500 word assignment producing social data
The English Longitudinal study began in the year 2002. It is a rich resource of information on the health, social, well-being and as well as the economic circumstances of the English population on the people who are aged 50 and over. The sample consists of data from up to seven waves of data where participants are interviewed, in other words the sample has been reinvigorated numerous times (Natcen Social Research, 2016: 1). Not all of the participants became involved in the English Longitudinal study of ageing since 2002 when it first stated (Natcen Social Research, 2016: 1). The same group of people that took part in the survey were advised to be interviewed at two yearly interviews which is also known as a wave (Natcen Social Research, 2016: 1). This allowed participants to measure the changes that occurred in the following areas which included health, economic and lastly social circumstances and give them an idea on what it generally means when they grow older. New topics were introduced in each wave as it allowed participants to amend the responses that they gave previously. The information that was collected provides data about the following things which may include household and individual demographics, health, social care (Wave 6), work and pensions, housing, cognitive function and walking speed, and social participation (Natcen Social Research, 2016: 1). The types of ELSA data are archived data which is available from the UK Data Service, Non-archived variables such as potentially disclosive variables, bio-medical samples and finally linking ELSA data to administrative data sets for instance hospital episodes statistics.
Government Defence Anti-Corruption Index
The Government Anti-Corruption Index is an international that tries to promote or support good governance in defence. Furthermore, it is a tool that is described to be practical. This is because it allows certain things including governments, militaries, civil society, researchers and journalists, to acknowledge the quality or gain an understanding of the political oversight and accountability mechanisms, the integrity of personnel, the systems that are associated with finance and lastly how militaries behave on operations in terms of evaluating. Likewise, it measures levels of corruption in 82 countries in the globe (Government Defence Anti-corruption Index n.d: page 1). Additionally, each of the countries get a score on the 77 questions asked. The questions asked enables examining integrity and as well as anti-corruption mechanisms in order to battle the corruption in the sectors. The point of this index is to maximize the transparency which may allow citizens know how the tax money that they have is being spent. It will raise awareness of the problems that different countries are experiencing and providing a measurement that is rather comprehensive into a sector that is elusive. The index grades countries from the low to critical corruption risks bands A to F and that it finds that more than two thirds of the countries lie in the bottom three bands with high to critical risk. Out of the 82 countries that were being assessed only 9 that were assessed were found to have a very low to low risk (Bands A and B). However of the two bands only two lie in the higher band. Moreover, there are risks that are measured by the index which may include political, financial risks, procurement risks, operations risks and personal risks.