6

6.2.3 Engine Lubrication
The primary function of the engine oil system is to reduce friction between moving parts which would otherwise generate heat if not sufficiently lubricated. Other functions include:
Cushioning effect to engine parts subject to shock-loading
Aids as an effective cooling agent (along with air cooling)
Removing heat from the cylinders
Providing a seal between the cylinder walls and pistons
Carrying away contaminants
Operation of the propeller Constant Speed Unit (C.S.U)
Viscosity describes the resistance of an oil to flow and is primarily affected by temperature. Low temperatures increase viscosity (stickiness), creating a dragging effect, hindering its ability to circulate and perform as it should. At high temperatures, viscosity decreases and the oil becomes so thin that it begins to break down, resulting in rapid wear of moving parts. Because reciprocating engines have high operating temperatures and pressures, we require high viscosity oil. Other qualities of suitable lubricating oil include:
High flash point (temperature at which flammable vapors are released)
High anti-friction characteristics
Maximum fluidity at low temperatures
Maximum anti cooling ability
Maximum resistance to oxidation
Be non-corrosive
Lubrication Systems
Reciprocating engines use either a wet-sump or a dry-sump oil system. In a wet-sump system, the oil is located in a sump that is an integral part of the engine. Whereas a dry-sump system makes use of a separate, self-contained oil tank and engine driven pumps to achieve circulation.
The main component of a wet-sump system is the gear-type oil pump, which draws oil from the sump and routes it to the engine. Located before the oil pump is the by-pass valve which allows unfiltered oil to enter the system in case of any blockage. Similarly, an oil pressure relief valve ensures pressure is neither too high as to allow leaks, nor too low so to ensure adequate lubrication. After the oil passes through the engine, it drains back into to the sump, completing the cycle. In some engines, additional lubrication is supplied by the rotating crankshaft, which splashes oil onto portions of the engine.
An oil pump also supplies oil pressure in a dry-sump system, but the source of the oil is located in a separate oil tank. After oil is routed through the engine, it is pumped from the various locations in the engine back to the oil tank by scavenge pumps. Since changes in temperature significantly affects the viscosity of our oil and therefore its effectiveness, an oil cooler which is placed in the airflow (similar to a radiator) and allows for oil temperature regulation. Dry-sump systems allow for a greater volume of oil to be supplied to the engine, as well as inverted flight, which makes them more suitable for aerobatic and turbine aircraft.
The oil pressure gauge provides a direct indication of the oil system operation. It measures the pressure in pounds per square inch (psi) of the oil supplied to the engine. There should be an indication of oil pressure during engine start. Oil pressure should be kept within the limits. Refer to the Pilots Operating Handbook (P.O.H) for manufacturer limitations.
the oil temperature gauge measures the temperature of oil. A green area shows the normal operating range, and the red line indicates the maximum allowable temperature. Unlike oil pressure, changes in oil temperature occur gradually. This is particularly noticeable after starting a cold engine, when it may take several minutes or longer for the gauge to show any increase in oil temperature.
It is important to periodically check the oil temperature during flight, especially when operating in high or low ambient air temperature:

High oil temperature indications may signal a plugged oil line, a low oil quantity, a blocked oil cooler, or a defective temperature gauge.
Low oil temperature indications may signal improper oil viscosity during cold weather operations.

The oil filler cap and dipstick (for measuring the oil quantity) are usually accessible through a panel in the engine cowling. If the quantity does not meet the manufacturer’s recommended operating levels, oil should be added. The POH or placards near the access panel provide information about the correct oil type and weight, as well as the minimum and maximum oil quantity. Within the filler neck is an oil filter to prevent foreign particles entering the engine compartments. At the bottom of the sump is a quick drain valve to manually remove water or sludge. Checking oil quantity is part of your pre-flight checks and should be done prior to every flight.

Best services for writing your paper according to Trustpilot

Premium Partner
From $18.00 per page
4,8 / 5
4,80
Writers Experience
4,80
Delivery
4,90
Support
4,70
Price
Recommended Service
From $13.90 per page
4,6 / 5
4,70
Writers Experience
4,70
Delivery
4,60
Support
4,60
Price
From $20.00 per page
4,5 / 5
4,80
Writers Experience
4,50
Delivery
4,40
Support
4,10
Price
* All Partners were chosen among 50+ writing services by our Customer Satisfaction Team

6

6.4 Analyzing data

Majority of people (58%) are not happy to stay where they are staying. We see a huge percentage of people wanting to move out of their present accommodations and this means there is still a huge room for improvement in Bloemfontein neighborhoods. This means that there is a huge problem about style and one of the problems that we come across during the collection of data is the aesthetics of dwelling units.

It has being reported that Bloemfontein encountered some challenges in water treatment plants and residents were warned about drinking tap water. Tap water was contaminated with e-coli and it was dirty, this problem of dirty water has been happening regularly lately. This problem has affected 51% of the Bloemfontein community badly.

Best services for writing your paper according to Trustpilot

Premium Partner
From $18.00 per page
4,8 / 5
4,80
Writers Experience
4,80
Delivery
4,90
Support
4,70
Price
Recommended Service
From $13.90 per page
4,6 / 5
4,70
Writers Experience
4,70
Delivery
4,60
Support
4,60
Price
From $20.00 per page
4,5 / 5
4,80
Writers Experience
4,50
Delivery
4,40
Support
4,10
Price
* All Partners were chosen among 50+ writing services by our Customer Satisfaction Team

Transport facility is not pleasing and since transport is the most crucial element in urban planning this thing hinders development of free economy. Residents don’t have public transport in their residential areas and they are unable to purchase big items because they won’t have transport that can transport those big items to their dwelling units after purchasing. 33% of the residents are located in places where roads are very bad and that affected their lives in a negative way, they don’t have public transport because of bad roads.

71% of Bloemfontein community feels unsafe at their homes and this is triggered by improper houses with weak building material and lack of security. 77% of the community complained about size of their houses, they say their dwelling units don`t give them free of movement whereas 68% of the community say they are staying far away from services such as shopping centers, public gathering places, schools, churches etc and that doesn’t give them rest.

Some complained about cleanness and unpredictable weather conditions. No one can say Bloemfontein is hot or is cold area but since there is high electricity consumption in some communities this implies that it is cold in Bloemfontein.

96% of the community love Bloemfontein and they don’t want to leave Bloemfontein because of its high standard and its centrally located location. Community wants to see Bloemfontein transformed and they only want to see improvements.

?
7. Literature review

7.1 size of the dwelling units
It has being reported that Bloemfontein is a developing city, it is not yet developed and this thing has affected residents dwelling units. One of the problems I came across during the survey is that, Most of the dwellings units are very small inside though outside they appear to be big and they don’t give residents enough space for sleeping, resting, bathing, cooking and interacting. Residential houses don’t allow free of movement, they occupy big space outside but inside they are really small because they have lot of corners this means the theory of CALCULUS was ignored during the design of those dwelling units. Calculus theory which is optimization says the more we square the area is the more we save space and material. The more a house starts to have more corners the more the space and material are wasted and visa-vise. They did not focus more in to maximizing the area of dwelling units with less possible material.

Shades part represents dwelling units rooms and white part in figureA represents wasted unused land. The area of figureA is smaller than area of figureB yet the parameter of both figureA and figureB is the same (31m). Some rooms (bathroom and bedroom) of figure A are smaller than rooms of figure B.

A B
More corners (less space) squared area (more space)

Figure 7.1 A figure 7.1 B

7.2 Dirty yards

One of the things that bother the community is rubbish, municipality or whoever responsible for collection of rubbish takes time to collect it until rubbish bins are overfull. When the rubbish bins are over full, rubbish would start to spread all over the yard because of the wind and it has being scientifically proven that rubbish creates deceases. Rubbish is not good for people health. For a city to be attractive and aesthetically pleasing it has to be clean. This is another symbol of unsustainable development. They sometimes find dwelling units full of insects.

Figure 7.2 A shows rubbish
7.3 Water supply
In student houses water is not always available, most of the times there is a water cut and the situation get worse because they use flushing toilets. Sometimes water comes out dirty from the tap. Tap water sometimes comes out from the tap having bad odor and in those days residents can`t do laundry, they can`t cook. Taps are always leaking and in that process of leaking they produce an irritating sound when water is coming out, this is the waste of money for both municipality and residents because they are both paying water.

Figure 7.3.1 shows tap leaking and dirty tap water

7.4 Transport

Transport is one of the major problems in Bloemfontein city. Most of the residents are far from town and services such as shopping centers, public gathering places, schools, churches etc, so they need reliable public transport that can take them to and from services. Majority of the community don’t have private cars so when they want to go to school, work or town they have to take public transport of which is unavailable within other portions of the city and is unreliable. Public transport has specific route that they take and is scare in the city. Some townships are located in the areas where roads are bad that’s why public transport is scare. Taxi drivers don’t take people or fetch people in places where roads are bad for the fear of shortening the life span of their taxis.

Bad Road conditions in some townships

Figure 7.4 shows bad roads

New Roads must be constructed and maintained frequently in the townships because they also play a big role in the development of the city. Good roads would improve mobility in the townships, residents encounter transport problems when they want to buy furniture and big grocery because of scarcity of transport in their areas but after having new roads they would be able to transport their property without encountering any problems of transport. Good roads would provide good riding quality and this will also attract many taxi drivers.

In this case of transport, use of public transport is encouraged because it has many advantages than disadvantages.
7.5 Advantages of public transport
• It minimizes traffic congestion by reducing number of vehicles in the road
• It minimizes road accidents and road related fatalities
• It is cheaper than private transport and is affordable
• Improves accessibility to towns and connecting areas, now it would be possible for workers to rent in the outskirt of the town where there is a reliable transport.
• Give residents chance to commute cheaply and efficiently between home and work
• assist in reducing the carbon mono-oxide with regard to greenhouse gas emissions
• It reduces pavement damage by reduces number of cars on roads

There must be implementation of many public transport projects as possible in order to fundamentally transform the public transport system. There should be special lanes created only for public transport. This will make people prioritize public transport and by so doing public transport will be mode of travel in the city. Since transport has become a stumbling block for residents in the city of Bloemfontein, since Bloemfontein has many tertiary institutions the student accommodations must have student shuttles that would transport students to school and fetch them after school. This thing of introducing student shuttles for all student accommodations would help a lot since the transport would now be at the doorstep for all students in the city.

There must be a bus like this one that can go around the whole Bloemfontein city transporting people to various destinations. The beauty of these buses is that people can also buy monthly bus tickets and use them for the whole month.

Figure 7.5 shows suggested reliable and cheap transport for students