ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Solid waste management is become one of major issue in India. In spite of running so many programs and preventive measures taken by Indian Government and private social welfare organization , our government had already commenced activity like Swachh Bharat mission (website Swachhbharat.mygov.in), 3R Regional Forum ,Waste Management Startups (MSW rule 2000, A2Z Group, Greenobin etc). Apart from this numbers of websites available today for collection of solid waste items but still problems remains almost the same. The aim of our research paper is to provide direct interaction between user and specific company to recycle the waste items through an application which encourage collection of used/waste commodities and selling of recycled products , auction facility is also provided. By using e-wallet facility user can sell the waste items and buy recycled products. Cash on delivery of products is also available. Companies can also register into our application and upload the recycled products for online selling.

KEYWORDS: Used material Collection, Recycled Products, item Auction, human welfare, Charity.

Introduction: India is rapidly switching from agricultural-based nation to industrialization and services-oriented country. About 31.2% population is now living in city areas with urban life style . The rapid urbanization and change life style has extends the waste load and thereby pollution loads on the environment to unmanageable and alarming proportions. The existing waste dumping sites are out of control of its capacity and under unsanitary conditions leading to pollution of land ,water as well as air also, this leads to spread off many communicable diseases, bad smell and odors, release of toxic metabolites, unaesthetic ambiance and eye sore etc. And on other hand providing new dumping yards next to impossible. Constraints like availability land, increased population, environmental fragility and expectation for management of solid wastes relies on an overly centralized approach. This Municipal solid waste management (MSWM), a critical element in India towards continues metropolitan development, comprises segregation, storage, collection, relocation, carry-age, processing, and disposal of solid waste to minimize its adverse impact on environment. Hierarchy Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) can be presented as below .

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In current scenario, there is a large amount of waste that is harmful to environment. There is less way to remove wastage completely but we can reduce it by recycling it. Now a days, people transport waste items to nearest shop and get amount in exchange (but differ from actual cost). Shopkeeper purchase in low rate and sent reusable items to recycling factory and its gives recycled products. These recycled products are either donated for charity (Social welfare organization) or sold out in market in reliable price. But that is done manually and which include lots of time constraints. Transportation cost is quite high then normally paid by user only. Some websites are already available only for collecting waste items and earning their self-profit out of it like bhangarwala.com, pastiwala.com etc.

The waste management hierarchies–reduce, reuse, and recycle–actually expresses the order of importance of `these ideas:
* Reduce needless consumption and the generation of waste.
*Reuse any item that can be reused or give it to a person or charity that can reuse it.
*Recycle whatever discards remain if you can and only dispose what you must.
I. RELATED WORK
By over serving many websites, applications, magazines we concluded that www.bhangarwala.com, www.pastiwala.com, www.kabadiwala.com have mechanism to collect the wastage through WhatsApp call, filling registration form, E-mail or text message etc. www.pastiwala.com utilizes technology, in form of electronic weighting scale, GPS and driver tracking devices, customer relationship management system, Google Maps and handheld devices for waste paper collection 1.
www.bhangarwala.com collect scrap which is then stored. Recycled items are sent to recycling plants and reusable items are donated for charity. But in all these mechanism, maximum scrap is wasted 2. Fig 3:- shows normal website scenario for collection of waste process.

II. PROPOSED ALGORITHM
Objective of this project is to build system “DIGITAL RECYCLE SYSTEM” which will useful for users to remove waste items like households, plastics, paper, metal, steel, glass from houses and small company or industries. The price comparison between different companies for waste products is beneficial for users. Some products are not actually waste so users can auction or best out of waste activity for that products. Company can upload recycled products for online selling. User can buy recycled products online.

Fig 3: Proposed System Scenario

Interviewers Corner in which the mainly three people:-
• ADMIN
• USER
• COMPANY

In the current scenario, websites available for only collection of wastes from homes, companies and small industries. Recycling company recycled the waste items and donated to the charity. So there is no direct communication between users and companies. We overcome these problems and add new features like collection of waste items, auction, and best out of waste, upload recycled products, buy recycled product, create profiles and notification.
The user performs the main role in the system. Two types of users are available one is user and another is company. Users and company both have different activities. User can request for collect waste item, buy recycled products, put products for auction and best out of waste. Company can bid for auction, upload recycled products, pay only laboring charge for best out of waste and send notifications. Admin decides the criteria for area, product categories and authentication to user and company.

Fig 4: Feature of Digital Recycle System

Future Scope
1. Payment through credit/debit card.
2. Application may use GPS and driver taking mechanism.
3. Discounts for recycled product.
4. Reusable products donated in charity.

Conclusion
In 21st century, there is a large amount of waste that is harmful to environment. There is no such way to remove wastage but we can reduce it by recycling it. By over serving many websites, applications and magazines we concluded that maximum wastage can reduce by making application “Digital Recycle System”. In application there are many features use by two types of user one is Recycling Company and another is User. The features are collection of Waste, Auction, Selling of recycle product by company, best out of waste items by only pay laboring charge.

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT:

BACKGROUND: To conduct a prospective observational study on prescribing pattern of anti-hypertensive drug in the department of GENERAL MEDICINE in Government District hospital, Gulbarga. In this study it was aimed to evaluate the current practice of anti-hypertensive drug by comparing with JNC-8 guidelines in population. OBJECTIVES: The objective of our study is to determine the prescription pattern of antihypertensive drugs and adherence to JNC8 guidelines and to find out the most prescribed anti-hypertensive drugs. Methods: A Prospective Observational Study of 06 months was conducted. Undertaken 174 patients data collection form of all the patients of inpatient department of age 18 ? years of hypertensive with or without co-morbidities. Result: The results of this analysis suggests that out of the total 174 hypertensive patients included in the study, 92 patients were males while 82 patients were females, indicating the higher prevalence of hypertension in male population than in female population, that is 10% higher prevalence in males than in females. Out of the total study subjects, 169 hypertensive patients were found to have other co morbid conditions. Considering out of the total 174 patients, majority of the patients received monotherapy (129) while remaining patients receiving the Combinational therapy are 45. However in the case of overall utilization pattern of antihypertensive agents, CCBs are the most frequently prescribed class of drugs, followed by ARBs , BBs and finally ACEIs .

KEYWORDS: ACEI, ARB, BB, CCB, DM, HTN.
INTRODUCTION:
Hypertension is the major health problem and the expenses of its treatment are high. In the united states, approximately 50 million people have been diagnosed with hypertension, and half of them are treated with anti-hypertensive medication. In the early 1980’s calcium antagonist and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors gained ground as the first line anti-hypertensive drugs. 1
Antihypertensive pharmacotherapy effectively reduces hypertension-related morbidity and mortality. Appropriate pharmacotherapy for uncomplicated hypertension assumes paramount importance to public health because _70% of US hypertensive adults lack co-morbidities that compel the use of certain antihypertensive drug. 2
Most patients with hypertension require two or more antihypertensive medications. Thiazide diuretics, ?-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers and calcium channel blockers have all been shown to reduce complications of hypertension and may be used for initial drug therapy. In 2002, a clinical trial comparing different classes of antihypertensive medications for initial therapy found that chlorthalidone, a thiazide diuretic, was as effective as other agents in reducing coronary heart disease, death and non fatal myocardial infarction. The drug was superior to amlodipine in preventing heart failure and to lisinopril in preventing stroke. Selection of antihypertensive agents should therefore be based primarily on the comparative ability to prevent these complications. 3
More than 50% of treated hypertensive patients have a blood pressure level greater than 140/90 mm Hg (uncontrolled hypertension). Several factors including, among others, poor adherence to therapeutic regimen, ignorance, and poverty have been adduced for the high prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension. Recent reports have however focused on the role of health care provider to poor adherence to antihypertensive drugs. Consequently, compliance with standard guidelines aiding physicians in effective prescription of antihypertensive drugs have been emphasized. This study is aimed at determining the physician’s prescription pattern of antihypertensive medications in a tertiary health institution in north western Nigeria. Physician’s compliance with the existing guidelines is described. 4
The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) is the largest randomized trial ever conducted to compare antihypertensive medications. Sponsored by the US National, Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute in conjunction with the US Department of Veteran’s Affairs, ALLHAT was designed to compare the efficacy of 4 types of antihypertensive medications – chlorthalidone (a thiazide-type diuretic), amlodipine (a calcium channel blocker CCB), lisinopril (an angiontensin-converting enzyme ACE inhibitor) and doxazosin (an ?-adrenergic blocker) – for reduction of risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) or other cardiovascular events .5
The seventh report of the joint national committee on the detection evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure (JNC 7) is the most prominent evidence based clinical guideline for the management of the hypertension. 6
JNC 8 Guidelines 7:
Hypertension is one of the most important preventable contributors to disease and death in the United States, leading to myocardial infarction, stroke, and renal failure when it is not detected early and treated appropriately. The Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) recently released evidence-based recommendations on treatment thresholds, goals, and medications in the management of hypertension in adults. In the general population of adults 60 years and older, pharmacologic treatment should be initiated when the systolic pressure is 150 mm Hg or higher, or when the diastolic pressure is 90 mm Hg or higher. Patients should be treated to a target systolic pressure of less than 150 mm Hg and a target diastolic pressure of less than 90 mm Hg. Treatment does not need to be adjusted if it results in a systolic pressure lower than 140 mm Hg, as long as it is not associated with adverse effects on health or quality of life.In the general population younger than 60 years, pharmacologic treatment should be initiated when the systolic pressure is 140 mm Hg or higher, or when the diastolic pressure is 90 mm Hg or higher. The target systolic pressure in this population is less than 140 mm Hg, and the target diastolic pressure is less than 90 mm Hg.

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AIM & OBJECTIVE:
To determine the prescribing pattern of anti- hypertensive drugs in the department of general medicine & to find out the most prescribed anti-hypertensive drugs.
METHODOLOGY:
A prospective observational study involving 174 patients carried out at Department of GENERAL MEDICINE, Gulbarga dist hospital, for the period of 6 Months (October 2016 to March 2017) Patients The data is collected from all the patients of either sex with primary and secondary hypertension in medicine inpatient department and who are willing to participate in the study, & not from the Patient below the age of 18 years, pregnant women and patients who are not willing to participate in the study. Patient data relevant to the study will be obtained from Case-sheets, medication chart & laboratory reports.

Abstract

Abstract. Numeral recognition is one among the most vital problems in pattern recognition. Its numerous applications like reading postal zip code, passport number, employee code, bank cheque processing and video gaming etc. To the best of our knowledge, little work has been done in Marathi language as compared with those for other Indian and non-Indian languages. This paper has discussed a novel technique for recognition of isolated Marathi numerals. It discusses a Marathi database and isolated numeral recognition system using Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MFCC) and Distance Time Warping (DTW) as attributes. The precision of the pre-recorded samples is more than that of the real-time testing samples. We have also seen that the accuracy of the speaker dependent samples is higher than that of the speaker independent samples. Another method called HMM that statistically models the words is also presented. Experimentally, it is proved that recognition accuracy is higher for HMM compared with DTW, but the training procedure in DTW is very simple and fast, as compared to the Hidden Markov Model (HMM). The time needed for recognition of numerals using HMM is more as compared to DTW, as it has to go through the many states, iterations and many more mathematical modeling, so DTW is preferred for the real-time applications.
Keywords: Hidden Markov Model (HMM), Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MFCC), Distance Time Warping (DTW).

1. Introduction

Speech recognition systems are utilized in different fields in our daily life. Due to the rapid advancement in this field all over the world we can see many systems and devices with voice input 1. Speech Synthesis and Speech Recognition combinely form a speech interface. A speech synthesizer converts text into speech, so it can read out the textual contents from the screen. Speech recognizer had the ability to find the spoken words and transform it into text. We require such software’s to be available for Indian languages.
Speech recognition is the ability to listen spoken words and recognize different sounds present in it, and identify them as words of some known language. Speech recognition in computer domain involves many steps with issues attached with them. The steps needed to make computers perform speech recognition are: Voice recording, word boundary detection, feature extraction, and recognition by using knowledge models.

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2. Problem Definition

The primary goal of the paper is to build a speech recognition device for Marathi language, which is an isolated word speech recognition devices that uses Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MFCC) for Feature Extraction and Distance Time Warping (DTW) for Feature Matching or to compare the test patterns.

3. Marathi Numeral Recognition using MFCC and DTW Features

The popularly used cepstrum based techniques to check the pattern to find their similarity are the MFCC and DTW. The MATLAB is utilized for the implementation of MFCC and DTW attributes.