Carl Jung Sigmund Freud was Carl Jungs greatest influence. Although he came to part company with Freud in later years, Freud had a distinct and profound influence on Carl Jung. Carl Jung is said to have been a magnetic individual who drew many others into his circle. Within the scope of analytic psychology, there exists two essential tenets. The first is that the system in which sensations and feelings are analyzed are listed by type.
The second has to do with a way to analyze the psyche that follows Jungs concepts. It stresses a group unconscious and a mystical factor in the growth of the personal unconscious. It is unlike the sytem of Sigmund Freud. Analytic psychology does not stress the importance of sexual factors on early mental growth. In my view, the best understanding of Carl Jung and his views regarding the collective unconscious are best understood in understanding the man and his influences.
In keeping with the scope and related concepts of Carl Jung, unconscious is the sum total of those psychic activities that elude an individuals direct knowledge of himself or herself. This term should not be confused either with a state of awareness, that is, a lack of self knowledge arising from an individuals unwillingness to look into himself or herself (introspection), nor with the subconscious, which consists of marginal representations that can be rather easily brought to consciousness. Properly, unconscious processes cannot be made conscious at will; their unraveling requires the use of specific techniques, such as free association, dream interpretation, various projective tests, and hypnosis. For many centuries, students of human nature considered the idea of an unconscious mind as self contradictory. However, it was noticed by philosophers such as St.
Augustine, and others, as well as early *PROFESSIONAL RESEARCH 1998 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED experimental psychologists, including Gustav Sechner, and Hermann Von Helmholtz, that certain psychological operations could take place without the knowledge of the subject. Jean Sharcot demonstrated that the symptoms of post-traumatic neuroses did not result from lesions of the nervous tissue but from unconscious representations of the trauma. Pierre Janet extended this concept of “unconscious fixed ideas” to hysteria, wherein traumatic representations, though split off from the conscious mind, exert an action upon the conscious mind in the form of hysterical symptoms. Janet was an important influence on Carl Jung, and he reported that the cure of several hysterical patients, using hypnosis to discover the initial trauma and then having it reenacted by the patient, was successful. Josef Breuer also treated a hysterical patient by inducing the hypnotic state and then elucidating for her the circumstances which had accompanied the origin of her troubles.
As the traumatic experiences were revealed, the symptoms disappeared. Freud substituted the specific techniques of free association and dream interpretation for hypnosis. He stated that the content of the unconscious has not just been “split off,” but has been “repressed,” that is forcibly expelled from consciousness. Neurotic symptoms express a conflict between the repressing forces and the repressed material, and this conflict causes the “resistance” met by the analyst when trying to uncover the repressed material. Aside from occasional psychic traumas, the whole period of early childhood, including the oedipus situation or the unconscious desire for the parent of the opposite sex and hatred for the parent of the same sex, has been repressed. In a normal individual, unknown to himself or herself, these early childhood situations influence the individuals thoughts, feelings, and acts; in the neurotic they determine a wide gamet of symptoms which psychoanalysis endeavors to trace back to their unconscious sources.
During psychoanalytic treatment, the patients irrational attitudes toward the analyst, referred to as the “transference,” manifests a revival of old forgotten attitudes towards parents. The task of the psychoanalyst, together with the patient, is to analyze his resistance and transference, and to bring unconscious motivations to the patients full awareness. Carl Jung considered the unconscious as an autonomous part of the psyche, endowed with its own dynamism and complementary to the conscious mind. He distinguished the personal from the collective unconscious; the later he considered to be the seat of “archetypes” – – universal symbols loaded with psychic energy. As new approaches to the unconscious came about, Jung introduced the word association test, that is, spontaneous drawing, and his own technique of dream interpretation.
His therapeutic method aimed at the unification of the conscious and the unconscious through which he believed man achieved his”individuation,” the completion of his personality. Both Sigmund Freud and Carl Jungs concepts of the unconscious have provided a key to numerous facts in psychology, psychiatry, anthropology, and sociology, and for the interpretation of artistic and literary works. (Ellenberger, p.1) Hypnosis has contributed largely to our understanding of psychoanalysis. Carl Jung understood this, and represented itself throughout his many experiments and tests. In recent times, our understanding of the unconscious has been expanded due to experimental hypnosis and, as well, projective psychological tests. It has been observed that Jungs relations with the other significant people in his life appear to have been as unsatisfactory as his own. It has been observed that Jung despised his pastor father as a weakling and failure and had mixed feelings about his mother.
After Jung broke with Freud, his former collaborator and mentor, Jung went on to develop his own psychological system. This incorporated a number of key concepts which included the collective and conscious, the repository of mankinds psychic heritage, and realm of the archetypes – – inherited patterns in the mind that exist through time and space. Then there were anima/animus, the image of contrasexuality in the unconscious of each individual, and shadow, the repressed and wanted aspect of a person. There is also the theory of psychology types, i.e. introverts, and extraverts, which influenced William James dichotomy of tough and tender minded individuals. Jung also developed his theory of individuation, which holds that each individuals goal in life is to achieve his own potential. (Economist, The, S 6) Bibliography Economist, The, “Carl Gustav Jung: BK.
Rev. The Economist, Vol. 340 September 14, 1996 Ellenberger, Henri, Unconscious, Vol. 22, WebPost.