5

5. STRUCTURAL DESIGN

5.1INPUT DESIGN

The input to the system was designed So that the required information can be collected
and corrected quickly. The data collected are entered into the system through input screens, when
a data is to be entered the description of the data is displayed at the bottom of the screen.

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Input design is given through selection-based links. The input design is the process of
converting an external user oriented description of the input to a system in to a machine-oriented
format. Data processing involves the usage of accurate data. Errors entered by the data entry
operation can be controlled by the input design. The goal of designing input data is to make data
entry an easy operation. An efficient input designing will avoid the frequent occurrence of
errors.
• To provide a cost effective method of input.
• To achieve the highest possible level of accuracy.
• To ensure that the input is acceptable to and understood by the user.
In this system following input screens are designed to get user’s information.
• Authentication
• Patient Details
• Staff details
• Privacy details
• Staff registration
• Patient Registration

Authentication
Authentication screen provide the security to the system. It get username and password
from the users.
Patient Details
Patient details screen is used to get the patient details and it includes the details of patient
id, name, address, contact, email. Admin can enter the details of the patient and admin only have
permission to add, edit and delete permissions.

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Staff Details
Staff details screen is used to get the staff details and it includes the details of staff id,
name, address, contact, email and department. Admin can enter the details of the staff and admin
only have permission to add, edit and delete permissions.
Privacy Details
Privacy details screen get sensitive information from the admin. In this screen admin can
enter privacy data of the patient. This screen includes the details of the patient id, consultation
date and medical history. These details are encrypted on this screen.
Staff Registration
Staff registration screen allow staff to register on this site. In this screen staff can enter
staff id, it will show staff name and it get the username and password from the staff.
Patient Registration
Patient registration screen allow Patient to register on this site. In this screen patient can
enter patient id, it will show patient name and it get the username and password from the patient.

5.2 OUTPUT DESIGN

The ultimate goal of the development of the system is to produce effective outputs. In
output design, it is determined how the information is to be displayed for immediate need. It is
the most important and direct source of information to the user. Efficient and intelligent output
design improves the system’s relationships with the user and help in decision making.
This system produces following reports.

• Patient Details
• Privacy Details
Patient Details
Patient details screen is used to display the patient details and it includes the details of
patient id, name, address, contact, email. All users can see this report.
Privacy Details
Privacy details screen shows the sensitive information. In this screen admin and user can
view privacy data and their medical history. These details are decrypted and download by the
patient.

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Field Name Data Type Size Description
Dcode Varchar 5 Doctor Code
Dname Varchar 30 Doctor name
Special Varchar 50 Specialization
Cont Varchar 15 Contact
Email Varchar 30 Email

5.3 DATABASE DESIGN

Database design is the process of producing a detailed data model of a database. This data
model contains all the needed logical and physical design choices and physical storage
parameters needed to generate a design in a data definition language, which can then be used to
create a database. A fully attributed data model contains detailed attributes for each entity. The
term database design can be used to describe many different parts of the design of an
overall database system. Principally, and most correctly, it can be thought of as the logical design
of the base data structures used to store the data. In the relational model these are the tables
and views. In an object database the entities and relationships map directly to object classes and
named relationships. However, the term database design could also be used to apply to the
overall process of designing, not just the base data structures, but also the forms and queries used
as part of the overall database application within the database management system (DBMS).

The process of doing database design generally consists of a number of steps which will be
carried out by the database designer. Usually, the designer must:

• Determine the data to be stored in the database.
• Determine the relationships between the different data elements.
• Superimpose a logical structure upon the data on the basis of these
relationships.

Table Name : Doctor
Primary Key : Dcode

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Field Name Data Type Size Description
Patid Varchar 5 Patient Id
Pname Varchar 30 Patient name
Dob DateTime 8 Date of Birth
Gender Varchar 7 Gender
Cont Varchar 15 Contact
Addr Varchar 150 Address
Email Varchar 30 Email Id
Field Name Data Type Size Description
StaffId Varchar 5 Staff Id
Sname Varchar 30 Staff name
Desi Varchar 30 Designation
Cont Varchar 15 Contact
Email Varchar 30 Email Id
Field Name Data Type Size Description
Uname Varchar 30 Username
Pwd Varchar 30 Password
Utype Varchar 30 User Type(Staff or patient)
Uid Varchar 5 User Id

Table Name : Patient
Primary Key : Patid

Table Name : Staff
Primary Key : staffed

Table Name : regtable

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Field Name Data Type Size Description
Patid Varchar 5 Patient Id
Condate DateTime 8 Consulting date
Dcode Varchar 5 Doctor code
Condet Varchar 300 Consultation details

Table Name : metadata
Reference Key : Patid

5.4 Entity Relationship Diagram

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5.5 Data Flow Diagram

Admin

Stores

Doctor

Stores

Register

Product
Mainte
nance

Patient

User
Registration

View

Meta Data

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6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

A triple DES algorithm is followed in the proposed system. Since a three level security
mechanism is used to encrypt the patient diagnostics file. The encrypted file is uploaded
successfully to the cloud. From the cloud, patient receiver can download the data which is the
form of cipher text. Each patient then decrypts the cipher text to the original data.
Any number of patient, doctor and staff can be registered first. Then all the register details
are stored in the cloud. Once the user registered, each time they can access the details based on
id. Only the registered users can access the file, otherwise they are not allowed to access site. K-
anonymity algorithm is used to protect the privacy information.

Fig 6.1 Upload Privacy File

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Fig 6.2 Download Privacy File

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7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK

Privacy is very important to protect the sensitive data from the attacker. To provide
privacy to the data anonymization methods can be used. In this system is done by using K-
anonymity method and Triple DES algorithm using .net. These techniques are applied in the
hospital domain and its works efficiently and secure patient data are shared with in the hospital
environment. In Future the system will add advance security techniques to used patient details.

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5

5.5 POST -SOVIET BACKGROUND
As we mention phenomenon of “Soviet” cultural heritage we should understand that it is less significant than Russian cultural traditions, as it dates only seventy years long while Russian traditions are rooted much deeper in history. The surprising fact is, that Soviet culture itself is certainly being built on communist ideas and also used values of traditional Russian culture, and, like any other organism, changed and altered with the passing years. So even if we mind the fact the cultural traits are at the same time new and old, we have to bear in mind they might have existed even longer than seventy years, and influence all spheres of relations between people, for example this can be noticed as non professional approach in business sphere or quite controversial behavior towards strangers showing lack of trust, or, on the contrary, curiosity and hopes for the better changes in their connection.
5.5.1. SERVICE CONCEPT
In comparison to Norwegians, Russians can hardly be called client-oriented, and in such public places as cafes, restaurants, aircrafts and government offices employees and staff may be not respective or attentive to customers, which, Norwegians may take quite personally. This makes big contrast to how Russians may see this issue, as they do not pay any serious attention to it, taking it as a normal state of affairs. Norwegians, on the contrary, often comment on the level of service, rating it as very low, and staff showing low interest in customers and mostly interested in having good relations between themselves rather than paying necessary attention to the customers and leaving very unpleasant impression.
This can probably be explained by the fact that in Russia before 1917 one point of view was domineering that business oriented people, focused on earning money were considered to be primitive and having low taste interests like earning money, profits and so on, on the contrary to the “progressive” communistic ideology, where no profit was put to the main place, the labor of soul was considered to be prevailing over the values over the physical things and objects. Thus, “people who engaged in business were often suspected of selfish, and, implicitly, unethical motives” (Puffer and McCarthy, 1995). This concept looks absolutely opposite to the one of the traditional of the Protestant church values present in Norway: here due to hard daily labor simple man becomes closer to the Creator.

Within the end of the 20-th century people were starting to realize that the values of the socialistic system were not effective and were not working in leading country and people to the prosperity as they were promised to. So people were gradually loosing their faith and trust until absolutely everything connected with the government and authorities and being mentioned about brought only frustration. As all organizations were state owned, and people obviously had no choice with their workplace, also the amount of money they were paid was often not enough to proved with enough quantity of food, so the duties were regarded as something they were trying to minimize and did not associate themselves with their job they were doing, feeling not enough desire to fulfill their duties carefully and well. Surprisingly, state ideology at that moment also helped to develop a similar way of reckless fulfilling thieir responsibilities: as people were not financially oriented, they were obviously not trying to show better results at work.(Aslund and Layard, 1993). So, this conception of labor got its root in all the layers of the society.

At present, though, many private companies being dependant on the clients demand, still manage to preserve this negative concept of attitude towards clients and customers still remains. Especially within those generations of people who have experienced the soviet regime. One Norwegian respondent, who had experience of twenty years of visiting of post soviet Russia described his experience like this: “You can hardly ever notice any service. I used to come to the store and ask if they still did not want any money that day. “He also described his being nice to them and trying his best not to raise the voice as it gave absolutely no result. He also noticed that his first stay was very often the worst for the first time, but, as he became a regular customer, the attitude changed to better.
This small detail again gives us focus to one small nuance we have discussed before: the importance of interpersonal relations. That Norwegian was able to perceive that fact this scheme worked when he did not demonstrate his disappointment with the absence of service, but instead of displaying it in a negative way he found a positive way, to laugh and get finally a positive reply. That was a changing of marketing model “client-manager”, into a model of friendly relations. Finding a way and establishing a friendly contact with anyone who is performing his/her duties, in this situation, two sides become acting and using, their feelings, certainly, in this case obtaining higher quality of service than just a “stranger from outside”.
5.5.2 Absence of necessary business skills
One more characteristics can be found in the post Soviet territory – lack of economic and business knowledge and skills. Maybe now people in Russia are better prepared for doing business than 5 or 10 years ago. Anyway, this issue should be discussed briefly rather than omitted. As soon as we speak about different forms of leadership and motivation, key functional areas, market planning, production management, international finance and organizational development – such terms even did not have the equivalents in Soviet Russian. Here we should notice the difference between the Soviet planned economy and Soviet Russian managers were not ready to deal with Businessmen from the West, having both no knowledge or experience.
Managers from Norway found Russian style of business very primitive, for instance, if Norwegian side claims the price is 100$, Russian side would say it is 50$ and try to achieve 75$, and then Norwegian side would spend 2 hours trying to get 75$. In this situation it has to be mentioned, that it would be possible to achieve the goal of 90$, if altered some conditions, but still Russian managers opted to use the most simple way.

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What is more, staying profitable at any moment of the time was not the main issue, as companies’ first duty was to deliver the amount the certain amount of products requested by the state. Companies have no freedom in choosing suppliers of raw materials or plan systematically or efficiently. The effect still remains even now: they have difficulty in forming the price. One more trait of the planning system is that more human resources are added if it is not possible for them to be on time. For Norwegian partners this lack of knowledge means enlarging amounts of work in all spheres of partnerships to be done like providing Russian partners with necessary business knowledge, economic information.

5.5.3 Lack of trust towards strangers

The very curious side of Russian character is that Russians on one side certainly lack trust towards partners from the West, at the same time this can live with the belief that they will help Russians in a difficult situation. Norwegian partners often notice that Russians are not that unfriendly but seem to seldom share their plans about future or information and may be think that Norwegian part are doing business with them and trying to find profit everywhere. Norwegian partners understand that Russians feel they lack funding on the post Soviet territory and probably people from other people are trying to come and get much out of the country without leaving much behind. Such propaganda image exists in minds especially of the people who used to live longer under the Soviet government.

Such relation towards capitalists could be formed not only during the short Soviet period, but even before, as Vasiliev (quoted in Aslund and Layard, 1993), being a Russia’s leading economist, found main characteristics: such characteristics as communal spirit, despised commerce, a grunge against wealthy neighbors have even more perpetuated under the Soviet Government.

Still, Russians at the same time expect the Norwegians to solve all the situations where Russians lack funds, knowledge, technology or have taken the wrong step due to the lack of knowledge. One of Norwegians shared the experience that, in some situations, both Russians and Norwegians did not live up to each others mutual hopes. One Norwegian sales manager has shared a situation of selling products to the farmers in the Russian countryside, explaining that they came there to get money to do business, and their counterparts very often had very different perception how that should be paid for. The contracts were not always fulfilled or even signed.

During the last years the Western Europe has advanced in financially, in technology and technically, so Russian partners expect help from Westerners in all situations. These childish hopes make work even more difficult for Norwegian partners, because Russians think money is not a problem, and Norwegians need to explain, that they have to earn money in a really hard market, which, Russians completely fail to understand.

The concept that the Norwegians are rich, is also supported with the concept that they are “bad capitalists from the West” and consequently leads to a conclusion that it is no need to use ordinary ethic in this special situation, and it would be a normal situation to fool a Norwegian partner and there are examples of treating people in this particular way.
There are numerous cases demonstrating such attitude. One on which to be shown here is Archangel case. One Norwegian Partner decided to invest money in a joint venture with Russian partners, establishing a factory producing doors and windows. To his surprise, he soon got pushed out of this business, when his Russian partners claimed that he had fooled them claiming that Norwegians have fooled them with very low quality of the machinery. The Norwegian partners took the case to the court and won it, but the verdict was never fulfilled, as government did not control this absolutely, making the Norwegians realize that such attitude exists in all layers of society.

As, can be seen from this example, the Norwegian side was absolutely unprepared for the possible trap and when being pushed out, lost most in this case, the case of another company looks much different.
That Norwegian trading company was well experienced working in the North of the Russian market.
In 1990s, the company established a joint venture with a Russian partner in Murmansk: they were an agent company and performed agent work for vessels. The Russian partners acted just like the owners of the furniture company: they started doing business just on their own. But the Norwegian manager acted differently in comparison to the leaders of the furniture company.
He decided to behave calmly, accepted it in a kind of way, saying: Ok, you have taken a lot of my property, I lost a lot in it, So you should pay me back by treating my boats well in Murmansk harbor. ”
Then, he built a working network which helped him to realize the way out of a hopelessly difficult situation.

5

5. BESS SELECTION
Selection of battery energy storage for the grid application depends upon the specific application need and the way it competes the strength of different technology options. Hence, no single battery technology solution is the best in any cases.

The key factors which govern the selection of battery technology for a particular application are:
• Performance parameter of the battery
• Duration of the application and capability of the battery to meet the discharge duration.
• Cost economics

Performance parameter

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The key technical parameters which are important in selection analysis are.
• Energy density.
• Depth of discharge (DOD) or State of Charge
• Response time.
• Round Trip Efficiency
• Life cycle
Energy density is the amount of energy that can be stored/delivered from a storage system per unit mass (Wh)/kg. This parameter determines the battery weight and hence the space requirements for achieving a given performance target.
DOD or SOC (%) reflects the battery’s discharged or charged status as a percentage of its maximum capacity.
Response time is the time required for the battery to become operational online i.e., discharge energy. It can vary from milliseconds (ms) to few minutes (min).
Round trip efficiency is defined as the ratio of DC input to AC output. Full system Round trip efficiency includes the losses from the power conversion system, HVAC equipment loads, control system losses, and self-consumption.
Life cycle refers to the no. of charge-discharge cycle of a battery before falling to 80% of its original capacity. It depends upon the DOD and operating temperature.

Relative ranking derived and comparison of performance parameters for the four battery technologies is depicted below in figure-6

Discharge duration
Discharge duration measures how long a storage device maintains its output before reaching its cut off voltage. Discharge duration may range from few minutes (min) to few hours (hrs). Long duration applications demand large storage capacity in order to provide prolonged discharges (which may last for one or more hours). Contrary to long duration application, short duration applications require a fast and short charge and discharge capability (generally ranging between few minutes up to 1 hour).

Design considerations
Based on above discussed criteria, the design considerations for various renewable energy applications are:
Ramp Support: Renewable resource variability is fast and occurs frequently and thus battery storage with ramping capability is one of the key factor. Ramping support falls under frequent long application. So storage systems with response time in a minute, high power output and long life cycle are best suited for this application. The discharge duration for this application is few mins to few hours.

Energy Time Shift: Discharge duration depends mostly on the duration of the region’s off-peak and on-peak periods and the on- peak versus off-peak energy value. This application falls under frequent and long duration discharge duration application. Storage system with long discharge capability, high efficiency as economical operation, long life cycle will be the best suit. The discharge duration for this application is around 3 to 5 hrs.

Renewable Capacity Firming: As its primary use is to provide constant power, the storage used for capacity firming should be more dependable with long discharge capability as this falls under long duration discharge application. Discharge duration varies from 2 to 4 hrs.

Cost considerations
The capital cost of energy storage system comprises of following components
a) Energy Storage Equipment

b) Power Conversion Equipment

c) Power Control System

d) Balance of System
e) Installation

At present Lithium ion technology is positioned with high market share and least cost when compared with other technologies i.e Flow batteries and sodium sulphur.
6. BESS SIZING
Once the required technology is determined, next vital step is the optimal BESS sizing. The optimal solution refers to determination of optimal power and energy rating of the selected battery. Several factor which determine the sizing are forecast accuracy, application purpose, economical aspect, and battery parameters such as DOD, energy density, life cycle and efficiency.

The methodology for BESS sizing is based on the daily generation of wind/solar with further consideration of daily load dispatch. Based on the mathematical model generated, BESS is sized for different mean loading condition. The system is designed for the ‘worst’ generation and loading, which may fall during any day of the year. The BESS nominal power is then be determined considering both the above scenario and the load forcasting.

7. CONCLUSION
It is evident that there is a persistent need to integrate more renewable energy sources into future grid. Renewable energy sources, when coupled with energy storage, can immensely benefit the grid by offering various ancillary services and daily peak load reductions.
Some major challenges in the deployment of battery energy storage systems such as cost competitiveness of battery technology, limited engineering standards and evaluation tools, mitigation of safety risks associated with fire and explosion prevail which needs attention while BESS planning. However with increase in demand and usage, battery price is expected to continue to fall. All these aspects will make battery storage more viable for wide deployment of BESS across globe.