puzzle Task), I’ve used a checklist which contains 4 items for verbal responses such as ‘Call/invite their partners to share along’ and 6 items for non-verbal responses such as ‘share with their partners in less than 30 seconds’. As for the Activity 2(Memory Card Task), I’ve used a checklist which contains 2 items for verbal responses such as ‘say out words that indicates the child knows which card is the match’ and 6 items for non-verbal responses such as ‘complete the activity within 10 seconds’. Next, for the Activity 3 (Playdough Theme Activity), I’ve used a checklist that contains 3 items for verbal responses such as ‘discuss with the team members regarding the task’ and 5 items for non-verbal responses such as ‘help their group members physically in the task’.

3.9 Data Analysis
In this study, all the raw data was analysed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 24.0. Descriptive statistics were used to obtain the data and percentage. Meanwhile, for inferential statistics, an independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare the significant difference between experimental group’s and controlled group’s behaviour due to the effect of rewards. Besides that, an independent-samples t-test was used to compare the behaviours between boys and girls from experimental group.

CHAPTER 4: RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction
This chapter discusses the descriptive analysis, the influence of rewards on children’s behaviour, influence of rewards on boys and girls from experimental group and active participation through verbal and non-verbal responses from the experimental group.

4.2 Descriptive Analysis
All the participants in the activities were 6 years old. The pie chart below shows the percentage of boys and girls who were in experimental group during Activity 1, Activity 2, and Activity 3.

Figure 4.1: Percentage of Boys and Girls Participants in Each Activity
(Experimental Group)
According to the Figure 4, it shows that in activity 1, there were 53% (8 participants) of girls and 47% (7 participants) of boys participants were tested. In activity 2, 53% (8 participants) of boys and 47% (7 participants) of girls participants were tested. As for Activity 3, it was similar to Activity 1, there were 53% (8 participants) of girls and 47% (7 participants) of boys participants were tested.
4.3 The effect of rewards on children’s score in Activity 1, Activity 2 and Activity 3.

4.3.1 Independent T-Test
Activity 1

Table 4.1: Independent T-Test for Activity 1
According to the independent t-test that was conducted by SPSS, it has been concluded that there was a significant difference in the scores between experimental group and controlled group; t(28)=10.6 , p= 0.00. This test indicates that, the rewards given affected the participants’ performance and behaviour of the experimental group positively compared to the controlled group.
Activity 2

Table 4.2: Independent T-Test for Activity 2
Referring to the independent t-test that was conducted by SPSS for Activity 2, it has been concluded that there was a significant difference in the scores between experimental group and controlled group; t(28)=5.82, p= 0.00. This test indicates that, the rewards given affected the participants’ performance and behaviour of the experimental group positively compared to the controlled group.
Activity 3

Table 4.3: Independent T-Test for Activity 3
According to the independent t-test that was conducted by SPSS for Activity 2, it has been concluded that there was a significant difference in the scores between experimental group and controlled group; t(28)=6.86, p= 0.00. This test indicates that, the rewards given affected the participants’ performance and behaviour of the experimental group positively compared to the controlled group.
4.3.2 Descriptive statistics
Activity 1
Figure 4.1: Scores Obtained by Experimental Group and Controlled Group in Activity 1
The bar graph above shows the scores obtained by the experimental group and controlled group in Activity 1 where they participated in a puzzle sharing task among their partners. As for the result, it shows that the experimental group scored 51 points more than the controlled group because the experimental group has rewards at the end of the activity and were praised throughout the activity.
Activity 2

Figure 4.2: Scores Obtained by Experimental Group and Controlled Group in Activity 2
The bar graph above shows the scores obtained by the experimental group and controlled group in Activity 2 where they participated in a memory card task individually. As for the result, it shows that the experimental group scored 30 points more than the controlled group as the experimental group scored 48 and the controlled group scored 18 only.

Activity 3

Figure 4.3: Scores Obtained by Experimental Group and Controlled Group in Activity 3
The bar graph above shows the scores obtained by the experimental group and controlled group in Activity 3 where they participated in a themed play dough task in a group. As for the result, it shows that the experimental group scored 30 points more as the experimental group scored 61 while the controlled group scored only 31 points.

4.4 Influence of rewards on boys and girls from experimental group
4.4.1 Independent T-Test
Activity 1

Table 4.4: Independent T-Test for Activity 1
According to the independent t-test that was conducted by SPSS, it has been concluded that there was no significant difference between the scores obtained by boys and girls from experimental group as the p value is more than 0.05; t(13)= -0.342 , p= 0.738. This test indicates that, the rewards affects the scores obtained by girls and boys in experimental group equally in Activity 1.
Activity 2

Table 4.5: Independent T-Test for Activity 2
Referring to the independent t-test that was conducted by SPSS, it has been concluded that there was no significant difference between the scores obtained by boys and girls from experimental group as the p value is more than 0.05; t(13)=0.230 , p= 0.822. This test indicates that, the rewards affects the scores obtained by girls and boys in experimental group equally in Activity 2.

Activity 3

Table 4.6: Independent T-Test for Activity 3
According to the independent t-test that was conducted by SPSS, it has been concluded that there was no significant difference between the scores obtained by boys and girls from experimental group as the p value is more than 0.05; t(13)= -0.235 , p= 0.471. This test indicates that, the rewards affects the scores obtained by girls and boys in experimental group equally in Activity 3.

4.4.2 Descriptive Statistics

Figure 4.4: The Difference Between Boys’ and Girls’ Scores in Each Activity
According to the chart in the above, it shows that in Activity 1 which was the puzzle sharing task, 89.5% points were obtained by girls compared to boys who got 88% points. For Activity 2, the highest score, 84.37% points were obtained by boys compared to girls who only got 82.14% points. Lastly, for Activity 3, the girls obtained higher score compared to boys, which was 85% and the boys only got 80%.

4.5 Experimental Group’s Participation through Verbal and Non-verbal Responses.
4.5.1 Descriptive Statistics
Activity Responses Items Percentage (n)
Activity 1
Verbal Responses 1. Say out words to encourage sharing. 66.7% (10)
2. Call/invite their partners to share along. 93.3% (14)
3. Discuss during the activity. 100% (15)
4. Provide words of encouragement for their partners. 80% (12)
Non-Verbal 1. Show excited gestures (e.g smiling, clapping). 100% (15)
2. Share with partners in ;30 seconds. 100% (15)
3. Share with partners in ;30 seconds. 0% (0)
Activity 2
Verbal Responses 1. Say out words that indicates the participant knows which card is the correct match. 53.3 % (8)
2. Answers with excitement. 100% (15)
Non-Verbal Responses 1. Flip the card confidently as knowing the correct match. 100% (15)
2. Complete the activity in ;10 seconds. 66.7% (10)
3. Complete the activity in ;10 seconds. 33.3% ( 5)
Activity 3
Verbal Responses 1. Discuss with the team members regarding the task. 86.7% (13)
2. Encourage the team members. 73.3% (11)
3. Provide guidance verbally to team members. 86.7% (13)
Non-Verbal Responses 1. Help their team members physically in their task. 60% (9)
2. Complete the task in ;10 minutes. 100% (15)
3. Complete the task in ;10 minutes. 0% (0)
Table 4.7: Percentage of Verbal and Non-Verbal Responses by experimental group
Table 4.7 shows the percentage of verbal and non-responses for each items by the experimental group participants in each activity. In Activity 1, for verbal responses criteria, 66.7%, which were 10 out of 15 of the participants said out words to encourage sharing such as ‘let’s share’ or ‘here, have this’ and 93.3%,which were 14 out of 15 participants called or invited their partners to share along the puzzles. Besides that, 100% of the participants discussed with their partners during the activity and 80% which were 12 participants provided words of encouragement for their partners during the activity too. As for the non-verbal responses, 100% of the experimental group participants showed excited gestures such as smiling or clapping and also all of them shared the puzzles with their partners in less than 30 seconds.
Next, in Activity 2, for verbal responses criteria, 53.3%, which were 8 out of 15 participants said out words that indicates that they knew which card is the correct match such as ‘Oh, I know this!’ or ‘This is the one!’ before flipping the cards and 100% of the participants answered with excited tone too. As for non-verbal responses in Activity 2, all of the participants flipped the card confidently as knowing the correct match. 10 out of 15 participants (66.7%) completed the activity in less than 10 seconds while the rest completed the activity in more than 10 seconds.
In Activity 3, for verbal responses criteria, 86.7% of participants (13 participants) discussed with their team members in order to decide each members’ task according to the theme given. Besides that, 73.3% of them, which were 11 out of 15 participants encouraged their team members and 86.7% of the participants (13 participants) provided guidance verbally to their team members throughout the activity such as ‘try to do like this’ or ‘look at mine and follow’. As for the non-verbal responses, 60% of the participants (9 out of 15 participants) helped their team members physically in their task and 100% of the experimental group participants completed the task within 10 minutes.
4.6 Discussion
Based on the result for all the activities, it is confirmed that rewards do influence children’s behaviour. This study’s result is relevant is consistent with previous researches which stated that ‘there was a main effect of reward, with those promised a reward performing better than those who were not'(Sheppard DP, Kretschmer A, Knispel E, Vollert B, Altgassen M, 2015).
During the activities, it can be seen that the children who has been praised and rewarded showed more interest and eagerness to complete the task well compared to the controlled group participants. Besides that, they appeared to be more excited and confident while doing each activity. These responses from the experimental group were cause by the provided praises throughout the activity and the cue provided about the reward to be given at the end of the activity. The praises and rewards had been the motivation for the children to try their level best in each activity such as to share the puzzle with their partners, to memorise the positions of the cards better and to come up with themed play dough creations.
In addition, according to the descriptive statistics, it was shown that girls scored more in 2 of the activities than the boys. Those 2 activities were the group activity in which the participants should show prosocial behaviours in order to get more scores. This finding is similar to previous researchers Alicia A. Bower and Juan F. Casas2 (2015) found that studies utilizing questionnaire measures show girls to be more prosocial than boys. During the activities, I found that the girls participants were more excited and happier due to the praises given throughout the activity and often inquired about the rewards that will be given at the end of the activity. However, with the data obtained from SPSS, it has been concluded that there was no significant difference between the boys and girls participants’ performance which has been affected by the rewards given.

Other than that, based on the Activity 2’s result, 33.3% the experimental group took more than 10 seconds to complete the task. It is because probably those participants are still strengthening short term and long term memory. According to Preoperational stage in Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development, children in this stage have not use cognitive operations such as use logic, transforming and combine (Saul McLeod, 2018) which affects the memory level of a child too. Thus, they are still developing their cognitive operation which caused them to complete the memory task in more than 10 seconds.
CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION, IMPLICATION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Introduction
This chapter discusses several subtopics which are the conclusion of study and implication of study. In addition, limitation of study and recommendation for future researchers also been discussed in this chapter.

5.2 Conclusion of Study
Rewards, whether it is verbal reward or non-verbal reward affects children’s behaviour positively in order to speed the learning, improve performances, reduce misbehaviour and increase prosocial behaviours. It has been proven that rewards affects children’s behaviour positively and it affects boys and girls equally as well. Besides that, it has been concluded that the verbal and non-verbal response from rewarded children were better than the controlled group children where they were not given praises and materialistic rewards. Thus, in my opinion, it is important to include verbal and non-verbal rewards when are dealing with children as it benefits both sides. Thus, the hypothesis achieved for this research are:
H1: There is significant effect of rewards on children’s behaviour.

H2 : There is no significant behaviour difference between boys and girls from the experimental group.

H3: There is significant active participation from experimental group through verbal and non-verbal responses.

5.3 Implications of Study
This study has implications on early childhood educators, parents and also policy makers. This research helps early childhood educators to find out the importance and the effect of rewards towards children’s behavior. Through this, they could also promote appropriate behavior while controlling the level of misbehavior in their preschool classes as well. Besides that, this research assists parents to know more about the effect of rewards towards their children as parents need to understand the importance of nurturing their children with positive behavior. This research will let the parents know that using rewards to their children will make them attain positive behavior and also motivated while reducing the undesired behavior. In addition, through this research, policy makers such as the Ministry of Education would understand the significance of rewards towards children. Thus, they would amend or create policies that would incorporate rewards in preschool children’s daily life
5.4 Limitation of Study
The first limitation of this study is the period given to conduct this study. This factor affects this study as the time to conduct the research and to collect the data were in a short period of time, which caused me to only conduct 3 activities. The following limitation is the sample size of this study. Since the time was limited, only 30 participants were chosen to be the sample size of this study. Next, the access to literature was one of the limitation as for this study, I’ve decided to use the very latest literature within 5 years range and there were not many literature related to this study directly.
5.5 Recommendation for Future Researchers
I would recommend the future researchers to consume more time in order to complete this research. If they would consume more time, they also can increase the sample size and the frequency of activity. Future researchers need to consider this factor because it would increase the level of accuracy for the result. This is because, in the current study, I could not form a significant difference between boys and girls behaviour who has been rewarded even though from the descriptive analysis I found a slight difference. Besides that, I would also recommend the future researchers to conduct their experiments towards children which varies in children’s developments such as emotional development, physical development and cognitive development.
REFERENCES
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Booth, A. L. (March/April 2014). Child Development. Motivated by Meaning: Testing the Effect of Knowledge-Infused Rewards on Preschoolers’ Persistence, Volume 85, Number 2, Pages 783–791.

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F.Casas, A. A. (23 September 2015). What Parents Do When Children Are Good: Parent Reports of Strategies for Reinforcing Early Childhood Prosocial Behaviours, 1-6.

Gambino, T. (2016). PSI CHI JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH. The Effect of Verbal Praise on Maze Completion, 1-6.

Gresham, N. M. (2014). Research Into Practice. Differential Effects of the Mystery Motivator Intervention Using Student-Selected and Mystery Rewards, 1-14.

Hid, S. (22 April 2015 ). Revisiting the Role of Rewards in Motivation and Learning: Implications of Neuroscientific Research, 1-34.

Julia Ulber, K. H. ( July/August 2016). Extrinsic Rewards Diminish Costly Sharing in 3-Year-Olds. Child Development, Volume 87, Number 4, Pages 1192–1203.

Kelly M. Schieltz, D. P. (23 December 2016). Effects of Signaled Positive Reinforcement on Problem Behavior Maintained by Negative Reinforcement, 1-15.

Priya Vijayan, S. C. (March 2016). The Role of Teachers’ Behaviour and Strategies in Managing a Classroom Environment . International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 1-8.

Theodotou, E. (April 2014). RESEARCH IN TEACHER EDUCATION . Early years education: are young students intrinsically or extrinsically motivated towards school activities? A discussion about the effects of rewards on young children’s learning, 1-5.

APPENDIX
Checklist for Activity 1

Checklist for Activity 2

Checklist for Activity 3

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