Abstract

Abstract:
The purpose of this experiment was to gauge the effect that temperature had on enzyme activity and the substrate concentration. The rate of enzyme activity had a direct correlation to amount of concentration of the enzyme or substrate. If the concentration of substrate was halved, the enzyme activity rate was also halved. If the concentration of substrate was doubled, the enzyme activity rate was also doubled. The use of environments with a fixed temperature was used to aid enzyme activation rates. The group tested the absorbance levels of the enzymes for twenty seconds intervals out of a total two minutes. Using a spectrophotometer, results showed that enzyme activity rate had a correlation to increased temperature until the incubation chamber of temperature of 60 °C caused denaturation in the protein and showed a lower activation rate than the coldest temperature measured (5 °C). The independent variables in this experiment were temperature, concentration of substrate, and concentration of enzyme. The only dependent variable was the reaction rate.
Introduction:
Enzymes are macromolecules called proteins. Enzymes act as catalysts within living cells, thus speeding up biochemical reactions by lowering the activation energy required. Each individual enzyme has a structure that correlates to a specific function and an area of activation called the activation site. An activation site is a concave shape until a substrate combines with it. Within this specific experiment there were many enzymes within the horseradish, but the group can conclude that peroxidase was the only enzyme used because only peroxidase enzyme can have a specific reaction with the substrate in the reaction. This is because the definition of substrate is “a substance or layer that underlies something, or on which some process occurs, in particular” the key word being “particular”.
The perfect analogy to explain this process is called the Lock and Key. Imagine you get off from work and attempt put your car keys into your 2003 Cadillac CTS. As your try to insert your key you notice it stops halfway. Although your car is a 2003 Cadillac CTS the car you’re attempting to unlock is not yours. An everyday example is when rennin (enzyme) is added to liquid milk proteins (substrate) that produce coagulated milk solids known as curd (product). The main takeaway from these examples above is that only a compatible enzyme can work with a substrate. In this experiment the enzyme used was and extract of horseradish called peroxidase which is acquired by homogenization in buffer. These broken cells release many enzymes including peroxidase. To test for peroxidase the group had to mix the extract with the compound guaiacol. Guiacol is normally colorless but becomes brown after oxidation. Peroxidase Combined with 25 ml of 0.1M Citrate Phosphate buffer and the substrate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
There are many factors that can increase enzymes but in this lab the primary focus was on temperature. Similarly to people, enzymes work optimally in a desirable temperature. More so heat is used to increase the kinetic energy of the surrounding molecules which result in a greater number of collisions between said molecules and reactions to happen quicker. In colloquial terms a higher temperature can increase reaction rates while a lower temperature will decrease reaction rates. Because enzymes are proteins they are affected by denaturation which causes a protein to breakdown.
Temperature has a measurable effect on enzyme activity rates within the spectrophotometer. As temperature decreases so does activity rates. As temperature increases activity rates increases. This holds true until the high enough temperature creates an unsatisfactory for an enzyme and causes denaturation. Enzymes are similar to humans in this case. Human beings work optimal at 34 degrees Celsius (body temperature), but a lower or high body temperature can affect output negatively.
Description of experiment:
The production of this experiment began with the extraction of peroxidase from a horseradish, 25 mL 0.1M cirate-phosphate buffer, and a blender jar. The group then cut and weighed 1.0 gram of the horseradish and placed it in the blender for twenty seconds. After it was well blended a double layer cheesecloth was used then the contents were into a beaker (except for the chunks of horseradish). For the next steps the group labeled the enzyme concentration and a graduated cylinder with the word “buffer” that held citrate-phosphate ph 5 and then used two pump dispensers of hydrogen peroxide and guaiacol solutions into 9 labeled test tubes. Test tubes labeled #2 and #3 were placed in an incubation chamber of 5 degrees Celsius. Test tubes labeled #4 and #5 were placed in incubation chambers of 25 degrees Celsius. Test tubes labeled #6 and #7 were placed in incubation chambers of 34 degrees Celsius. The final test tubes labeled #8 and #9 were placed in an incubation chamber of 64 degrees Celsius. Once the test tubes reached an incubation time of ten minutes they were put through the spectrophotometer to calculate absorbance rate. Before calculating the absorbance rate the spectrophotometer was set to a wavelength of 500. Ian began to write down absorbance rate for twenty second intervals as soon as the enzyme and substrate were mixed for a total time of two minutes. After writing the absorbance rate for each twenty second interval.

Abstract

Abstract: The aim of this paper is that the exact solutions of Non-Newtonian fluid namely micropolar fluid with MHD in the porous medium by traveling wave solution. The governing equations PEDs for an incompressible micropolar fluid with MHD in a porous medium are reduced to ODEs through wave parameter. Finally, we represent the result in 2D or 3D graphs.

Introduction:
In the present, every researcher is working on the non-Newtonian fluid from both essential and sensible point of view. These fluids are immediate effects on the processing of polymer, animal blood, liquid crystal, geological flows in the earth mantle. Non-Newtonian fluids were defined by ISSA.
The general equations of Non-Newtonian fluid are highly non-linear and higher- order than the Navier-stokes equations. Therefore many analytical and numerical solutions are accessible of Non-Newtonian fluid on the topic.
Micropolar fluid model is kind of Non-Newtonian fluid which is depended upon a microstructure and belongs to the non-symmetrical stress tensor. The micropolar fluid theory was introduced by Eriggen.

Physically, Micropolar fluid may be rigid particles, at random oriented (spherical) elements suspended in a viscous medium where the change of fluid elements is disregarded. Micropolar fluid can perform a better model for animal blood.

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There are many methods for solving NLPDE (non-linear partial differential equations) such as bilinear Transformation, Homotopy perturbation method, (G’/G) expansion method, Exp-function and so but traveling wave method is useable for solving NLPDE because it gives us exact solution of NPLDE.

The study of the non-Linear physical phenomenon is an analysis of NLPDE by traveling wave solution. The importance of this method in NLPDE is applicable in the field of fluid mechanics, chemical Kinematics, Electrically, Plasma state of matter and so.