ASSIGNMENT TOPIC

ASSIGNMENT
TOPIC: HOW TO KEEP BALANCE BETWEEN ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN CIVILIZATION.(keep in mind that civilization always endanger the environment).

Course code: SC 211
Course Title: Sociology

SUBMITTED TO SUBMITTED BY
Asirul Haque MD. Wahiduzzaman Sumon
Student ID: 1712060017
13th batch (3rd semester)
Dept. of Civil Engineering,
Leading University, Sylhet.

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In the expedition for ecological solutions to problems arising when humans co-operate with the natural ecosystem around the nature. There are further information be present about what happening in ecology. For example on global warming and climate change in society.
Balance acting to Human and Nature: The project is the concept of ‘social ecological systems’ – the way in which we interact with our ecosystem and environment. ‘Human and nature interact continuously, with both plus and minus results’, explains Delgado. ‘But the systems are very complex, so the impact can be unexpected for even the opposite of what is expected.’
As an example, if a dam is built to protect people living on riverbanks, the way the water flows is changed. This can damage certain species of fish and many life. The intention is to protect people, not to harm the nature.
The various social structures like industrial building, agricultural fields, religious state etc. have developed during various stages of civilization and these structures represent human being’s accumulated cultural resources based on natural ecology.
If the natural environment helped in the development of different structures of the society on the one hand, the existence and the standard of environment now rests on the responses of these social structures to the environment on the other hand.
The main issues to the environment, destroy of earth’s natural ecosystem, environmental degradation and pollution, ecological imbalances etc. can be approached and solved only after considering the value judgements which may be determined by talking into account the consequences of ‘ environmental quality increase program’ on the entire society and society’s response towards the improvement program. Actually all these depend on the interest and desire of the society to improving the quality of environment.
The changes in the relationship between human and environment depend upon the change in organisation and attitude of society. To improve environmental standard and maintain ecological balance, the following are some issues before the present civilized society.
Rapid population growth: Puts tremendous pressure on the natural resources and environmental quality. This is due to the fact that population growth leads to poverty which directly declines the environmental better condition.
Coherent use of non polluted water resources: The restoration of water quality of our water bodies and their optimum uses are the challenges before the present society
To check soil damage: soil erosion is directly related to damage the society structures. so its urgent need to check the soil before doing anything on soil.
Safety of forest resources: The forest resources are decreasing very fast. Day by day it is going the out of control. Vast forest is converted into building or other works like factories, institutions etc. So it is need of the present society to protect the forest and make awareness to people by various program.
Uses of natural resource: There are many natural resources available in earth around us. Such as coal, petroleum, gas, mine, ground water, etc. People should use them properly and scientifically. If the people can’t use them prudently, there will not be available resource for future generations.
Control the rapid growth of population: It is urgent need for any society to control the birth rate. Because of vast population the society faces many problems. People polluted the environment and for this atmosphere effected easily. So we should take effective step to control the growth of population.
To rise agricultural growth for sustainability: Without damaging environment, the over cultivation of soil, results in nutrient deficiency, lack of organic matter, soil salinity and damage to physical structure of the soil.
The uses of non-polluted water resources: It’s a challenge for notional people in the present society to use the non-polluted water resources because there are only few resources is exists. So we should protect these water resources from polluted.
Some possible ways to keep balance between environment and Human civilization:
By developing the eco-friendly technology
By using the non-harmful technology in agricultural fields
By decreasing the use of natural resources.
By reducing industrial wastage.
By using recycling raw materials.
By protecting the bio-diversity and ecosystem.
By using the natural resource scientifically.
By using bio-fertilizer.
By clean up the hazardous waste.
By creating the public awareness about the important of environment in human’s life.
By taking effective step for population control.
By reducing the environmental pollution.
By developing the waste land.
By using technology in positive way.

We should keep in mind that everything is this earth are limited. Nothing is infinite, everything is finite. So we should better use of these elements. It’s true that some products we find again by recycle but it’s just happen over time not for every time . The earth’s resources oil, forests, water, energy everything are finite. There are many species are living in this earth, but only the human destroying the earth by using the earth resources carelessly.
People use the limited gas for their cars, people switch off the light when the ready go outside, people don’t use too much money to buy anything, they always want to buy the products with less money. If they think in outside of the home like home, surely the next generation will be find much resources of wealth but it is great regret that every people’s thinking is different in outside of home, they don’t like same in outside like home and for this careless the resources is decreasing day by day.
If we want to protect this resources, we should think same in home and outside. Human is altering the society. They also altering the environment in various way. We’ve destroyed the natural habitat, polluted the rivers and oceans. we are using the chemical and polluted the earth. So we should take a simple step to protect this world from getting destroy. For keep balance between human civilization and environment, we should always use those things which is better and useful for environment which is not harmful for environment.
Ground water is one of the most important resources. We should use it in limited way. We also can save it for future generation. Forests are the another important thing of environment. Human cuts the trees continuously and its effects the environment seriously and causes many problem in eco-system. We should stop cutting the trees. For civilization we need to cut but we should not destroy the forests. We can also plant one trees after cutting one tree.
First we need to know about the meaning of balance of nature, when the natural systems are in the state of equilibrium that’s called balance of nature. It speaks the maintaining of the balance nature.
For the balanced nature everything should be favourable and friendly. But some of the working shows that human don’t want this.
Now a days people broadly using the technology in their life. We see that human using various technology in every step of life. Technology is the key products to civilized the nation. Excess use of anything is bad. Like this excess use of technology is also doing some bad thing in nature. People can not recognise these effect easily. The think its just happened but it is the great curse. So first we have to control the using of technology. We should avoid those technology which is harmful for our society. Many technologies are using in destruction. Many guns and bombs are making by using these technology.
Climate change and global warming is a hot topic in current world. It is happening because sea level is rising, polar ice caps are melting.
In Bangladesh every years we see the flood, drought, and different inhospitable natural problems.
For keep balance we should recycling the products and make it usable again. We can easily recycle the paper, metal, plastic and other waste materials. Recycle is the best way to keep balanced the nature with human.
For better future we can use renewable energy and sustainable energy from solar, wind, waves, hydroelectric etc.
We usually use the powerful TVs, multiple to end phones and tablets which we can also afford by solar energy. Now a days solar energy is very eco-friendly and it doesn’t do any harm to human or environment.
Day by day people separated from society and nature only for technology. People make the technology most important thing for life.
Nature is essential for our physical, mental and psychological activities. We live in the nature and nature gives us more thing which we accepted and using continuously. We can’t make a space for birds to fly but we can feel them safe to fly in the sky. We can make the society more attractive and beautiful by using the products with good way.
At last we can say, for better environment we should escape those technology which is destructive for nature, we shouldn’t cut trees more and more, we should plant more new trees, we should try to use anything by recycling, should avoid the plastic packaging etc.
Overall human civilization must learn how to live in peacefully. And involves people how to live with one another in society. Keep in mind that everything is not for you, need to save for next generation. Nature has provided everything that man needs for his existence. They should use them prudently and properly. If he can not use them properly the future generation will suffer in long run
Keep in mind that humanity is the part of nature and the civilization is the part of humanity.

Assignment Topic

Assignment
Topic: Production of Monoclonal Antibody using Hybridoma Technology.

Course code: PHRM-407
Course Title: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology.

Section: 01.

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Submitted To:
Najneen Ahmed
Senior Lecturer
Department of Pharmacy
East West University
Submitted By :
Shanzida Hossain Anonna
Id. 2016-1-70-069
Submission date: 5-11-2018
1. Introduction:
Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-produced molecules designed to serve as substitute antibodies that can restore, improve or mimic the immune system’s attack on cancer cells. They are planned to tie to antigens that are generally more various on the surface of cancer cells than healthy cells. (Mayo Clinic, 2018)
A hybridoma is a biologically constructed hybrid of a mortal, antibody- producing, lymphoid cell, and a malignant, or immortal myeloma cell. Hybridomas cells are been designed to produce a desired antibody in large amounts, to produce monoclonal antibodies and now this procedure is popularly known as hybridoma technology. (Pandey, 2010) The production of monoclonal antibodies was invented by César Milstein and Georges J. F. Köhler in 1975. (Wakchaure and Ganguly, 2015)
2. Production of Monoclonal Antibodies:
2.1 Hybridoma technology procedure: There are basically two stages within the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) –
a) The acceptance of antibody producing lymphoid cells in vivo and the selection of antibody-producing hybridoma cells in vitro; and
b) The in vitro/in vivo proliferation of selected hybridoma clones. (Marx et al., 1997)
The generation of mAbs producing cells requires the use of animals, usually mice; and is carried out in the following way:
Step 1: Immunization
Mice are immunized with an antigen that’s prepared for infusion either by emulsifying the antigen with Freund’s adjuvant or other adjuvant. Intact cells, entire membranes, and microorganisms are sometimes utilized as immunogens. In nearly all laboratories, mice are used to deliver the specified antibodies. In common, mice are immunized every 2-3 weeks. When an adequate antibody concentration is come to in serum, immunized mice are put to dead and the spleen cut out to use as a source of cells for combination with myeloma cells. (Institute for Laboratory Animal Research National Research Council, 1999)
Step 2: Preparation of Myeloma Cells
Myeloma cells are immortalized cells that are refined with 8 azaguanine to ensure their sensitivity to the hypoxanthine aminopterin-thymidine (HAT) choice medium utilized after cell combination. A week before cell fusion, myeloma cells are developed in 8-azaguanine. to testing the growth ability. (Institute for Laboratory Animal Research National Research Council, 1999)

Fig 1: Stages of hybridoma production. (Greenfield, 2014)
Step 3: Fusion of Myeloma Cells with Immune Spleen Cells
The altogether washed lymphocytes (? cells) are mixed with Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase  (HGPRT)  imperfect myeloma cells. The mixture of cells is exposed to polyethylene glycol (PEG) for a short period, since it is harmful. PEG is expelled by washing and the cells are kept in a new medium. These cells are composed of a blend of hybridomas, free myeloma cells and free lymphocytes.  (Jha, 2018)
Step 4: Selection of Hybridomas
The cells are then cultured in (HAT) the hypoxanthine aminopterin-thymidine medium, only the hybridoma cells develop, whereas the rest will gradually die.

(Jha, 2018)
Step 5: Screening the Products
The culture medium from each hybridoma culture is occasionally tested for the specified antibody specificity. The two procedures specifically ELISA and RIA are commonly used for this purpose. In both the tests, the antibody binds to the particular antigen and the unbound antibody and other components of the medium can be washed off. Thus, the hybridoma cells creating the specified antibody can be identified by screening. The antibody emitted by the crossover cells is referred to as monoclonal antibody. (Jha, 2018)
Step 6: Cloning and Propagation:
The single hybrid cells producing the desired antibody are isolated and cloned. (Jha, 2018)
Step 7: Characterization and Storage:
The monoclonal antibody should be subjected to biochemical and biophysical characterization for the required specificity. The mAbs must be characterized for their capacity to resist freezing, and defrosting. (Jha, 2018)
3. Application of Monoclonal antibody
In cancer treatment monoclonal antibody used as chemotherapy drug.

Radioimmunoassay is a alternative cancer therapy, where monoclonal antibody is coupled with radioisotope such that the cancer cell is killed by irradiation.
In organ transplantation monoclonal antibody is used because they help to better cross matching.

Humanized monoclonal antibody is used to detect the infant with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

For the detection of bacterial and viral disease monoclonal antibody are applied.

Various disease like renal cancer, lymphoma, myeloma cancer, rheumatoid arthritis,
Metastatic breast cancer etc. where monoclonal antibody treatment is approved. (Kumar, et al., 2012)
4. Conclusion
The use of monoclonal antibodies is various and incorporates the prevention, determination, and treatment of disease. Also monoclonal antibodies are important for the investigation of parasites antigen. This hybridoma technology creates great opportunity for treatment and curing the disease by producing monoclonal antibody, which is more specific and more potent drug. So this hybridoma technology brought a revolutionary in life science.

5. Reference
Greenfield, E. (2014). Antibodies. 2nd ed. New york: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, pp.208-209.

Institute for Laboratory Animal Research National Research Council (1999). Monoclonal Antibody Production. A Report of the Committee on Methods of Producing Monoclonal Antibodies. Washington, DC: NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS, pp.6-8.

Jha, N. (2018). Monoclonal Antibodies: Production, Advantages and Limitations. online Biology Discussion. Available at: http://www.biologydiscussion.com/antibodies/monoclonal-antibodies-production-advantages-and-limitations/10068 Accessed 4 Nov. 2018.

Kumar, A. Singh, M. ; Gupta, SM. (2012) “Hybridoma Technology”. In: Biotechnology in medicine and agriculture: principles and practices. (eds. Kumar A, Pareek A ; Gupta SM) I. K. International publishing house Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India, pp. 338-367.

Marx, U., Embleton, M., Fischer, R., Gruber, F., Hansson, U., Heuer, J., de Leeuw, W., Logtenberg, T., Merz, W., Portetelle, D., Romette, J. and Straughan, D. (1997). Monoclonal Antibody Production. The Report and Recommendations of ECVAM Workshop 231,2. Angera, Italy: The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods, pp.121-137.

Marx, U., Embleton, M., Fischer, R., Gruber, F., Hansson, U., Heuer, J., de Leeuw, W., Logtenberg, T., Merz, W., Portetelle, D., Romette, J. and Straughan, D. (1997). Monoclonal Antibody Production. The Report and Recommendations of ECVAM Workshop 231,2. Angera, Italy: The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods, pp.121-137.

Mayo Clinic. (2018). Monoclonal antibody drugs for cancer: How they work. online Available at: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cancer/in-depth/monoclonal-antibody/art-20047808 Accessed 4 Nov. 2018.

Pandey, S. (2010). HYBRIDOMA TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, 1(2), pp.88-94.

Wakchaure, R. and Ganguly, S. (2015). Importance of Transgenic Fish to Global Aquaculture: A Review. Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal, 06(04).