Adriana Nebija Chapter 1 Key Points Notes The Americas have many different geological features such as

Adriana Nebija
Chapter 1

Key Points
Notes
The Americas have many different geological features such as: mountains, rivers, valleys etc

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Once the land bridge between Asia and America was open, it allowed migration to happen until it was then again covered over by water

The spread of corn turned the hunting style of getting food more to agriculture

This made their way of living more safe and gave them a better survival rate compared to them having to constantly move to go where more animals were available

The Europeans came to America not knowing that others inhabited the area until reaching it

Europe got most of their gold from Africa

Slaves were a big part of business and were used from plantations and manual work

Columbus discovered America, which he had mistaken for as India

Spain was the main power in the 1500s

The invaders had brought their culture, language, crops, animals, etc to Mexico causing cultural diffusion between the European and Mexican culture

New ways of spreading information was created ie; printing press & books

A disease had spread to the Valley of Mexico taking many lives

Around 225 million years ago one huge land mass was composed of what is now the 7 continents, this has drifted away creating oceans and rivers
The continuous shifting at that time has formed mountains and hills
During the Ice Age glaciers formed in the water of the northern region of the world
As these glaciers covered massive areas of water, it caused sea levels to lower. This caused a once-covered land between (what is now) Siberia and Alaska to be revealed giving the early people a way of traveling to the Americas
Once the Ice Age ended and sea levels went back to what it had been previous to this period of history, the land was then covered up by water preventing any further migration for thousands of years
The main reason for the Europeans to come to America was for the search of trade and or to take over land; therefore expanding their base
The people of Portugal had taken on the Arab and African tradition of their form of slavery
The New World, Old World and Africa began trading; food,livestock, slaves, diseases, gold/silver etc
Hernan Cortes had heard of gold and other riches that were said to have been stored at the Aztec capital and gathered his allies
Moctezuma (chief of the Aztec people) believed Cortes was a god and had let him in his capital.Following that not too long after, the Aztecs attacked Cortes and his forces.
The Pope’s Rebellion was when priests were killed and Catholic churches were burned down by Pueblo and his forces

Summary
The Americas at this point in history was very valuable to many outside nations, inhabiting this land gave them more land, resources and power; both economically and reputation wise. With this in mind it is very easy to see how The Americas were under so much leaders. The first people to have been known to travel there were the small groups of Asian hunters, to the Europeans then to the Spanish conquerors. The land has went through a tremendous amount of changes both physically and culturally. With the new herd of people coming from numerous places it became a very exposed and over-powered land, it then became one of the key places for trade and obtaining resources.Southern American became a interest to Spanish conquerors causing many attacks and the overthrowing of some civilizations. Overall it was clear to see the huge change The Americas faced when the age of exploration was occuring.

Chapter 2

Key points
Notes
England separated from the Roman Catholic Churches causing religious controversy

When England had their win against the Spanish Armada it was a very good moment for England, since it showed them getting better at taking power

England and Spain signed a peace treaty helping launch their plans on starting their own empire in the New World

The charter was made to ensure that the settlers in the New World had the same rights as the Englishmen

Because of a Indian attack the settlers had to move, therefor driving them to land that was swarming with mosquitoes causing diseases. A large number of them died off leaving John Smith to take over

The remaining people went back and took military action against the Natives which lead to many more strings of attacks

The growing demand for tobacco also increased the need for slaves in the colonies

This Act backlashes on Jews and Atheists since their beliefs would lead to the death penalty
The state of Carolina was flourishing due to the close relations they had with the West Indians who were also doing good

This however lead to the increased demand of slaves and had a very intense trade with slaves who were forced to do lifelong labor in the plantations

Wanted to keep slavery out of Georgia

Elizabeth I was promoting Protestantism and were planning on taking over the Spanish ships and land even though they were alliances
With the Spanish empires growing and the English’s downfall with settling, it created a mess of event in the Americans
Laws were made stating that only the oldest sons were allowed to inherit land; younger sons(if there were any) had to find their own land making it harder for them to have homes and live on their own
The joint stock company was for people to buy shares for companies and depending on whether the company did well financially or not , it will determine if you make or lose money
This helped stimulate the economy which was especially good for a fairly new settlement
The colonization of the New World had a vast effect on the Natives with the diseases infecting their people, trading leading to them having more resources and their land constantly being a target
The Act of Toleration was aimed towards Christians and having to respect their beliefs even though it may differ from the Catholics or Protestants
Sugar was the main backbone for the West Indians economy
The Barbados slave code gave no rights to any slaves and prompted punishments to be given to the slaves by their master for any errors in their work
North Carolina and the Indians had a bad relationship, many wars were fought between the two leading to a large number of Indians being sold into slavery

Summary
During this time in history the English forces were going through harsh trial and error to create a civilization that would be able to last. The surrounding lands of the Natives and the environment pushed them into a point of failure for a while until they fought back. Slowly, new laws were formed attempting to aim for a better economy and one that would strive not only for now but also for many years after.The growth of agriculture in the states called for the need of slaves, along with England’s new standards it helped to grow their economy and made their settlement more stable.

Chapter 3

Key Points
Notes
The Puritans were impatient about how slowly the Protestant Reformation was going

The Great Migration helped 70,000 refugees leave England

John Winthrop helped the Massachusetts government when he went under as leader and benefitted the trading systems dramatically

Rhode Island became known as a very independent state

The Fundamental orders was to grant Connecticut with being able to trade with many different countries by open ocean trade

A confederation was made to have a force against their enemies (Indians, French and the Dutch)

Charles II was planning on taking more firm action with the colonies compared to the king before him

The Dutch became active with the West Indies trade and had a fur trade that was doing very well

New York was named after the Duke of York

William Penn was interested by the Quaker religion and wanted to have a place in the New World for his kind of people.

He then settled in the land of Pennsylvania and was very welcoming to new people and offered fair policies

The Pilgrims first winter went very bad with less than half surfing, although the future didn’t seem good none of the remaining people left Plymouth to return to England. The next season went greatly better than the last and were going off into a good direct for the future.
Religious power was a big problem in massachusetts with people claiming to get callings from god in order to complete some sort of task on Earth, causing congregation to have rights to take power away from some of these preachers
Massachusetts and Connecticut formed close bonds which benefited both economies
Many wars were fought between English settlers and the Pequot tribe.Many Puritan towns were attacked and Indians were sold into slavery
The Navigation Law required all trades to be carried in English ships when the trade was between the 13 colonies and England
The Glorious Revolution was when William III overthrew James II
`After Henry Hudson ignored orders and went on what is now the Hudson River, he found great land surrounding the river that would be perfect for them to settle in
Quakers had mostly been talked about in the mid 1600s, most would not take orders from the government or any other religious groups causing many problems to arise
Although it at first was a ideal space of living other religious groups like Catholics and Jews were not granted the same rights as Quakers

Summary
During this time it shows how certain settlements strived under the rules of some of the various leaders in the New World. Granted, some did not strive as much as the opposing mostly due to their surrounding environments or relations with others. As time went on the settlements started to form a government by making laws and rights for their citizens.Although, some of these laws were unfair to the minorities in that specific region.The colonies were slowly starting to get increasingly better at their civilizations

Chapter 4

Key Points
Notes
The population in the colonies started to grow rapidly

The demand for tobacco was very high

Since more plantations were being made to keep up with the high want of tobacco, slaves were being imported in order to get the manual work done

Many rebellions were made by men unable to get land causing a increase in tensions with the Natives over territory

As more slaves were being brought to America, they never gained their freedom with most of them working for as long as the slave owners wanted

The rich plantation owners were at the top of society while others weren’t treated as fairly because of their lower income

Elementary level education was being offered now that more children were in the colonies

During this time was when the typical household standards were formed, mainly women would stay at home cooking, cleaning and taking care of the kids while men did the more manual tasks

The Chesapeake settlers had it worse, their land was very swampy making it move susceptible to diseases, cutting off their life span by about 10 years
So much tobacco was being planted in the soil that the settlers had to move locations because the soil was no longer good enough for any type of farming
The settlers then were forced to move and find a different area to live in therefor causing more attacks and fights between the settlers and Natives
Slave cargos were extremely unsanitary and crowded causing the spread of diseases to happen fast leading to more deaths even before they got to America
The harsh weathers of the South made it especially difficult for the slaves to do work outside for many hours at a time
More England families were coming to the Americans, it was estimated that a women would have one baby at least every 2 years until they are unable to. This increased the population tremendously
Salem Witch Trials began when unusual things started to occur and the settlers(mainly females) accused other females of being witches leading to the death of many innocent people

Summary
This Chapter focuses more on how the living standard was and how it came to be. With the overwhelming need of slaves because of the high demands of tobacco it lead to hundreds of thousands of slaves being imported from Africa to America.Majority of slaves and indentured slaves did not regain their freedom even after the 7 years. Women were mostly staying indoors doing house maintenance while men did labor.

Chapter 5
Key Points
Notes
America was comprised with many different nationalities like German, Scot-Irish, english, African Americans etc leading to the mistreatment of certain races by the English

Fishing was becoming more popular especially since a large part of the settled land bordered with the ocean

The triangle trade was becoming increasingly more active since the need and benefits of trade were very good

Roads started to be main to make traveling to big cities easier for settlers and taverns were built near these roads for stops

Most of the culture of the American- english people were adopted from the british considering most came from there

The print press allowed newspapers and books to be produced faster, sending out new idea more reliably and easier

Since the normal size of farms being to decrease many parents had to make either children work in order to keep making money to support their family
The majority of physicians were not well trained giving no benefits to the large epidemics that were occuring
Lumbering was also one of the main items up for trade
Roman Catholics and Anglicans were both discriminated against even in the New World making their life difficult
During the Great Awakening preachers spoke about how all people were sinners and for that reason they would need to get forgiveness
The education system was only for men, many rich people would pay for tutors as extra help.This was also the time were colleges were important and more looked at
Political science was being more of a topic of interest at the time
Sports started to become more popular in the northern states like fox hunting,horse racing etc

Summary
Now, America was over its beginning stages.The main focus at this time was to increase living conditions of the people and to improve / make a stable economy.This was done through the trading which Africa and Britain. More schools and colleges were put into use but were only allowing male students. Ideas and news began to spread faster now
that roads were being built and newspapers and books were being produced faster

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