4322006-60539900-3810-64960500 14751051494790CONFIDENTIAL 00CONFIDENTIAL MSc HES-SO en Business Administration Orientation

4322006-60539900-3810-64960500
14751051494790CONFIDENTIAL
00CONFIDENTIAL

MSc HES-SO en Business Administration
Orientation :
Entrepreneurship
Impact measurement of British American Tobacco efforts on communication for better understanding millennials attitudes and perception for decision-making towards a novel product category of products for improving competitive position
Done by:
Stefano Falconí
Chemin de Grande Falquet 5
076 804 60 41
[email protected]
Under the direction of:
Prof. Bart Norre
Fribourg, September 4, 2018

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

TOC o “1-3” h z u Acknowledgments PAGEREF _Toc521859349 h iiiAbbreviations PAGEREF _Toc521859350 h ivConcepts PAGEREF _Toc521859351 h vAbstract PAGEREF _Toc521859352 h viii1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc521859353 h 11.1Aim of Study PAGEREF _Toc521859354 h 21.2Scope and Limitation of Study PAGEREF _Toc521859355 h 21.3Research question and objective PAGEREF _Toc521859356 h 32Literature Review and Research Proposal PAGEREF _Toc521859357 h 42.1State of the art PAGEREF _Toc521859358 h 43Methodology PAGEREF _Toc521859359 h 83.1BIOCODE description PAGEREF _Toc521859360 h 83.2Study Procedure: PAGEREF _Toc521859361 h 93.3Brainstorming PAGEREF _Toc521859362 h 93.4Build up two surveys PAGEREF _Toc521859363 h 93.5Design of the survey PAGEREF _Toc521859364 h 93.6Testing sample PAGEREF _Toc521859365 h 94Analysis & development PAGEREF _Toc521859366 h 104.1Information about the research: PAGEREF _Toc521859367 h 114.2Tested attributes referring to the specific channel to be tested. PAGEREF _Toc521859368 h 114.3Expected findings: PAGEREF _Toc521859369 h 115Results PAGEREF _Toc521859370 h 125.1How to interpret the results PAGEREF _Toc521859371 h 125.2Detailed results from the study PAGEREF _Toc521859372 h 145.3Explicit & Explicit + Implicit Results PAGEREF _Toc521859373 h 155.4First survey concerning Online Advertisement & In-situ Advertisement PAGEREF _Toc521859374 h 155.5Second survey concerning Active Sellers & Word-of-Mouth Advertisement PAGEREF _Toc521859376 h 195.6Statistical evaluation of the effects of gender in the perception of attributes in the four channels PAGEREF _Toc521859377 h 236Synthesis & Description PAGEREF _Toc521859378 h 296.1Overview concerning each attribute perception is analized below: PAGEREF _Toc521859379 h 296.2Online Advertisement PAGEREF _Toc521859380 h 296.3In-situ Advertisement PAGEREF _Toc521859381 h 316.4Word-of-Mouth PAGEREF _Toc521859382 h 326.5Active Seller PAGEREF _Toc521859383 h 346.6Discussion for each channel PAGEREF _Toc521859384 h 367Recommendations & Conclusions PAGEREF _Toc521859385 h 428References PAGEREF _Toc521859386 h 479Bibliography PAGEREF _Toc521859387 h Error! Bookmark not defined.10Appendices PAGEREF _Toc521859388 h 52

AcknowledgmentsTo all professors who have contributed with their teaching vocation during my academic formation, from school, college, university and Master; who taught me the first letters, the most elementary operations, and the logic of reasoning. A special dedication to my project tutor who helped me to structure the ideas to provide body and sense, who introduced me to the innovative software I used for measuring this work´s results. Likewise, a special dedication to the scientific chief of the software tool who supported me within the entire project with his expertise, advice and patience to successfully complete this project. And to my parents, a dedication to my father who has taught me that persistence and perseverance are a combination formula for achievement; and finally, a special dedication to my mother who has supported me during my entire life.

AbbreviationsBAT British American Tobacco
LSS level Scoring System
EXP Declarative Explicit Answers
OTA Online Tobacco Advertisement
WOW Word-of-mouth
AS Active Seller
Concepts
Psychology of judgment: When individuals acquire and process information. These processes can be either unconscious, with low effort and automatic, or calculated, conscious and demanding. There are four stages involved in the process of judging information. During the first stage, that is, the non- goal directed stage, consumers do not intentionally pay attention the information. The processing effects impact mostly on implicit memory. The second stage is characterized for noticing a stimulus and bringing it into conscious awareness where it is identified and categorized. The third stage starts making inferences about the meaning of the stimulus; and finally, the last stage is characterized when the stimulus is related with previously accumulated consumer knowledge that allows for simple or more complex inferences. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“ISBN”:”9780415442732″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Bob M. Fennis”,”given”:”Wolfgang Stroebe”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Psychology”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”0″},”page”:”1-534″,”title”:”The Psychology of Advertising”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=457efd40-319e-49e2-bb24-f08c342f7b8a”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Bob M. Fennis, n.d.)”,”manualFormatting”:”(Bob M. Fennis, 2016.)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Bob M. Fennis, n.d.)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Bob M. Fennis, n.d.)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Bob M. Fennis, 2016.)
Behavioral economics: The concept of behavioral economics defines a method for understanding decision-making and behavior that mixes behavioral discipline with economic ideologies ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004″,”ISBN”:”0691116814″,”ISSN”:”10790268″,”PMID”:”19810626″,”abstract”:”Behavioral economics increases the explanatory power of economics by providing it with more realistic psychological foundations. This book consists of representative recent articles in behavioral economics. Chapter 1 is intended to provide an introduction to the approach and methods of behavioral economics, and to some of its major findings, applications, and promising new directions. It also seeks to fill some unavoidable gaps in the chapters’ coverage of the topics.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Camerer”,”given”:”Colin”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Loewenstein”,”given”:”George”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Rabin”,”given”:”Matthew”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Advances in Behavioral Economics”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2004″},”title”:”Advances in Behavioral Economics”,”type”:”article”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c6dddf17-330c-483c-961c-e31774967a83″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Camerer, Loewenstein, ; Rabin, 2004)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Camerer, Loewenstein, ; Rabin, 2004)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Camerer, Loewenstein, ; Rabin, 2004)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Camerer, Loewenstein, & Rabin, 2004). Conventional economics, in agreement with the traditional philosopher and economist John Stuart Mill ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.2307/2138175″,”ISBN”:”08953309″,”ISSN”:”08953309″,”PMID”:”9506261428″,”abstract”:”Downloadable (with restrictions)! Author(s): , Joseph. Mill also considered the social origins, or ‘ ,’ of preference structures. “,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Persky”,”given”:”Joseph”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”The Journal of Economic Perspectives”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1995″},”title”:”Retrospectives: the ethology of homo economicus”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=65e2b52f-55ba-434b-a205-c90c5aea11b1″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Persky, 1995)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Persky, 1995)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Persky, 1995)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Persky, 1995), emphasizes that humans demonstrate a coherent behavior corresponding to that of the homo economicus profile (the “economic human”). The homo economicus, individuals are considered to be completely conscious of the costs and benefits related with all likely actions. Therefore, individuals will subsequently behave in a way that fully maximizes their long-term gain, meaning that individuals will constantly consider pros and cons of their actions and acting upon the best behavioral alternatives of the situation. Although this viewpoint may sound logical, there are incoherent facts that raise doubts about the validity of the long- term maximization gains insofar choices made by consumers contradict achievement of such gains. In consequence, the behavioral economics has attempted to reconcile this inconsistence.

Consumer Neuroscience: The arena of consumer neuroscience is wide, and it links different fields and topics. Starting with neuroeconomics, fundamental on decision-making ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1126/science.1115327″,”ISBN”:”1095-9203 (Electronic)\n0036-8075 (Linking)”,”ISSN”:”00368075″,”PMID”:”16339445″,”abstract”:”Much is known about how people make decisions under varying levels of probability (risk). Less is known about the neural basis of decision-making when probabilities are uncertain because of missing information (ambiguity). In decision theory, ambiguity about probabilities should not affect choices. Using functional brain imaging, we show that the level of ambiguity in choices correlates positively with activation in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex, and negatively with a striatal system. Moreover, striatal activity correlates positively with expected reward. Neurological subjects with orbitofrontal lesions were insensitive to the level of ambiguity and risk in behavioral choices. These data suggest a general neural circuit responding to degrees of uncertainty, contrary to decision theory.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hsu”,”given”:”Ming”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Bhatt”,”given”:”Meghana”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Adolphs”,”given”:”Ralph”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Tranel”,”given”:”Daniel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Camerer”,”given”:”Colin F.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Science”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2005″},”title”:”Neuroscience: Neural systems responding to degrees of uncertainty in human decision-making”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=aa16816e-93e3-4d4f-bc88-911244f6cc86″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Hsu, Bhatt, Adolphs, Tranel, ; Camerer, 2005)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Hsu, Bhatt, Adolphs, Tranel, ; Camerer, 2005)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Hsu, Bhatt, Adolphs, Tranel, ; Camerer, 2005)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Hsu, Bhatt, Adolphs, Tranel, & Camerer, 2005), intertemporal choice ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1038/nn2007″,”ISBN”:”1097-6256 (Print)\n1097-6256 (Linking)”,”ISSN”:”10976256″,”PMID”:”17982449″,”abstract”:”Neuroimaging studies of decision-making have generally related neural activity to objective measures (such as reward magnitude, probability or delay), despite choice preferences being subjective. However, economic theories posit that decision-makers behave as though different options have different subjective values. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to show that neural activity in several brain regions—particularly the ventral striatum, medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex—tracks the revealed subjective value of delayed monetary rewards. This similarity provides unambiguous evidence that the subjective value of potential rewards is explicitly represented in the human brain.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Kable”,”given”:”Joseph W.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Glimcher”,”given”:”Paul W.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Nature Neuroscience”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2007″},”title”:”The neural correlates of subjective value during intertemporal choice”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=825e3bf1-23b5-4b1b-a838-2843b98bb678″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Kable ; Glimcher, 2007)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Kable ; Glimcher, 2007)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Kable ; Glimcher, 2007)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Kable & Glimcher, 2007), self-control ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1126/science.1168450″,”ISBN”:”1436-4522″,”ISSN”:”00368075″,”PMID”:”19407204″,”abstract”:”Every day, individuals make dozens of choices between an alternative with higher overall value and a more tempting but ultimately inferior option. Optimal decision-making requires self-control. We propose two hypotheses about the neurobiology of self-control: (i) Goal-directed decisions have their basis in a common value signal encoded in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and (ii) exercising self-control involves the modulation of this value signal by dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to monitor brain activity while dieters engaged in real decisions about food consumption. Activity in vmPFC was correlated with goal values regardless of the amount of self-control. It incorporated both taste and health in self-controllers but only taste in non-self-controllers. Activity in DLPFC increased when subjects exercised self-control and correlated with activity in vmPFC.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hare”,”given”:”Todd A.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Camerer”,”given”:”Colin F.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Rangel”,”given”:”Antonio”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Science”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2009″},”title”:”Self-control in decision-Making involves modulation of the vmPFC valuation system”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f5325705-023f-4a4f-918a-163171862787″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Hare, Camerer, ; Rangel, 2009)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Hare, Camerer, ; Rangel, 2009)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Hare, Camerer, ; Rangel, 2009)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Hare, Camerer, & Rangel, 2009), framing ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1126/science.1128356″,”ISBN”:”1095-9203″,”ISSN”:”00368075″,”PMID”:”16888142″,”abstract”:”Human choices are remarkably susceptible to the manner in which options are presented. This so- called “framing effect” represents a striking violation of standard economic accounts of human rationality, although its underlying neurobiology is not understood. We found that the framing effect was specifically associated with amygdala activity, suggesting a key role for an emotional system in mediating decision biases. Moreover, across individuals, orbital and medial prefrontal cortex activity predicted a reduced susceptibility to the framing effect. This finding highlights the importance of incorporating emotional processes within models of human choice and suggests how the brain may modulate the effect of these biasing influences to approximate rationality.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Martino”,”given”:”Benedetto”,”non-dropping-particle”:”De”,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Kumaran”,”given”:”Dharshan”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Seymour”,”given”:”Ben”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Dolan”,”given”:”Raymond J.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Science”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2006″},”title”:”Frames, biases and rational decision-making in the human brain”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=5d618f48-fd04-473f-86ba-9420c2feaa25″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(De Martino, Kumaran, Seymour, ; Dolan, 2006)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(De Martino, Kumaran, Seymour, ; Dolan, 2006)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(De Martino, Kumaran, Seymour, ; Dolan, 2006)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(De Martino, Kumaran, Seymour, & Dolan, 2006), and heuristic choice ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1016/j.neuron.2009.04.007″,”ISBN”:”1097-4199 (Electronic)\r0896-6273 (Linking)”,”ISSN”:”08966273″,”PMID”:”19477159″,”abstract”:”Adaptive decision making in real-world contexts often relies on strategic simplifications of decision problems. Yet, the neural mechanisms that shape these strategies and their implementation remain largely unknown. Using an economic decision-making task, we dissociate brain regions that predict specific choices from those predicting an individual’s preferred strategy. Choices that maximized gains or minimized losses were predicted by functional magnetic resonance imaging activation in ventromedial prefrontal cortex or anterior insula, respectively. However, choices that followed a simplifying strategy (i.e., attending to overall probability of winning) were associated with activation in parietal and lateral prefrontal cortices. Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, through differential functional connectivity with parietal and insular cortex, predicted individual variability in strategic preferences. Finally, we demonstrate that robust decision strategies follow from neural sensitivity to rewards. We conclude that decision making reflects more than compensatory interaction of choice-related regions; in addition, specific brain systems potentiate choices depending on strategies, traits, and context. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Venkatraman”,”given”:”Vinod”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Payne”,”given”:”John W.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Bettman”,”given”:”James R.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Luce”,”given”:”Mary Frances”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Huettel”,”given”:”Scott A.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Neuron”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2009″},”title”:”Separate Neural Mechanisms Underlie Choices and Strategic Preferences in Risky Decision Making”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6f3d95cf-7130-4916-bcd7-3a03a73fecdc”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Venkatraman, Payne, Bettman, Luce, & Huettel, 2009)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Venkatraman, Payne, Bettman, Luce, & Huettel, 2009)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Venkatraman, Payne, Bettman, Luce, & Huettel, 2009)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Venkatraman, Payne, Bettman, Luce, & Huettel, 2009). It similarly comprises social neuroscience, which practice neuroscientific approaches to clarify the neural origin of social communication, understandings about trust, equality, and reciprocity ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1126/science.1153651″,”ISBN”:”0036-8075″,”ISSN”:”00368075″,”PMID”:”18467558″,”abstract”:”Distributive justice concerns how individuals and societies distribute benefits and burdens in a just or moral manner. We combined distribution choices with functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the central problem of distributive justice: the trade-off between equity and efficiency. We found that the putamen responds to efficiency, whereas the insula encodes inequity, and the caudate/septal subgenual region encodes a unified measure of efficiency and inequity (utility). Notably, individual differences in inequity aversion correlate with activity in inequity and utility regions. Against utilitarianism, our results support the deontological intuition that a sense of fairness is fundamental to distributive justice but, as suggested by moral sentimentalists, is rooted in emotional processing. More generally, emotional responses related to norm violations may underlie individual differences in equity considerations and adherence to ethical rules.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hsu”,”given”:”Ming”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Anen”,”given”:”C??dric”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Quartz”,”given”:”Steven R.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Science”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2008″},”title”:”The right and the good: Distributive justice and neural encoding of equity and efficiency”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e54cc978-1fd4-4db1-a2b5-492bd322d233″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Hsu, Anen, & Quartz, 2008)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Hsu, Anen, & Quartz, 2008)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Hsu, Anen, & Quartz, 2008)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Hsu, Anen, & Quartz, 2008). Taken together, from these developments it is possible to make a general concept.
It integrates the sophisticated understanding of how the brain processes the value of choice possibilities and associates these values conducive to choice selection with the way the environment moderates these basic valuations and decision processes. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744251.001.0001″,”ISBN”:”9780199863433″,”ISSN”:”1350-178X”,”PMID”:”4472994″,”abstract”:”Neuroeconomics aims to discover mechanisms of economic decision, and express them mathematically, to predict observed choice. While the contents of neuroeconomic models and evidence are obviously different than in traditional economics, (some of the) goals are identical: to explain and predict choice, the effects of comparative statics, and perhaps make interesting new welfare judgments that are defensible. To this end, Paul Glimcher’s important book carefully describes how economics, psychological, and neural levels of explanation can be linked (a structure which has been successful in visual neuroscience). As Glimcher shows, the neural evidence is quite strong for a process of learning valuations through prediction error, and a simple model of neural valuation and comparison that corresponds to random utility (though subject to normalization, which produces menu effects). There is also rapidly growing evidence for more complicated constructs in behavioral economics, including prospect theory’s account of risky choice, hyperbolic time discountig, level-k models of games, and social preferences corresponding to internal reward based on what happens to other agents.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Glimcher”,”given”:”Paul W.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Foundations of Neuroeconomic Analysis”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2011″},”title”:”Foundations of Neuroeconomic Analysis”,”type”:”book”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b4a9951d-8f2f-4b67-b1d7-799a4be11a6c”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Glimcher, 2011)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Glimcher, 2011)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Glimcher, 2011)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Glimcher, 2011).

Explicit Attitudes: Are attitudes a person is aware of and that are revealed by self-reported assessments. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1016/1053-8100(92)90066-J”,”ISBN”:”Print 1053-8100″,”ISSN”:”10902376″,”PMID”:”537″,”abstract”:”The dual concepts of mindfulness and mindlessness are described. Mindfulness is a state of conscious awareness in which the individual is implicitly aware of the context and content of information. It is a state of openness to novelty in which the individual actively constructs categories and distinctions. In contrast, mindlessness is a state of mind characterized by an over reliance on categories and distinctions drawn in the past and in which the individual is context-dependent and, as such, is oblivious to novel (or simply alternative) aspects of the situation. Mindlessness is compared to more familiar concepts such as habit, functional fixedness, overlearning, and automatic (vs controlled) processing. Like mindlessness, these concepts concern rigid invariant behavior that occurs with little or no conscious awareness. The primary difference is that mindlessness may result from a single exposure to information. When information is given in absolute (vs conditional) language, is given by an authority, or initially appears irrelevant, there is little manifest reason to critically examine the information and thereby recognize the ways it may be context-dependent. Instead, the individual mindlessly forms a cognitive commitment to the information and freezes its potential meaning. Alternative meanings or uses of the information become unavailable for active cognitive use. Automatic vs controlled processing, while seemingly most similar to mindlessness/mindfulness, are orthogonal to them. One can process information in a controlled but mindless manner, or automatic but mindful. Related concepts like scripts, set, expectancy, labels, and roles direct behavior, but these too may be enacted mindlessly or mindfully. The major consequences of mindlessness/mindfulness are discussed with respect to their relevance for overt behavior (competence), memory, and health. Finally, the relationship between traditional notions of consciousness and mindfulness is briefly examined. © 1992.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Langer”,”given”:”Ellen J.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Consciousness and Cognition”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1992″},”title”:”Matters of mind: Mindfulness/mindlessness in perspective”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c13a4ad7-aae4-4baa-ba77-b3fdce9294f6″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Langer, 1992)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Langer, 1992)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Langer, 1992)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Langer, 1992)
Implicit Attitudes: Hidden, automatic, emotional reactions ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1037/0278-7393.13.3.501″,”ISBN”:”1939-1285(Electronic);0278-7393(Print)”,”ISSN”:”02787393″,”PMID”:”16499446″,”abstract”:”Memory for a recent event can be expressed explicitly, as conscious recollection, or implicitly, as a facilitation of test performance without conscious recollection. A growing number of recent studies have been concerned with implicit memory and its relation to explicit memory. This article presents an historical survey of observations concerning implicit memory, reviews the findings of contemporary experimental research, and delineates the strengths and weaknesses of alternative theoretical accounts of implicit memory. It is argued that dissociations between implicit and explicit memory have been documented across numerous tasks and subject populations, represent an important challenge for research and theory, and should be viewed in the context of other dissociations between implicit and explicit expressions of knowledge that have been documented in recent cognitive and neuropsychological research. © 1987 American Psychological Association.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Schacter”,”given”:”Daniel L.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1987″},”title”:”Implicit Memory: History and Current Status”,”type”:”article”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9228b1ac-a89d-4ce5-a9fe-7aa3e7323390″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Schacter, 1987)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Schacter, 1987)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Schacter, 1987)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Schacter, 1987). Implicit attitudes are one of which individuals lack awareness and that influences reactions or actions over which the person has not control . ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1146/annurev.ps.39.020188.002355″,”ISBN”:”0066-4308″,”ISSN”:”0066-4308″,”PMID”:”2540″,”abstract”:”We review here a body of work that is at once a natural outgrowth of a hundred years’ empirical research on human memory and a revolution in the way we measure and interpret the influence of past events on current experi? ences and behavior. The crucial research tool consists of examining in? terrelationships among different memory measures, a technique we refer to as task-comparison methodology”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Richardson-Klavehn”,”given”:”A”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Bjork”,”given”:”R A”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Annual Review of Psychology”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1988″},”title”:”Measures of Memory”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6b65fb1b-7cfc-4c0c-90ee-bd7c9d30e311″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Richardson-Klavehn ; Bjork, 1988)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Richardson-Klavehn ; Bjork, 1988)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Richardson-Klavehn ; Bjork, 1988)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Richardson-Klavehn & Bjork, 1988).
Millennials: Generation Y is the designation agreed to the most contemporary demographic group to have entered advanced education and the labor force. The beginning and end dates, which define the limits of Generation Y, differ from start period (1977-1982) to ending dates of (1994-2003)ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1108/01435120710723572″,”ISBN”:”0143-5124″,”ISSN”:”01435124″,”abstract”:”The paper aims to discuss the expectations and needs of Generation Y students for higher education specifically targeting issues relating to libraries and library management. The paper provides a brief overview of Generation Y personality traits and characteristics. This is followed by a discussion of organizational culture, explaining how to effectively adapt to meet the expectations of the Generation Y students. Two academic libraries’ programs designed to meet the needs of the new learners are discussed. The paper recognizes the need to address the challenges of the new learners from all levels of library management and provides strategies and programs to enable positive change within the library culture. The paper highlights generational differences of current higher educational students and library staff and provides practical solutions to enable positive change within library organizational culture.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Shih”,”given”:”Win”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Allen”,”given”:”Martha”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Library Management”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2007″},”title”:”Working with Generation-D: Adopting and adapting to cultural learning and change”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=60edde20-7981-4807-ba6c-22730b3d9536″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Shih & Allen, 2007)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Shih & Allen, 2007)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Shih & Allen, 2007)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Shih & Allen, 2007) Howe and Strauss (2000) use the term “Millennials” to describe those individuals whose birth years fall between 1982 and 2000.
Attitudes: Often viewed as an index of the amount to which a person likes or dislikes an object and carries favorable connotations ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“abstract”:”Ajzen, Icek / Fishbein, Martin (1980): Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”AJZEN”,”given”:”I”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”FISHBEIN”,”given”:”M”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Englewood cliffs: Prentice Hall”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1980″},”title”:”Understanding Attitudes and Prediciting Social Behaviour”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=10d066e4-1f92-435c-8a22-d15f7648ef18″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(AJZEN & FISHBEIN, 1980)”,”manualFormatting”:”(Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(AJZEN & FISHBEIN, 1980)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(AJZEN & FISHBEIN, 1980)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980) it plays an important role in determining an individual behavioral choice and purposes ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Dabholkar”,”given”:”Pratibha A.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Consumer Research”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1994″},”page”:”100-118″,”title”:”Comparison Processes Linked references are available on JSTOR for this article : Incorporating Choice into an Attitudinal Framework : Analyzing Models of Mental Comparison Processes”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”21″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0df24b06-e447-49e3-b632-7d00c236d31b”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Dabholkar, 1994)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Dabholkar, 1994)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Dabholkar, 1994)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Dabholkar, 1994) because it reflects an individual evaluation of an object and embodies his or her beliefs in a given point in time. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.2307/2065853″,”ISBN”:”0201020890″,”ISSN”:”00943061″,”PMID”:”16177496″,”abstract”:”The theory of reasoned action (TRA), developed by Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen (1975, 1980), derived from previous research that started out as the theory of attitude, which led to the study of attitude and behavior. The theory was “born largely out of frustration with traditional attitude-behavior research, much of which found weak correlations between attitude measures and performance of volitional behaviors” (Hale, Householder, & Greene, 2003, p. 259). The key application of the theory of reasoned action is prediction of behavioral intention, spanning predictions of attitude and predictions of behavior. The subsequent separation of behavioral intention from behavior allows for explanation of limiting factors on attitudinal influence (Ajzen, 1980). Derived from the social psychology setting, the theory of reasoned action (TRA) was proposed by Ajzen and Fishbein (1975 & 1980). The components of TRA are three general constructs: behavioral intention (BI), attitude (A), and subjective norm (SN). TRA suggests that a person’s behavioral intention depends on the person’s attitude about the behavior and subjective norms (BI = A + SN). If a person intends to do a behavior then it is likely that the person will do it. Behavioral intention measures a person’s relative strength of intention to perform a behavior. Attitude consists of beliefs about the consequences of performing the behavior multiplied by his or her valuation of these consequences. Subjective norm is seen as a combination of perceived expectations from relevant individuals or groups along with intentions to comply with these expectations. In other words, “the person’s perception that most people who are important to him or her think he should or should not perform the behavior in question” (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1975). To put the definition into simple terms: a person’s volitional (voluntary) behavior is predicted by his/her attitude toward that behavior and how he/she thinks other people would view them if they performed the behavior. A person’s attitude, combined with subjective norms, forms his/her behavioral intention. Fishbein and Ajzen say, though, that attitudes and norms are not weighted equally in predicting behavior. “Indeed, depending on the individual and the situation, these factors might be very different effects on behavioral intention; thus a weight is associated with each of these factors in the predictive formula of the theory. For example, you might be the kind of person who ca…”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Fishbein”,”given”:”M.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Ajzen”,”given”:”I.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Addison-Wesley Publishing Company”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1975″},”title”:”Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behaviour: An Introduction to Theory and Research”,”type”:”book”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=5f26644e-4a8f-49cd-8c82-82f4c8227447″,”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1f9bcbf3-052c-42e2-aa80-680152e288e2″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Fishbein ; Ajzen, 1975)
Attitude certainty: Refers to the confidence individuals have in the validity or precision of their own attitude. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1016/S0065-2601(06)38001-X”,”ISBN”:”012015238X”,”ISSN”:”00652601″,”abstract”:”Some attitudes are durable and impactful, whereas others are weak and inconsequential. Over the last few decades, researchers have identified roughly a dozen attributes of attitudes that differentiate the strong from the weak. However, considerable controversy remains regarding the relations among these attributes. Some scholars have suggested that the various strength-related attributes reflect a small number of latent constructs, whereas others have suggested that each is a distinct construct in its own right. We review this ongoing controversy, and we then review a diverse set of recent studies that provide new evidence in support of the latter perspective. We consider the implications of our findings for the conceptualization of attitude strength and for the methods by which it is studied.Attitudes determine for each individual what he or she will see and hear, what he or she will think and what he or she will do …. They draw lines about, and segregate, an otherwise chaotic environment; they are our methods for finding our way about in an ambiguous universe. -Gordon W. Allport, 1935, p. 806. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Visser”,”given”:”Penny S.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Bizer”,”given”:”George Y.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Krosnick”,”given”:”Jon A.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Advances in Experimental Social Psychology”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2006″},”title”:”Exploring the Latent Structure of Strength-related Attitude Attributes”,”type”:”article”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f5354f4f-eedc-4560-9d3f-0698fcc88405″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Visser, Bizer, & Krosnick, 2006)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Visser, Bizer, & Krosnick, 2006)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Visser, Bizer, & Krosnick, 2006)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Visser, Bizer, ; Krosnick, 2006)
Online Advertisement: The Oxford Economics dictionary defines online advertisement as a practice of selling and promoting goods and services through the Internet.ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Black, J., Hashimzade, N., & Myles”,”given”:”G.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”publisher”:”Oxford University Press”,”publisher-place”:”Chicago”,”title”:”E-commerce. A Dictionary of Economics, A Dictionary of Economics”,”type”:”book”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c03fa683-cdf9-4ed9-b4ca-22c25bec51c7″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Black, J., Hashimzade, N., & Myles, 2017)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Black, J., Hashimzade, N., & Myles, 2017)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Black, J., Hashimzade, N., & Myles, 2017)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Black, J., Hashimzade, N., ; Myles, 2017)
In-situ Advertisement: Broadly defined as a place in the wholesale or retail environment where products are sold. In-situ advertising is an advertisement channel that exposes the population to promotion and sponsorship of a specific product. Display at In-situ advertisement is aimed at keeping products advertisement visible to the public and normalizing the product. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1136/tc.2005.013110″,”ISBN”:”0964-4563″,”ISSN”:”09644563″,”PMID”:”16754943″,”abstract”:”BACKGROUND: In February 2003, a comprehensive ban on tobacco promotion came into effect in the United Kingdom, which prohibited tobacco marketing through print and broadcast media, billboards, the internet, direct mail, product placement, promotions, free gifts, coupons and sponsorships.\n\nOBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of the UK’s comprehensive ban on tobacco promotion on adult smokers’ awareness of tobacco marketing in the UK relative to Canada, the United States and Australia.\n\nDESIGN: A total of 6762 adult smokers participated in two waves of a random digit dialled telephone survey across the four countries. Wave 1 was conducted before the UK ban (October-December 2002) and Wave 2 was conducted after the UK ban (May-September 2003).\n\nKEY MEASURES: Awareness of a range of forms of tobacco marketing.\n\nRESULTS: Levels of tobacco promotion awareness declined significantly among smokers in the UK after implementation of the advertising ban. Declines in awareness were greater in those channels regulated by the new law and change in awareness of tobacco promotions was much greater in the UK than the other three countries not affected by the ban. At least in the short term, there was no evidence that the law resulted in greater exposure to tobacco promotions in the few media channels not covered by the law. Notwithstanding the apparent success of the UK advertising ban and the controls in other countries, 9-22% of smokers in the four countries still reported noticing things that promoted smoking “often or very often” at Wave 2.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: The UK policy to ban tobacco advertising and promotion has significantly reduced exposure to pro-tobacco marketing influences. These findings support the effectiveness of comprehensive bans on advertising and promotion, as included in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Harris”,”given”:”F.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”MacKintosh”,”given”:”A. M.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Anderson”,”given”:”S.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hastings”,”given”:”G.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Borland”,”given”:”R.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Fong”,”given”:”G. T.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hammond”,”given”:”D.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Cummings”,”given”:”K. M.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Tobacco Control”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2006″},”title”:”Effects of the 2003 advertising/promotion ban in the United Kingdom on awareness of tobacco marketing: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6c790e4d-700e-46c5-83ac-0b333cf07a49″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Harris et al., 2006)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Harris et al., 2006)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Harris et al., 2006)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Harris et al., 2006)
Word-of-Mouth: There are numerous meanings of WOM. Originally, researchers labeled it as an “oral, person-to-person communication between a receiver and a communicator to whom the receiver perceives as non?commercial, concerning a brand, a product or a service.” ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Johan”,”given”:”Arndt”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1967″},”publisher”:”Advertising Research Foundation.”,”publisher-place”:”New York”,”title”:”Word of mouth advertising: A review of the literature”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=37b114a5-2975-4911-b771-5ff52b155df0″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Johan, 1967)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Johan, 1967)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Johan, 1967)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Johan, 1967)ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.2307/3151636″,”ISBN”:”00222437″,”ISSN”:”00222437″,”PMID”:”5003254″,”abstract”:”The author examines consumer affective responses to product/consumption ex- periences and their relationship to selected aspects of postpurchase processes. In separate field studies of automobile owners and CATV subscribers, subjects reported the nature and frequency of emotional experiences in connection with product own- ership and usage. Analysis confirms hypotheses about the existence of independent dimensions of positive and negative affect. Both dimensions of affective response are found directly related to the favorability of consumer satisfaction judgnments, extent of seller-directed complaint behavior, and extent of word-of-mouth transmission”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Westbrook”,”given”:”Robert A.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Marketing Research”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”3″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1987″},”page”:”258″,”title”:”Product/Consumption-Based Affective Responses and Postpurchase Processes”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”24″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1c077e91-4b09-4300-bf67-35b4e84d3cd2″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Westbrook, 1987)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Westbrook, 1987)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Westbrook, 1987)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Westbrook, 1987) categorized WOM as “all informal communications directed at other consumers about the ownership, usage, or characteristics of particular goods and services or their sellers”. Lastly, ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1177/109467050141006″,”ISBN”:”1094-6705″,”ISSN”:”10946705″,”abstract”:”The current research systematically develops and empirically validates a scale to measure word-of-mouth communication and investigates two forms of customer commitment and service quality as potential antecedents. The findings support the hypotheses that affective commitment is positively related to word-of-mouth communication but that high sacrifice commitment is not related to word-of-mouth communication. Interestingly, the effect of service quality on word-of-mouth communication appears to be industry dependent. A distinction is made between word-of-mouth activity and word-of-mouth praise.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Harrison-Walker”,”given”:”L. Jean”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Service Research”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2001″},”title”:”The Measurement of Word-of-Mouth Communication and an Investigation of Service Quality and Customer Commitment As Potential Antecedents”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0faa775c-ee4b-4188-b6cf-bb2238d1297e”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Harrison-Walker, 2001)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Harrison-Walker, 2001)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Harrison-Walker, 2001)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Harrison-Walker, 2001) defined it as an “informal, person?to?person communication between a perceived noncommercial communicator and a receiver regarding a brand, a product, an organization, or a service.” In the context of the current project, this study will abide by the concept defined by Harrison- Walker in which a friend tells another about a new product.

Active Seller: Individuals who influence users and consumers when buying a product or using a service. Active sellers usually are engaged by a company in order to promote a specific product or service. Although, they interact with customers and provide further information about a product and / or service, many consumers trust their judgment. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.07.029″,”ISBN”:”0148-2963″,”ISSN”:”01482963″,”PMID”:”84159076″,”abstract”:”Despite the extensive use of the term “engagement” in the context of brand communities, the theoretical meaning and foundations underlying this term remain underexplored in the literature to-date. Drawing on a literature review, this study adopts netnographic methodology to explore the nature and scope of consumer engagement in an online brand community environment. The study reveals the complex multidimensional and dynamic nature of consumer engagement, which may emerge at different levels of intensity over time, thus reflecting distinct engagement states. Further, the consumer engagement process comprises a range of sub-processes reflecting consumers’ interactive experience within online brand communities, and value co-creation among community participants. Engaged consumers exhibit enhanced consumer loyalty, satisfaction, empowerment, connection, emotional bonding, trust and commitment. The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for practice and further research. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Brodie”,”given”:”Roderick J.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Ilic”,”given”:”Ana”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Juric”,”given”:”Biljana”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hollebeek”,”given”:”Linda”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Business Research”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2013″},”title”:”Consumer engagement in a virtual brand community: An exploratory analysis”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=eb80dd6c-640b-4592-9f54-433b0449d6e8″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Brodie, Ilic, Juric, & Hollebeek, 2013)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Brodie, Ilic, Juric, & Hollebeek, 2013)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Brodie, Ilic, Juric, & Hollebeek, 2013)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Brodie, Ilic, Juric, ; Hollebeek, 2013)

AbstractThis Master thesis explores the potential application of the psychology of judgment that lies behind decision-making from the perspective of behavioral economics and the field of neuroscience. It explores plenty of studies which have raised the belief that human behavior may not be as rational as previously thought and brings into debate how erroneous and biased everyday life judgements and decisions could be. These findings open up an interesting gap for further investigation regarding how our brain operates and consequently, how decision-making is affected. The congruence of these previously mentioned beliefs will be tested for British American Tobacco. The relevance of this subject relies from the fact that it will bring valuable and new insights to academia as well as to the industry. The main goal of this master thesis is to better understand the true attitudes and perception of millennials towards trade activities in four advertisement channels. The study focused in one new category of products called: «Non-conventional nicotine products». Additionally, upon working with a unique tool, the BIOCODE software, it will be possible to uncover potential findings hidden to the naked eye and to common marketing practices. This tool measures the response time (latency) in order to assess the strength of consumer’s attitudes through their declarations. BIOCODE is a reaction time-based neuro tool developed by NEUROHM experts so as to test the implicit emotional certainty of attitudes. It reflects consumers’ automatic, impulsive and intuitive reactions of consumers towards the tested elements; which are in this case, specific attribute related to four marketing channels. After the collection and analysis of the data provided from 164 millennials with the software, pros and cons of each marketing channel will be gathered. The results will be used to advice BAT for taking actions in their best interests. Due to advancement in neurosciences, nowadays it is feasible to go one step further in the understanding of consumer behavior before decision making takes place. By exploring the effects of marketing channels in consumer’s implicit answers with the support of BIOCODE, it will be easier to understand the true perception they have with respect to a product category. This new approach adds invaluable insights to the neuroscience and marketing strategy department.
Key Words: decision-making, neuroscience, advertising channels, consumer attitudes, Implicit, reaction time.

IntroductionThere are several studies which have questioned human rational behavior and proved how erroneous and biased our everyday life judgements and decisions happen to be (ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.2307/1228171″,”ISBN”:”0017-811X”,”ISSN”:”0017811X”,”PMID”:”10558427″,”abstract”:”Over the last ten to fifteen years, economists and legal scholars have become increasingly interested in and sensitive to behavioralist insights. In a companion article, Jon Hanson and Douglas Kysar argued that those scholars have nevertheless given short shrift to what is, at least for policymaking purposes, perhaps the most important lesson of the behavioralist research: individuals’ perceptions and preferences are highly manipulable. According to Hanson and Kysar, one theoretical implication of that insight for products liability law is that manufacturers and marketers will manipulate the risk perceptions of consumers. Indeed, to survive in a competitive market, manufacturers and marketers must do so. In this Article, Hanson and Kysar present empirical evidence of market manipulation – a previously unrecognized source of market failure. The Article begins by surveying the extensive qualitative and quantitative marketing research and consumer behavioral studies that discern and influence consumer perceptions. It then provides evidence of market manipulation by reviewing common practices in everyday market settings, such as gas stations and supermarkets, and by examining familiar marketing approaches, such as environmentally oriented and fear-based advertising. Although consumers may be well-aware of those practices and approaches, they appear to be generally unaware of the extent to which those tactics are manipulative. The Article then focuses on the industry that has most depended upon market manipulation: the cigarette industry. Through decades of sophisticated marketing and public relations efforts, cigarette manufacturers have heightened consumer demand and lowered consumer risk perceptions. Because consumers are aware that smoking may pose significant health risks, the tobacco industry’s success in manipulating risk perceptions constitutes especially strong evidence of the power of market manipulation. The Article concludes by arguing that the evidence of market manipulation may justify moving to a regime of enterprise liability. Indeed, according to Hanson and Kysar, the evidence of market manipulation confirms the intuitions of the first generation of product liability scholars, who worried about manufacturers’ power to manipulate and called for just such a regime.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hanson”,”given”:”Jon D.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Kysar”,”given”:”Douglas A.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Harvard Law Review”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”7″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1999″},”page”:”1422-1570″,”title”:”Taking behavioralism seriously: some evidence of market manipulation”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”112″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8206fa5e-b1e8-440b-b566-bb0ca85505a6″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Hanson ; Kysar, 1999)”,”manualFormatting”:”Hanson ; Kysar, 1999)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Hanson ; Kysar, 1999)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Hanson ; Kysar, 1999)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}Hanson & Kysar, 1999), from Freud to the top neurosciences, nowadays. These findings open up an interesting gap for further studies regarding how our brain operates and influence decision-making.

It has become a constant struggle for marketing specialists to effectively persuade and communicate ascribed values of a certain brand of their product portfolio. It has become a challenge to identify whether or not their current communication actions are having the desired effect. The problem lies that most marketers underestimate the reasons behind consumers’ adoption of certain type of behavior, why they make certain decisions such as: buying a competitor’s product when in focus groups, interviews or conventional surveys they said they are happy with a current service or product ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“ISBN”:”9788498750447″,”abstract”:”INFORMACIÓN EN WORD EN CARPETA A.DOCTORADO Y EN “ESCRITOS” Y CON EL NOMBRE DEL LIBRO”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Braidot”,”given”:”Nestor”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Effective Management-Gestión 2000″,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2013″},”title”:”Neuromarketing: ¿Por qué tus clientes se acuestan con otro si dicen que les gustas tú?”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8554cf12-f675-46b4-8dba-983a530507a4″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Braidot, 2013)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Braidot, 2013)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Braidot, 2013)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Braidot, 2013). This brings particular interest to the aspects of choice occurring outside of conscious awareness and its influence on costumers purchasing decisions and might, at least in part, explain why products that received positive feedback often fail within a few months from launch in the marketplace ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.2501/S026504870808013X”,”ISBN”:”1578518261″,”ISSN”:”0265-0487″,”PMID”:”11212902″,”abstract”:”{How to unlock the hidden 95% of the customer’s mind that traditional marketing methods have never reached. Selling Points Practical synthesis of the cognitive sciences: Drawing heavily on psychology, neuroscience, sociology, and linguistics, Zaltman combines academic rigor with real-world results to offer highly accessible insights, based on his years of research and consulting work with large clients like Coca-Cola and Procter & Gamble. An all-new tool kit: Zaltman provides research tools—metaphor elicitation, response latency, and implicit association techniques, to name a few—that will be all-new to marketers and demonstrates how innovators can use these tools to get clues from the subconscious when developing new products and finding new solutions, long before competitors do. }”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Zaltman”,”given”:”G.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Cambridge: Harvard Business School Press, Harvard University”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”3″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2003″},”page”:”480″,”title”:”How customers think”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”27″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=cd88c108-a100-44e7-9e4b-effd724b48f4″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Zaltman, 2003)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Zaltman, 2003)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Zaltman, 2003)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Zaltman, 2003). What is more, associations may not always be of a kind that ‘typical consumers’ are willing to admit to ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.197″,”ISBN”:”1939-1315(Electronic);0022-3514(Print)”,”ISSN”:”00223514″,”PMID”:”12916565″,”abstract”:”In reporting Implicit Association Test (IAT) results, researchers have most often used scoring conventions described in the first publication of the IAT (A.G. Greenwald, D.E. McGhee, & J.L.K. Schwartz, 1998). Demonstration IATs available on the Internet have produced large data sets that were used in the current article to evaluate alternative scoring procedures. Candidate new algorithms were examined in terms of their (a) correlations with parallel self-report measures, (b) resistance to an artifact associated with speed of responding, (c) internal consistency, (d) sensitivity to known influences on IAT measures, and (e) resistance to known procedural influences. The best-performing measure incorporates data from the IAT’s practice trials, uses a metric that is calibrated by each respondent’s latency variability, and includes a latency penalty for errors. This new algorithm strongly outperforms the earlier (conventional) procedure.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Greenwald”,”given”:”Anthony G.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Nosek”,”given”:”Brian A.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Banaji”,”given”:”Mahzarin R.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2003″},”page”:”197-216″,”title”:”Understanding and Using the Implicit Association Test: I. An Improved Scoring Algorithm”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”85″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8133ad9f-da3e-4648-a8a7-54e240464686″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Greenwald, Nosek, & Banaji, 2003)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Greenwald, Nosek, & Banaji, 2003)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Greenwald, Nosek, & Banaji, 2003)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Greenwald, Nosek, & Banaji, 2003). For this reason, marketers are considering several techniques to assess inherent attitudes to better understand consumer behavior, therefore, they will be in a better position to design their current communications more effectively. An example of this techniques, from the field of cognitive psychology, is the Implicit Association Test (IAT), which employs techniques to capture participants attitudes and behaviors in an indirect fashion ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1002/mar.20369″,”ISBN”:”07426046″,”ISSN”:”0742-6046″,”PMID”:”53786631″,”abstract”:”The present study evaluated implicit and explicit attitudes toward Barack Obama in a student sample assessed during the 2008 election season. Implicit measurement was based on the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT), in which participants categorized photographs of Obama as target objects associated with positive and negative evaluation categories. The relative darkness of Obama’s image in the photographs was manipulated to accentuate racial cues. The results showed significant differences in implicit and explicit attitudes toward Obama between self-identified conservative and liberal students, as well as significant relationships between implicit and explicit measures and between implicit measures and modern racist attitudes. A stronger negative associational bias was found for conservative students, but not their liberal counterparts, to darker images of Obama in the implicit association test. The results underscore the importance of taking individual differences into account in measuring implicit responses to target stimuli. The results also support the convergent validity of implicit measures of attitudes toward a prominent political figure, as well as the construct validity of the SC-IAT. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR Copyright of Psychology ; Marketing is the property of John Wiley ; Sons, Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Nevid”,”given”:”Jeffrey S”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”McClelland”,”given”:”Nate”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Psychology & Marketing”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”10″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2010″},”page”:”989-1000″,”title”:”Measurement of implicit and explicit attitudes toward Barack Obama”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”27″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4faf09b9-f5cd-4a11-9c5d-c8e05295ceda”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Nevid & McClelland, 2010)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Nevid & McClelland, 2010)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Nevid & McClelland, 2010)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Nevid & McClelland, 2010). This technique has provided potentially useful insights with which to assess individual associations in marketing research, sales and diverse marketing fields.
A renowned authority whose contribution research distinguished him with a Nobel Prize is Professor Kahneman, an Israeli-American psychologist, well known for his work on?the psychology of judgment and decision-making in the field of behavioral economics. Professor Kahneman has proved how mistaken our daily decisions tend to beADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s13398-014-0173-7.2″,”ISBN”:”9788499922072″,”ISSN”:”0717-6163″,”PMID”:”15003161″,”abstract”:”Este libro nos presenta la mente en su explendor, nos cuenta y demuestra las dos formas o sistemas que controlan y detallan nuestra forma de pensar y actuar ante las ctividades diarias, las mejores opciones y las peores para obtener resultados positivos o negativos, este libro representa a la mente como la mayor arma de conocimiento para mejorar la calidad y el día vida a través y de nuestro pensamiento.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Kahneman”,”given”:”Daniel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Los Ángeles”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2011″},”page”:”1903″,”publisher”:”Farrar, Straus and Giroux”,”publisher-place”:”United States”,”title”:”Pensar rápido, pensar despacio”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=da08d33f-2eb8-4124-a08f-c987e89fb1fb”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Kahneman, 2011)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Kahneman, 2011)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Kahneman, 2011)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Kahneman, 2011) . His findings have opened a breach to explore the true attitudes of consumers, how our brains operate and its influence on decision-making.
Aim of StudyThe main motivation of this Master thesis is to find out potential application of the psychology of judgment that lies behind decision-making from the perspective of behavioral economics and the field of neuroscience in order to be used in practice. Plenty of studies have raised the possibility that human behavior may not be as rational as previously thought and they have proved how erroneous and biased our everyday life judgements and decisions could be. These findings open up an interesting breach for further studies regarding how our brain operates and consequently, how decision-making is affected. This study will confront theory against practice and test millennials attitudes and perception towards four advertisement channels. The analysis of the level of certainty from millennials responses provides a clue as far as the decision-making process is concerned.
Scope and Limitation of StudyIn spite of the test popularity, IAT, is not free of criticism regarding its validity and reliability. On the other hand, other researchers claim that among several implicit measures, the IAT shows good reliability, which is a “prerequisite for measuring individual differences and reliability is a precondition for validity. Still, the vulnerability of the IAT as far as the validity and reliability are concerned, is the use of the reaction time because a tenth of a second can have an important effect on the individual’s score”. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1016/j.chb.2011.04.018″,”ISBN”:”0747-5632″,”ISSN”:”07475632″,”abstract”:”The Implicit Association Test (IAT) was developed in response to reports of low validity of explicit (self-report) measures of attitudes, stereotypes, and prejudices. Usually, people are unwilling to report what they think and feel about other races, groups, and nationalities. The IAT has been written about in many books, newspapers, journal articles, websites, and has been featured frequently on radio and television many times; its web site has now reached a peak of 5 million visits. However, despite this popularity its validity and particularly its reliability is under question. This article reports on the validity and reliability of the IAT. Four different experiments were conducted on 150 students at California State University, Long Beach to investigate the temporal reliability of IAT. Also students’ opinion (trust) about the validity and reliability of the test was evaluated. The results showed that while there are numerous reports of moderate validity of the test, its reliability as measured in this study, particularly for the first time users, is relatively low. Familiarity with similar tests, however, improves its reliability. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Rezaei”,”given”:”Ali R.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Computers in Human Behavior”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”5″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2011″},”page”:”1937-1941″,”publisher”:”Elsevier Ltd”,”title”:”Validity and reliability of the IAT: Measuring gender and ethnic stereotypes”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”27″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c52caa67-77ea-45b0-b732-c5cdb90af63f”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Rezaei, 2011)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Rezaei, 2011)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Rezaei, 2011)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Rezaei, 2011)
It is important to consider that the results of this investigation do not come without limitations. Since this investigation was conducted with consumers in Switzerland, a number of confounding features, such as culture and social tendencies and standards, may have been introduced. The respondents were mostly younger consumers of age between 18 and 30 years old. Although this sample may be the appropriate for the category products used in the survey, it may lead to a limited variance in the responses. Therefore, until this study is duplicated in other contexts (e.g. products and age groups) and markets, generality of the outcome should be implemented with caution. Nevertheless, although these limitations are acknowledged, the four advertisement channels antecedents to consumer attitudes, the moderating effect of advertisement association, and the overall model should perform fairly well. Additionally, this study was assisted with a scientific expert guidance from the software company and with the support of BTA to develop a congruent questionnaire.
Research question and objective The main objective of this study will be to find out potential applications of the psychology of judgment that lies behind decision-making from the perspective of behavioral economics and the neuroscience field for the industry. Distinctive weight will be placed in answering how strong attitudes and behavior of millennials are towards BAT present trade activities as a predictor of future outcome. This will be answered by testing millennials perception, towards one novel product category within four different advertisement channels. Afterwards, it will be possible to identify relevant insights from each channel in order to reach conclusions and make recommendations to reinforce the effectiveness of current and future marketing campaigns for BAT. The current study not only contributes to understand the current gap of how decisions are taken but also provides a roadmap in analyzing four different advertisement channels.
ADDIN EN.REFLIST
Literature Review and Research ProposalState of the artMany times, marketing specialists struggle to effectively persuade and communicate ascribed values of a certain brand of their product portfolio. It becomes a challenge to identify if their current communications actions are having the desired effect. The problem lies that most marketers underestimate the reasons behind consumers’ adoption of certain type of behavior. This brings particular interest to the aspects of choice occurring outside of conscious awareness and its influence on costumers purchasing decisions and might, at least in part, explain why products that received positive feedback often fail within a few months of their launch in the marketplace ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.2501/S026504870808013X”,”ISBN”:”1578518261″,”ISSN”:”0265-0487″,”PMID”:”11212902″,”abstract”:”{How to unlock the hidden 95% of the customer’s mind that traditional marketing methods have never reached. Selling Points Practical synthesis of the cognitive sciences: Drawing heavily on psychology, neuroscience, sociology, and linguistics, Zaltman combines academic rigor with real-world results to offer highly accessible insights, based on his years of research and consulting work with large clients like Coca-Cola and Procter & Gamble. An all-new tool kit: Zaltman provides research tools—metaphor elicitation, response latency, and implicit association techniques, to name a few—that will be all-new to marketers and demonstrates how innovators can use these tools to get clues from the subconscious when developing new products and finding new solutions, long before competitors do. }”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Zaltman”,”given”:”G.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Cambridge: Harvard Business School Press, Harvard University”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”3″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2003″},”page”:”480″,”title”:”How customers think”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”27″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=cd88c108-a100-44e7-9e4b-effd724b48f4″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Zaltman, 2003)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Zaltman, 2003)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Zaltman, 2003)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Zaltman, 2003). What is more, associations may not always be of a kind that ‘typical consumers’ are willing to admit to ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.197″,”ISBN”:”1939-1315(Electronic);0022-3514(Print)”,”ISSN”:”00223514″,”PMID”:”12916565″,”abstract”:”In reporting Implicit Association Test (IAT) results, researchers have most often used scoring conventions described in the first publication of the IAT (A.G. Greenwald, D.E. McGhee, & J.L.K. Schwartz, 1998). Demonstration IATs available on the Internet have produced large data sets that were used in the current article to evaluate alternative scoring procedures. Candidate new algorithms were examined in terms of their (a) correlations with parallel self-report measures, (b) resistance to an artifact associated with speed of responding, (c) internal consistency, (d) sensitivity to known influences on IAT measures, and (e) resistance to known procedural influences. The best-performing measure incorporates data from the IAT’s practice trials, uses a metric that is calibrated by each respondent’s latency variability, and includes a latency penalty for errors. This new algorithm strongly outperforms the earlier (conventional) procedure.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Greenwald”,”given”:”Anthony G.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Nosek”,”given”:”Brian A.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Banaji”,”given”:”Mahzarin R.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2003″},”page”:”197-216″,”title”:”Understanding and Using the Implicit Association Test: I. An Improved Scoring Algorithm”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”85″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8133ad9f-da3e-4648-a8a7-54e240464686″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Greenwald et al., 2003)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Greenwald et al., 2003)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Greenwald et al., 2003)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Greenwald et al., 2003) .For this reason, over the past 25 years, considerable methodological advancements in neuroscience and the social cognition field have enable marketers to assess inherent attitudes for a deeper understanding of consumer behavior. For example, the use of functional magnetic resonance (FMRI) has provided new insights on the role of emotion, product choice and brand selection ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1016/j.brainresbull.2005.06.009″,”ISBN”:”0361-9230″,”ISSN”:”03619230″,”PMID”:”16216681″,”abstract”:”Neuroeconomics is a new and highly interdisciplinary field. Drawing from theories and methodologies employed in both economics and neuroscience, it aims at understanding the neural systems supporting and affecting economically relevant behaviour in real-life situations. Although incomplete, the evidence is beginning to clarify with the possibility that neuroeconomic methodology might eventually trace whole processes of economically relevant behaviour. This paper accompanies the author’s ConNEcs 2004 keynote speech on applications of neuroeconomic research. © 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Braeutigam”,”given”:”Sven”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Brain Research Bulletin”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”5″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2005″},”page”:”355-360″,”title”:”Neuroeconomics – From neural systems to economic behaviour”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”67″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=014b0c0d-44ba-44a4-8237-6edaeba54fb6″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Braeutigam, 2005)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Braeutigam, 2005)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Braeutigam, 2005)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Braeutigam, 2005). Development of implicit measure, such as priming or computerized time decision tasks provides a means of methodically and reliably measuring implicit attitudes, self-concept, memories and perception that shape the behavior ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1023/A:1020313710388″,”ISBN”:”1009982220290″,”ISSN”:”09230645″,”PMID”:”1284″,”abstract”:”While consumer choice research has dedicated considerable research attention to aspects of choice that are deliberative and conscious, only limited attention has been paid to aspects of choice that occur outside of conscious awareness. We review relevant research that suggests that consumer choice is a mix of conscious and nonconscious influences, and argue that the degree to which nonconscious influences affect choice is much greater than many choice researchers believe. Across a series of research domains, these influences are found to”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Fitzsimons”,”given”:”Gavan J.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hutchinson”,”given”:”J. Wesley”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Williams”,”given”:”Patti”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Alba”,”given”:”Joseph W.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Chartrand”,”given”:”Tanya L.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Huber”,”given”:”Joel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Kardes”,”given”:”Frank R.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Menon”,”given”:”Geeta”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Raghubir”,”given”:”Priya”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Russo”,”given”:”J. Edward”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Shiv”,”given”:”Baba”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Tavassoli”,”given”:”Nader T.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Marketing Letters”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”3″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2002″},”page”:”269-279″,”title”:”Non-Conscious Influences on Consumer Choice”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”13″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f9e99eae-acce-4654-90fe-5ec2d5757a7e”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Fitzsimons et al., 2002)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Fitzsimons et al., 2002)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Fitzsimons et al., 2002)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Fitzsimons et al., 2002) and consumer attitudes and self-identification with products. As illustrated later in this paper, these advances can be used to provide a more inclusive understanding of consumers and in particular, millennials.

For this reason, if marketers support their actual understating of consumer behavior and gather the new findings from the neuroscience field, they will be in position to design, pivot and improve their current communications more effectively. An example of these techniques, from the field of cognitive psychology, is the IAT, which employ techniques to capture participants attitudes and behaviors in an indirect fashion ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1002/mar.20369″,”ISBN”:”07426046″,”ISSN”:”0742-6046″,”PMID”:”53786631″,”abstract”:”The present study evaluated implicit and explicit attitudes toward Barack Obama in a student sample assessed during the 2008 election season. Implicit measurement was based on the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT), in which participants categorized photographs of Obama as target objects associated with positive and negative evaluation categories. The relative darkness of Obama’s image in the photographs was manipulated to accentuate racial cues. The results showed significant differences in implicit and explicit attitudes toward Obama between self-identified conservative and liberal students, as well as significant relationships between implicit and explicit measures and between implicit measures and modern racist attitudes. A stronger negative associational bias was found for conservative students, but not their liberal counterparts, to darker images of Obama in the implicit association test. The results underscore the importance of taking individual differences into account in measuring implicit responses to target stimuli. The results also support the convergent validity of implicit measures of attitudes toward a prominent political figure, as well as the construct validity of the SC-IAT. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR Copyright of Psychology & Marketing is the property of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Nevid”,”given”:”Jeffrey S”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”McClelland”,”given”:”Nate”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Psychology & Marketing”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”10″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2010″},”page”:”989-1000″,”title”:”Measurement of implicit and explicit attitudes toward Barack Obama”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”27″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4faf09b9-f5cd-4a11-9c5d-c8e05295ceda”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Nevid & McClelland, 2010)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Nevid & McClelland, 2010)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Nevid & McClelland, 2010)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Nevid ; McClelland, 2010). This technique has provided potentially useful insights with which to assess individual associations in marketing research, sales and diverse marketing fields.
Although marketing specialists have had always clear that consumers have two levels of thinking, both the conscious and the unconscious level ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“abstract”:”Esto mas de ser una investigación es un libro del Gurú y experto No 1 del neuromarketing, que expone como los mercaderistas se equivocan al formular estrategias de mercadeo sin tener en cuenta los deseos y pensamientos del consumidor basados en la sustentación neuronal y cerebral y como afecta a las decisiones de compra de muchos consumidores si no se atiende a las estrategias adecuadas.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Jurgen”,”given”:”Klaring”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Mexico”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2012″},”title”:”Estamos Ciegos: El neuromarketing y neuroinnovación en los procesos estratégicos de las empresas.”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=10494ca9-4256-439c-adb3-f46bb97466f8″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Jurgen, 2012)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Jurgen, 2012)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Jurgen, 2012)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Jurgen, 2012), they have attributed that a large part of consumer decisions are derived from their rational behavior. By ignoring the role of the unconscious level on consumer’s attitudes and behavior, this has posed several limitations in the understanding of the decision-making process, which as a result represent a genuine challenge for elaborating congruent advertisement communication. It seems that attitudes and behavior do not always operate at a fully conscious level and even sometimes they are affected by response biases, which makes it difficult to truly understand consumer behavior.ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1177/0149206311398955″,”ISBN”:”01492063″,”ISSN”:”01492063″,”abstract”:”Numerous researchers have proposed that trust is essential for understanding interpersonal and group behavior, managerial effectiveness, economic exchange and social or political stability, yet according to a majority of these scholars, this concept has never been precisely defined. This article reviews definitions from various approaches within organizational theory, examines the consistencies and differences, and proposes that trust is based upon an underlying assumption of an implicit moral duty. This moral duty—an anomaly in much of organizational theory—has made a precise definition problematic. Trust also is examined from philosophical ethics, and a synthesis of the organizational and philosophical definitions that emphasizes an explicit sense of moral duty and is based upon accepted ethical principles of analysis is proposed. This new definition has the potential to combine research from the two fields of study in important areas of inquiry.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Becker”,”given”:”William J.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Cropanzano”,”given”:”Russell”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Sanfey”,”given”:”Alan G.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Management”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”4″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2011″},”page”:”933-961″,”title”:”Organizational neuroscience: Taking organizational theory inside the neural black box”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”37″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=65a9ba12-d272-453c-bf60-7a9ef5e67409″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Becker, Cropanzano, & Sanfey, 2011)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Becker, Cropanzano, & Sanfey, 2011)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Becker, Cropanzano, & Sanfey, 2011)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Becker, Cropanzano, & Sanfey, 2011). Attitudes are considered a major
determinant of behavior and decision-making by practically all psychological models
of behavior (Eagly & Chaiken, 1993).This missing element of the equation, the role of the unconscious level, is a relevant piece of the puzzle for implementing a congruent advertisement campaign. According to Zaltman, more than 95% of cognition is derived from the level of unconsciousness ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.2501/S026504870808013X”,”ISBN”:”1578518261″,”ISSN”:”0265-0487″,”PMID”:”11212902″,”abstract”:”{How to unlock the hidden 95% of the customer’s mind that traditional marketing methods have never reached. Selling Points Practical synthesis of the cognitive sciences: Drawing heavily on psychology, neuroscience, sociology, and linguistics, Zaltman combines academic rigor with real-world results to offer highly accessible insights, based on his years of research and consulting work with large clients like Coca-Cola and Procter ; Gamble. An all-new tool kit: Zaltman provides research tools—metaphor elicitation, response latency, and implicit association techniques, to name a few—that will be all-new to marketers and demonstrates how innovators can use these tools to get clues from the subconscious when developing new products and finding new solutions, long before competitors do. }”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Zaltman”,”given”:”G.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Cambridge: Harvard Business School Press, Harvard University”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”3″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2003″},”page”:”480″,”title”:”How customers think”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”27″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=cd88c108-a100-44e7-9e4b-effd724b48f4″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Zaltman, 2003)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Zaltman, 2003)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Zaltman, 2003)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Zaltman, 2003) .By incorporating this role and by collecting and assessing relevant consumer attitudes through implicit means it may improve the communication’s equation, hence, its effectiveness. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1002/mar.20326″,”ISBN”:”07426046″,”ISSN”:”07426046″,”PMID”:”47519169″,”abstract”:”Two developments in the last two decades frame the importance of Web-based marketing communications for firms. First is the phenomenal growth of the Internet as a viable commerce and communication option and second is the clear shift in attitude research toward recognizing the pervasive role of automatic processes in almost all the social psychological processes. Therefore, this article discusses the potential implications of Web-based marketing communications for consumers’ implicit and explicit attitudes. In doing so, first, this article reviews the emergence of research on implicit attitudes, distinguishes implicit attitudes from explicit attitudes, and discusses research on explicit and implicit attitudes relative to branding. Second, a brief discussion of marketing research on attitude is provided. Third, five empirically testable research propositions are developed and presented. Finally, given the potential implications for research and practice, the article concludes with a call for research. ©2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR Copyright of Psychology & Marketing is the property of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Madhavaram”,”given”:”Sreedhar”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Appan”,”given”:”Radha”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Psychology and Marketing”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2010″},”page”:”186-202″,”title”:”The potential implications of web-based marketing communications for consumers’ implicit and explicit brand attitudes: A call for research”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”27″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=06717ad6-d589-4d65-9a7e-6e8df3e59d71″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Madhavaram & Appan, 2010)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Madhavaram & Appan, 2010)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Madhavaram & Appan, 2010)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Madhavaram & Appan, 2010).

By considering the role that unconsciousness plays in individual’s behavior and decision making it is possible to understand that not all purchasing decisions are completely based on rationale, thoughtful reflection of the product. Academics have been able to acknowledge that not all consumer behavior is based upon focused, rational and conscious decisions. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”James F. Engel, Roger D. Blackwell”,”given”:”Paul W. Miniard”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1990″},”publisher”:”Chicago : Dryden Press”,”publisher-place”:”Chicago”,”title”:”Consumer behavior”,”type”:”book”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ad953003-474a-4423-822b-2fd7952ad381″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(James F. Engel, Roger D. Blackwell, 1990)”,”manualFormatting”:”(James F. Engel,1990)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(James F. Engel, Roger D. Blackwell, 1990)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(James F. Engel, Roger D. Blackwell, 1990)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(James F. Engel,1990). Perhaps, marketers overemphasis in the consciousness has been a result of limitations in the recent past, as far as measuring techniques, test and equipment to measure implicit psychological process is concerned. But this longer no needs to remain the same.
The Nobel Prize, Prof. Kahneman, well known for his work on the psychology of judgment and decision-making in the field of behavioral economics has proved how mistaken our daily decisions tends to be.ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s13398-014-0173-7.2″,”ISBN”:”9788499922072″,”ISSN”:”0717-6163″,”PMID”:”15003161″,”abstract”:”Este libro nos presenta la mente en su explendor, nos cuenta y demuestra las dos formas o sistemas que controlan y detallan nuestra forma de pensar y actuar ante las ctividades diarias, las mejores opciones y las peores para obtener resultados positivos o negativos, este libro representa a la mente como la mayor arma de conocimiento para mejorar la calidad y el día vida a través y de nuestro pensamiento.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Kahneman”,”given”:”Daniel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Los Ángeles”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2011″},”page”:”1903″,”publisher”:”Farrar, Straus and Giroux”,”publisher-place”:”United States”,”title”:”Pensar rápido, pensar despacio”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=da08d33f-2eb8-4124-a08f-c987e89fb1fb”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Kahneman, 2011)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Kahneman, 2011)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Kahneman, 2011)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Kahneman, 2011). His findings have opened a breach to further investigate the true attitudes of consumers. One approach to deeper explore these attitudes is the IAT based on reaction time. This test has proved the correlation between consumer attitudes and behavior towards a brand, product or advertisement, as a good predictor of future decision-making.

ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1086/209214″,”ISBN”:”00935301″,”ISSN”:”0093-5301″,”PMID”:”4662149″,”abstract”:”Attitude on Behavior,”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Fazio”,”given”:”Russell H.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Powell”,”given”:”Martha C.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Williams”,”given”:”Carol J.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Consumer Research”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”3″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1989″},”page”:”280″,”title”:”The Role of Attitude Accessibility in the Attitude-to-Behavior Process”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”16″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=379af154-1d5a-4d2f-82df-03c46edf4599″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Fazio, Powell, & Williams, 1989)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Fazio, Powell, & Williams, 1989)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Fazio, Powell, & Williams, 1989)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Fazio, Powell, ; Williams, 1989)
This interesting test was established by Anthony Greenwald and Mahzarin Banaji in the mid 90’s, when they developed the Implicit Association Test (IAT), based on Reaction Time, to further study racial prejudice and other sensitive issues of the time such as self-esteem, stereotypes, close relationships, and health behavior (depression, anxiety), aggression, etc.
The IAT is based upon reaction time. As a determinant of the Attitude-To-Behavior process, the test attempts to distinguish between conduct derived from spontaneity or if it is deliberative in nature. In relation to consumer attitudes and behavior towards a product or advertisement channel, the Implicit Association Test has shown to be a good predictor of future decision making.
Another researcher, Russel Fazio, has shown that correlations between attitudes and behavior are much higher among people with faster reaction time when expressing their opinions, which means their attitudes are highly accessible. The response latency time or time reaction analysis has been proved to be one of the more powerful and useful tools for understanding automatic processes in judgement and choice. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004″,”ISBN”:”9788578110796″,”ISSN”:”1098-6596″,”PMID”:”25246403″,”abstract”:”Fazio, R. H. (1989). On the power and functionality of attitudes: The role of attitude accessibility. In A. R. Pratkanis, S. J. Breckler, & A. G. Greenwald (Eds.), Attitude structure and function (pp. 153–179). Hill- sdale, NJ: Erlbaum.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Fazio”,”given”:”Russell H.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Attitude structure and function”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1989″},”title”:”On the power and functionality of attitudes: The role of attitude accessibility”,”type”:”chapter”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=512c1daf-6858-495d-874e-9b6bceeecd1d”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Fazio, 1989)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Fazio, 1989)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Fazio, 1989)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Fazio, 1989). Response latency measures are superior to frequently used paper and pencil measures in several ways: They are less volatile, less obstructive, less susceptible to demand effects and predict persistence and resistance better ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1037/0022-3514.71.4.637″,”ISBN”:”1939-1315″,”ISSN”:”0022-3514″,”abstract”:”Meta-attitudes are impressions of properties of one’s attitudes. This article distinguishes between meta-attitudinal indexes of attitude strength and operative indexes that are derived from the judgment process or its outcomes. Measures of both types were tested against criteria of attitude pliability and stability. The results revealed that the meta-attitudinal and operative measures formed distinct clusters and that the operative index accounted for unique variance in the criteria, whereas the meta-attitudinal one did not. The author argues that operative measures of strength provide a relatively nonreactive means of assessing properties of strength that can be unconscious, whereas meta-attitudinal measures are particularly susceptible to extraneous influences that can undermine their validity. The one advantage of meta-attitudinal measures is their semantic specificity.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Bassili”,”given”:”John N.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1996″},”title”:”Meta-Judgmental versus Operative Indexes of Psychological Attributes: The Case of Measures of Attitude Strength.”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=eda27622-92c0-478d-b6e6-7bed306f9f10″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Bassili, 1996)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Bassili, 1996)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Bassili, 1996)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Bassili, 1996)
Furthermore, such attitudes are more difficult to change because consumers are more certain about them. For this reason, the Implicit Association Test (IAT), based upon reaction time, is an attractive tool with the potential of revealing hidden, automatic and emotional reactions increasing our understanding of consumer behavior. The implicit test will reflect more precise attitudes towards communications than what explicit rational opinions such as conventional surveys can assess.

Upon testing consumer attitudes this would provide new insights, as far as British American Tobacco trade marketing communication is concerned, that could reinforce the effectiveness of their current/ future campaigns.
Due to advancement in neurosciences, behavioral sciences, data processing and image processing, the mechanism that determine consumer behavior and decision making are possible. This level of new information and knowledge has broadened its scope to better develop communication skills. By exploring the communication effects on consumer’s, it will be easier to understand the true perception they have with respect to a product category. Communications is a two-way road, that is, the firm, finds out desires and wants of costumers for the design of a product with the minimum of attributes and communicate how these attributes meet the customer requirements.

By identifying key insights from current advertisement, companies will develop a better competitive position and will better leverage their resources towards the ones they find are the more attractive in terms of effectivity. As a result, companies will benefit with a considerable competitive advantage. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Schoemaker, P. J. H., ; Tetlock”,”given”:”P. E.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”MIT Sloan Management Review”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”3″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”28–38″,”title”:”Building a more intelligent enterprise.”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”58″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=09f803b6-cedd-4111-8103-a4fe5ce0f833″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Schoemaker, P. J. H., ; Tetlock, 2017)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Schoemaker, P. J. H., ; Tetlock, 2017)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Schoemaker, P. J. H., ; Tetlock, 2017)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Schoemaker, P. J. H., & Tetlock, 2017)

MethodologyBIOCODE description
BIOCODE is a Reaction Time based neuro tool created by NEUROHM experts designed to test Implicit emotional certainty of attitudes. It reflects consumers’ automatic, impulsive, intuitive, reactions towards tested elements; in this case, specific attributes related to the issue of study.
BIOCODE platform measures response time (latency) that assesses the strength of consumer’s attitudes through their declarations between two concepts with positive and negative evaluations. The response latencies are derived from the contestants use of two response keys, which have been assigned a dual meaning. This platform uses a noise reduction RORT algorithm that minimizes the influence of factors such as: age impact, familiarity with computers, fatigue, length of questions, carelessness, internet connection and others. The purpose for using this software tool is to test which features are already well-established on consumers and which ones need to be built. Likewise, with this test, exploration is intended for finding out any negative attitude and perception towards four advertisement channels for a specific product category called: «Non-conventional nicotine products». The objective behind the use of this test is to understand millennials perception towards these specific channels so that, it will be possible to have a clearer idea of millennials conviction strength, which touchpoints are more relevant for them and which channel has the greatest perception.

Study Procedure: Brainstorming
3.3.1 Ideas regarding the main channels for analysis.

3.3.2 Questions raising potential answers.

3.3.3 List of attributes for which further insights are required.

3.3.4 Sample size and segment for studies.

Build up two surveys3.4.1 First survey will compare digital advertisement VS in-store advertisement.

3.4.2 Second survey will compare Active sellers to word-to-mouth, where word-to-mouth focus on friends telling one another about the product.
Design of the survey
3.5.1 Close guidance from the Scientific Chief officer from the BIOCODE platform.

3.5.2 Support and advice from the Business Developer from BAT.

3.5.3 Creation of four short videos (30 seconds long) describing each category, displaying different ways of its use and showing some short examples. The aim of these videos is to let participants understand how they should view and perceive each communication channel from their own perspective.

3.5.4 Define number of attributes to test and select the most relevant ones for each category.
3.5.5 Upon verification of the length and description of survey, then find and select a representative picture for the test for each category, and ultimately, translation of description into the native language of the sample group; in this particular case, the French language. Testing sample3.6.1 Creation of an attractive headline and delivery via email to students of the Master Faculty to encourage them to fill the survey in the first wave.
3.6.2 Delivery of same headline at a bachelor level in the second wave.
3.6.3 Manually scouting of surveys will be the third in order to complete 100% participation.
Analysis & developmentThis study will place emphasis upon the level of effectiveness of the message the channels have to convey in their corresponding category: «Non-conventional nicotine products» within millennials, which as a result will influence their decision-making process.
Distinctive weights will be placed on answering one main question:
How strong are attitudes and behavior towards trade activities in four advertisement channels in one new category of products called: «Non-conventional nicotine products» as a predictor of future decision making?
In order to answer this question, each channel will be analyzed independently to define the specific perception for each advertisement channel.
These channels will be analyzed by testing 164 sample responses, focusing upon a specific product category «Non-conventional nicotine products», so that it will be possible to reinforce the effectiveness of BAT current and future trade campaigns.
Information about the research:Number of respondents:
n=164, 80 concerning first survey, 83 concerning second survey.
Female: 50%
Male: 50%
Data Processing Algorithm:
Rort Noise Reduction
Time and place
Place of research: Lausanne, Fribourg, Geneva Switzerland.
Date: 5.24.2018- 6.21.2018
Method:
BioCode Implicit Surveys
Tested attributes referring to the specific channel to be tested.First survey concerning digital advertisement & in-situ advertisement:
* Encourages me to buy
* Common
* For me
* Effective
* Informative
* Memorable
Second survey concerning Active sellers & word-to-mouth:
* Attractive
* Encourages me to buy
* Appreciated
* Effective
* Trustworthy source
* Original
Expected findings:
Discover the true motives leading consumers’ decisions within a given product category in the case of: «Non-conventional nicotine products».

Understand the way in which consumers perceive the four different channels category in order to reveal which is the more effective to convey a message.
Identify effective and influential core marketing attributes for the specific product category.

Scan the respondent’s beliefs in search of unexpected insights associated with the channel perception.

ResultsHow to interpret the results
-19050379186Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1 How to predict true emotions
0Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1 How to predict true emotions
34859698372900444553086000
3084195943Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 1: Adapted for Neurohm “Test consumers’ perception. Online research enhanced with Reaction Time.

0Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 1: Adapted for Neurohm “Test consumers’ perception. Online research enhanced with Reaction Time.

Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 2: This figure illustrates the technology and success behind the software tool. In essence, the key issue is the reaction time. The theoretical rationale that justifies the use of the reaction time with the online survey is Kahneman’s research contribution. According to him, two systems describe the mind: System 1 and System 2. The former is intuitive and quick to react, the latter is more circumspect and reflexive, therefore, slower to react. System 1 characterized by feelings that relate to beliefs and makes suggestions to System 2 about impressions, intuitions, and intentions. If System 2 approves such recommendations, they turn into beliefs by System 2 and impulsive behavior is the response of subconscious processing by System 1.

This conscious-subconscious interaction mechanism explains the reaction time of BioCode’s principle. By definition, the green color represents a quick reaction time. This implies a strong conviction whereas a moderately reaction time, in yellow, shows a response time that is not as strong as the quick response, but it is still quicker than the uncertain response, the coded red color. The red color represents the slowest response. This reaction time and corresponding emotional equivalence is described in detail under the heading “Implicit Emotional Certainty” in figure 1.

The display of seven attributes appears on the lower left part of this table. To their right there are two columns, one with tittle: “LSS”, another with tittle: “HI YES”. Right beside the HI YES column, there are several colored horizontal stripes (bands) with one number at their right corner. Although the meaning of all this will be explained in more detail below, a very brief explanation follows.

LSS is an index. Again, under the heading “Implicit Emotional Certainty”, right at the bottom, on the right side of the table is listed a three-range scale: 1 to 3, 4 to 6, and 7 to 9. What it can be concluded is that “the faster the reaction time, the higher the value of the index will be”. For the first attribute, the index value is 5. By definition, this value index shows a moderately certainty of their declared attitude. Take notice this value coincides with a yellow strip.
HI YES gives the percentage of the interviewed respondents for whom the attribute provided a positive answer and certain, as well. For the first attribute, the value of HI YES answer is 30%. This value corresponds to thirty percent of fast response of the total of people who have agreed with a given statement (from attribute number 1). Out of the total of people who took the survey, 63% provided a positive answer. Thirty percent of this 63% provided a certain response and the difference, that is, thirty three percent (33%) provided a moderately certain to uncertain (slow) response. The index value of 5 represents the average speed of the 68% of people.
In order to contrast a response with stronger conviction which implies a faster response, note in same Table 1. Right under first attribute, the value of HI YES answer is 31%. This value corresponds to thirty one percent of fast response of the total of people who have agreed with a given statement (from attribute number 2). Out of the total of people who took the survey, 51% provided a positive answer. Thirty one percent of this 51% provided a certain response and the difference, that is, twenty percent (20%) provided a certain (fast) response. The index value of 7 represents the average speed of the 51% of people.
What is the difference between attribute 1 and attribute 2? The key difference is stated at the end of the sentence before the last line in the two paragraphs above:
“…., that is, thirty three percent (33%) provided a moderately certain to uncertain (slow) response.”
“…., that is, twenty percent (20%) provided a certain (fast) response”.
Detailed results from the study
-639445250825Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 1 Range of age ; gender of participants:
0Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 1 Range of age ; gender of participants:
First survey concerning digital advertisement ; In-situ advertisement:
Age ; Gender # Percentage
18-24 62 74.7%
25-30 17 20..5%
31-45 3 3.6%
Other 1 1.2%
Female 42 50.6%
Male 41 49.4%
-127002352675Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 3: This table represents the number of participants, its percentage and gender who answered the survey concerning digital advertisement ; In-situ advertisement; the first part of the study consisted of 84 participants. Fifty percent of participants were female, the remaining were males. The age categories are as it follows: 74% for 18- 24 years old, 20.5% for 25-30 years, and 3.6% for 31-45 years old.

00Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 3: This table represents the number of participants, its percentage and gender who answered the survey concerning digital advertisement ; In-situ advertisement; the first part of the study consisted of 84 participants. Fifty percent of participants were female, the remaining were males. The age categories are as it follows: 74% for 18- 24 years old, 20.5% for 25-30 years, and 3.6% for 31-45 years old.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 2 Consumers per product:
Cigarettes 77 92.8%
Oral Tobacco 5 6.0%
Tobacco Heated Product 4 4.8%
E-Cigarettes 7 8.4%
Other 9 10.8%
Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 4 This table represents the number and percentage of participants who are users of a certain cigarette product.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 3 Most common known online publicity among participants:
Social Media 55 66.3%
Email marketing 26 31.3%
Search engines (Google, Yahoo, Bing, etc.) 24 28.9%
Video Advertisement 43 51.8%
Banner Advertisement 43 51.8%
Pop-up Advertisement 38 45.8%
None of the above 1 1.2%
Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 5: This table represents the number and percentage of the most representative platforms of Online Advertisement Most participants are consumers of conventional cigarettes (92.8%), followed by E- cigarettes consumers (8.4%), followed by oral tobacco (6%) and Tobacco Heated Products (4.8%). Furthermore, the most common online form of publicity is Social Media with 66.3% of participants, followed by video ; banner advertisement with 51.8%, and pop-up advertisement with a 45.8%. Search engines and enamel marketing, least common, 28.9% and 31.3%, respectively.

Explicit ; Explicit + Implicit ResultsFirst survey concerning Online Advertisement ; In-situ Advertisement
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2: First survey results concerning Digital Advertisement ; In-situ Advertisement
N=83
YES   NO
STIMULUS ATTRIBUTE FR ATTRIBUTE EN   EXP HI YES LSS   EXP HI NO LSS
Online adv M’encourage à acheterEncourages me to buy 33 17 4   67 24 4
CommunCommon 71 38 5   29 17 7
Pour moiFor me 27 14 6   73 32 5
EfficaceEffective 45 26 6   55 33 7
InformatifInformative 50 30 7   50 19 4
Marquantremarkable 35 19 6   65 42 7
In-situ adv M’encourage à acheterEncourages me to buy 33 14 5   67 25 4
CommunCommon 75 48 7   25 12 5
Marquantremarkable 38 14 5   62 33 6
Pour moiFor me 23 13 6   77 51 7
EfficaceEffective 49 26 6   51 26 6
InformatifInformative 54 38 8   46 24 5
Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 6: The color reflects the strength of an attitude. In average, the higher the speed the more certain respondents are about their opinion. The HI YES/HI NO indicate how many respondents were highly certain of their own opinion when they either agreed or disagreed with the tested statement. The Level Scoring System (LSS) indicates an implicit ranking with levels from 1 to 9 that represents the ranking of the certainty. The higher the number the more certain respondents were when providing the answer.

-451485180975Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3: Online Advertisement in detail
0Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3: Online Advertisement in detail
-42989541592500
-4214591773460
-429895120015Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 7 The color – reflects the strength of an attitude. In average, the higher the speed the more certain respondents are about their opinion. The HI YES/HI NO – indicate how many respondents were highly certain of their own opinion when they either agreed or disagreed with the tested statement and the Level Scoring System (LSS) – indicates an implicit ranking with levels from 1 to 9 – represents the ranking of the certainty. The higher the number the more certain respondents were when providing the answer.

Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 7 The color – reflects the strength of an attitude. In average, the higher the speed the more certain respondents are about their opinion. The HI YES/HI NO – indicate how many respondents were highly certain of their own opinion when they either agreed or disagreed with the tested statement and the Level Scoring System (LSS) – indicates an implicit ranking with levels from 1 to 9 – represents the ranking of the certainty. The higher the number the more certain respondents were when providing the answer.

-51625553721000-514350215900Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4: In-situ Advertisement in detail:
0Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4: In-situ Advertisement in detail:

-51943030416500
-516255271780Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 8: The color reflects the strength of an attitude. On average, the higher the speed the more certain respondents are about their opinion. The HI YES/HI NO indicate how many respondents were highly certain of their own opinion when they either agreed or disagreed with the tested statement. The Level Scoring System (LSS) indicates an implicit ranking with levels from 1 to 9 that represents the ranking of the certainty level. The higher the number the more certain respondents were when providing the answer.

Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 8: The color reflects the strength of an attitude. On average, the higher the speed the more certain respondents are about their opinion. The HI YES/HI NO indicate how many respondents were highly certain of their own opinion when they either agreed or disagreed with the tested statement. The Level Scoring System (LSS) indicates an implicit ranking with levels from 1 to 9 that represents the ranking of the certainty level. The higher the number the more certain respondents were when providing the answer.

-29464071120Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 5: Gender break Online advertisement
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 5: Gender break Online advertisement
-2946404711700Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 9: This figure describes the gender brake between the answers given by women (F) vs those from men’s (M) when analyzing each statement
Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 9: This figure describes the gender brake between the answers given by women (F) vs those from men’s (M) when analyzing each statement
-29464029972000-96520100330
-477520-20002500-614680-498475Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 6: Gender brake In-situ advertisement
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 6: Gender brake In-situ advertisement

-2717802336800
-477520170180Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 10 This figure describes the gender brake between the answers given by women (F) vs those from men’s (M) when analyzing each statement
Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 10 This figure describes the gender brake between the answers given by women (F) vs those from men’s (M) when analyzing each statement

:
Second survey concerning Active Sellers ; Word-of-Mouth Advertisement
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 4 Range of age ; gender for the survey concerning Active Sellers ; Word-of-Mouth Advertisement:
Age ; Gender # Percentage
18-24 49 61.3%
25-30 27 33.8%
31-45 1 1.3%
Other 3 3.8%
Female 41 51.3%
Male 39 48.8%
Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 11: This table represents the number of participants, its percentage and gender who answered the survey concerning Active Sellers ; Word-of-Mouth Advertisement. Note the sample considered in the study consisted 80 participants. Out of these participants, 51% of were females and 49% were males. Range of ages were: 61.3% between 18-24 years old, 33.8% between 25-30 years old, and 1.3% between 31-45 years old.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 5 Consumers per product:
Cigarettes 72 90.0%
Oral Tobacco 2 2.5%
Tobacco Heated Product 5 6.3%
E-Cigarettes 6 7.5%
Other 5 6.3%
Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 12: This table represents the number and percentage of participants who are users of a certain cigarette product. Most participants are consumers of conventional cigarettes (90%), followed by E-cigarettes (7.5%), Tobacco Heated Products (6.3%), and oral tobacco (2.5%).

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 6 Most common understanding for the term «Word-of-mouth»:
friends references 68 85.0%
family references 27 33.8%
stranger references 12 15.0%
none of the above 7 8.8%
Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 13: In order to assess the understanding of participants that Word-of-Mouth reflected the point of view of a friend or acquaintance telling his friend about their use experience, a screening question was created. This question intention was to find out whether or not participants knew where Word- of-Mouth comes from. We found out that 85% of participants understood that Word-of-Mouth came from a friend’s reference. 33.6% of participants were aware Word-of-Mouth came from family reference and lastly, 15% of participants believed Word-of-Mouth came from a stranger’s reference.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 7: Second survey results concerning Active Sellers ; Word-of-Mouth Advertisement:
        N=80
        YES   NO
STIMULUS ATTRIBUTE FR ATTRIBUTE EN   EXP HI YES LSS   EXP HI NO LSS
Word-of-mouth: AttrayantAttractive 51 29 6   49 35 8
Appréciéappreciated 56 33 7   44 29 7
M’encourage à acheterEncourages me to buy 41 14 3   59 16 3
EfficaceEffective 50 26 6   50 31 7
Source digne de confianceTrusted source 44 21 6   56 25 5
Original Original 53 36 7   48 38 8
Active sellers AttrayantAttractive 43 29 7   58 28 5
Appréciéappreciated 40 28 8   60 31 5
M’encourage à acheterEncourages me to buy 46 18 5   54 25 5
EfficaceEffective 51 33 7   49 18 5
Source digne de confianceTrusted source 30 18 7   70 45 7
Original Original 51 30 7   49 30 7
Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 14: This figure represents two main concepts: The EXP which indicates how many respondents agreed or disagreed with the tested statement and the LEVEL SCORING SYSTEM (LSS) which indicates an implicit ranking with levels from 1 to 9.

-476159118110Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 8: Word-of-mouth in detail:
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 8: Word-of-mouth in detail:
-49784034946200
-50038024765000
-497840228529Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 15:The color reflects the strength of an attitude. On average, the higher the speed the more certain respondents are about their opinion. The HI YES/HI NO indicate how many respondents were highly certain of their own opinion when they either agreed or disagreed with the tested statement. The Level Scoring System (LSS) indicates an implicit ranking with levels from 1 to 9 that represents the ranking of the certainty. The higher the number the more certain respondents were when providing the answer.

Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 15:The color reflects the strength of an attitude. On average, the higher the speed the more certain respondents are about their opinion. The HI YES/HI NO indicate how many respondents were highly certain of their own opinion when they either agreed or disagreed with the tested statement. The Level Scoring System (LSS) indicates an implicit ranking with levels from 1 to 9 that represents the ranking of the certainty. The higher the number the more certain respondents were when providing the answer.

-43688041148000
-43180020710100-436880-263948Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 9: Active Seller in detail:
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 9: Active Seller in detail:

-436880178083Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 16: The color reflects the strength of an attitude. On average, the higher the speed the more certain respondents are about their opinion. The HI YES/HI NO indicate how many respondents were highly certain of their own opinion when they either agreed or disagreed with the tested statement. The Level Scoring System (LSS) indicates an implicit ranking with levels from 1 to 9 that represents the ranking of the certainty. The higher the number the more certain respondents were when providing the answer.

Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 16: The color reflects the strength of an attitude. On average, the higher the speed the more certain respondents are about their opinion. The HI YES/HI NO indicate how many respondents were highly certain of their own opinion when they either agreed or disagreed with the tested statement. The Level Scoring System (LSS) indicates an implicit ranking with levels from 1 to 9 that represents the ranking of the certainty. The higher the number the more certain respondents were when providing the answer.

-377190323921Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 10: Gender brake Word-of-Mouth Advertisement
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 10: Gender brake Word-of-Mouth Advertisement

-37768418224500
-27940032956500
-389255362303Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 17: This figure describes the gender brake between the answers given by women (F) vs those from men’s (M) when analyzing each statement
Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 17: This figure describes the gender brake between the answers given by women (F) vs those from men’s (M) when analyzing each statement

-46736022563600-475685-13123Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 11 Gender Brake Active seller
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 11 Gender Brake Active seller
:
-19939043751500
-468912350449Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 18: This figure describes the gender brake between the answers given by women (F) vs those from men’s (M) when analyzing each statement
Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 18: This figure describes the gender brake between the answers given by women (F) vs those from men’s (M) when analyzing each statement

Statistical evaluation of the effects of gender in the perception of attributes in the four channelsThere is contemporary research that introduces gender as an important variable in marketing segmentation due to the fact that it is easily identifiable. This particular variable is interesting because its information is accessible, and its segments are large enough. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.2307/3172728″,”ISBN”:”0022-2437″,”ISSN”:”00222437″,”abstract”:”Data from two experiments suggest that the genders differ in how they make judgments. In comparison with men, women appeared to have a lower threshold for elaborating on message cues and thus made greater use of such cues in judging products. These differences were eliminated both when the message cues prompted so little attention that they were below men’s and women’s thresholds for message elaboration and when they prompted so much attention that both genders’ thresholds were exceeded. The origins and implications of these differences are discussed. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Meyers-Levy”,”given”:”Joan”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Sternthal”,”given”:”Brian”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Marketing Research”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1991″},”title”:”Gender Differences in the Use of Message Cues and Judgments”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0bb90fc9-1bcc-4c1d-9777-9891c7551d9c”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Meyers-Levy & Sternthal, 1991)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Meyers-Levy & Sternthal, 1991)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Meyers-Levy & Sternthal, 1991)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Meyers-Levy ; Sternthal, 1991). Traditionally, investigation on retail shopping has indicated strong differences in shopping behavior based on gender. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1016/S0022-4359(00)00047-6″,”ISBN”:”00224359″,”ISSN”:”00224359″,”abstract”:”While shopping by men is on the rise, perceptions of male shopping behavior, as well as how men actually shop, remain underexplored. We first describe three common stereotypes of male shopping behavior: “Grab and Go,” “Whine and Wait,” and “Fear of the Feminine.” We then demonstrate how actual male shopping behavior belies these stereotypes. For example, men often evaluate alternatives, bargain, and even shop in “feminine” stores. Our theory of male shopping behavior is rooted in studies of gender roles in the United States. We argue that men who shop have achieved gender role transcendence, and have found ways to satisfy an ethic of achievement in the marketplace. © 2001 by New York University. All rights reserved.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Otnes”,”given”:”Cele”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”McGrath”,”given”:”Mary Ann”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Retailing”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2001″},”title”:”Perceptions and realities of male shopping behavior”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9d364ad9-7b07-4ae5-8615-661281bb5307″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Otnes & McGrath, 2001)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Otnes & McGrath, 2001)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Otnes & McGrath, 2001)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Otnes ; McGrath, 2001). Researchers have described important differences in behavior between females and males. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1086/426621″,”ISBN”:”00935301″,”ISSN”:”0093-5301″,”PMID”:”16337328″,”abstract”:”Two studies examine gender differences in responses to advertising with emotional content that varies on agency-a fundamental component of the male, but not female, stereotype. As hypothesized, males reported a less pleasant viewing experience and a less favorable attitude toward the advertisement (A-sub(ad)) when a low-agency emotion (i.e., stereotype-incongruent) ad was viewed with another male, while their responses were not affected by the presence of another person when they were exposed to a high-agency emotion (i.e., stereotype-congruent) ad. Males’ and females’ private responses were not significantly different, and females’ responses were invariant across social contexts and type of ad. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Fisher”,”given”:”Robert J.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Dubé”,”given”:”Laurette”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Consumer Research”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2005″},”title”:”Gender Differences in Responses to Emotional Advertising: A Social Desirability Perspective”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e772a8d8-a0da-4e53-88db-d4f02a26650c”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Fisher & Dubé, 2005)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Fisher & Dubé, 2005)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Fisher & Dubé, 2005)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Fisher ; Dubé, 2005). ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1037/0033-2909.122.1.5″,”ISBN”:”1939-1455 0033-2909″,”ISSN”:”00332909″,”PMID”:”9204777″,”abstract”:”The authors first describe individual differences in the structure of the self. In the independent self-construal, representations of others are separate from the self. in the interdependent self-construal, others are considered part of the self (H. Markus & S. Kitayama, 1991). In general, men in the United States are thought to construct and maintain an independent self-construal, whereas women are thought to construct and maintain an interdependent self-construal. The authors review the psychological literature to demonstrate that many gender differences in cognition, motivation, emotion, and social behavior may be explained in terms of men’s and women’s different self-construals. Recognition of the interdependent self-construal as a possible alternative conception of the self may stimulate new investigations into the ways the self influences a person’s thinking, feeling, and behaving.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Cross”,”given”:”Susan E.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Madson”,”given”:”Laura”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Psychological Bulletin”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1997″},”title”:”Models of the self: Self-construals and gender”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=7bdd1b95-3c32-480c-ac53-982b9e2980bf”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Cross & Madson, 1997)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Cross & Madson, 1997)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Cross & Madson, 1997)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Cross ; Madson, 1997) suggest that women are more loyal, independent, emotional customers than men. On the other hand, men incline their focus more in a group, for instance they identify themselves with a social category. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1016/B978-0-12-407188-9.00005-3″,”ISBN”:”0863776876″,”ISSN”:”00221031″,”PMID”:”22588″,”abstract”:”The self-concept consists of three fundamental self-representations: the individual self, the relational self, and the collective self. That is, people seek to achieve self-definition and identity in three fundamental ways: in terms of their personal traits, in terms of their close relationships, and in terms of their group memberships. The nature of the interrelations among these three self-representations forms the core of this volume. Are the individual, the relational, and the collective self indifferent acquaintances, close partners, or bitter opponents?This volume seeks to understand both when each source of self-definition is likely to be used, and also whether individuals typically use one form of self-definition more than the others. The first part takes the vantage point of the individual self and discusses such issues as why the individual self might be primary, in what ways, and how the individual self is related to the other two. Part II addresses the same questions from the perspective of the relational and the collective self as bases for self-definition. Chapters in the third section take the view that all three self-representations are equally prevalent in the achievement of self-definition, and discuss the organismic and contextual conditions that accentuate a particular type of self-representation, or how they are integrated or coordinated. Part IV offers some integrative models, while a final commentary chapter discusses running themes, synthesizes the literature, and points to future research directions.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Sedikides”,”given”:”Constantine”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Brewer”,”given”:”Marilynn B”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Personality”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1996″},”title”:”1 Individual Self, Relational Self, and Collective Self”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=26f80b4a-2167-4495-b779-0a7ed7fb5851″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Sedikides & Brewer, 1996)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Sedikides & Brewer, 1996)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Sedikides & Brewer, 1996)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Sedikides ; Brewer, 1996).
If there are gender effects on shopping behavior, there could also be gender differences in the assessment of communication channel perception. One typical gender procedure uses contingency tables and a conventional test is Pearson’s chi-square test for association between two variables. The null hypothesis is defined as the observed frequencies being the same as the expected frequencies. If indeed, this is true, this implies that the ?2 = 0, but it they are not similar, this in turn means the value of ?2 goes up. As the value of ?2 increases, that is, departs from 0, the more likely it is that the distributions are significantly different. By this, it implies the variables show some degree of association.
Nevertheless, the Chi-Square test should not be used if more than 20% of the expected frequencies have a value of less than 5. If this were the case, then alternative tests could be used: Yate’s chi-square correction factor, Fisher’s exact test, and the maximum likelihood ratio test. Since none of the expected frequencies was less than 5, there was no need to perform the alternative tests. Yet, the Cramer-V test statistic was applied.

The following procedures illustrates the Pearson chi-square test and Cramer-V test statistics for the attribute “Encouragement to Buy” from the Online Advertisement channel. Both tests will be performed for each attribute from both surveys to find if there is any gender influence in perceptions.
For each attribute (six) and for the four channels the null and alternative hypothesis that needs to be formulated is presented in the following fashion:
Hypothesis:
H0: There is no association between gender for the attribute “Encourage to Buy” for the Online Advertising channel.

H1: There is an association between gender for the attribute “Encourage to Buy” for the Online Advertising channel.
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 7: Observed frequencies of female and male responses of the survey of Online Advertisement & In-situ Advertisement
  YES NO  
F 13 29 42
M 15 26 41
  28 55 83
The expected frequencies of female and male responses are estimated as it follows:
42*2883 42*5583 41*2883 41*5583Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 8:Expected frequencies of female and male responses of Online Advertisement & In-situ Advertisement
  YES NO  
F 14.1686747 27.8313253 42
M 13.8313253 27.1686747 41
  28 55  
Estimation of the ?2 coefficient:
13-42*2883242*2883+ 29-42*5583242*5583+15-41*2883241*2883+ 23-41*5583241*5583= 0.294488061
For a significance level of 5% and one degree of freedom, the critical value is 3.841. Since ?2 = 0.294488 and p-value is 0.587359, then there is no strong evidence to reject the null hypothesis that there is no difference in gender’s perception in regard to the attribute “Encouragement to buy” for Online Advertisement channel.

Cramer-V calculation uses following expression:
V= ?2n(minr,c-1) , where n is the sample size, and min represents the minimum value between the number of rows (r) and number of columns (c). Since the contingency table has dimension 2×2, the minimum value is 2 and therefore, the denominator is (n=83)* 1=83
V= 0.29448806183=0.05956550108According to Cohen’s table in Note 18, the Cramer-V for the attribute “Encouragement to Buy” for the Online Advertisement channel shows no association whatsoever between genders. For k=2 (the minimum number of categories), 0.05956550108 is less than 0.10 (the lowest threshold in Cohen’s interval 0.10 – ;0.30 for a small association).

The following table from Cohen’s book “Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences” lists some reference values for interpretation of the Cramer-V test statistics:
-29083017530200-223792180340Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 12: Interpretation of statistics
0Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 12: Interpretation of statistics

-223330207645Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 19: Adapted from ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1234/12345678″,”ISBN”:”0121790606″,”ISSN”:”01621459″,”PMID”:”17877467″,”abstract”:”Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (2nd edition). Hillsdale, New Jersey: L.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Cohen”,”given”:”Jacob”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Lawrence Earlbaum Associates”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1988″},”title”:”Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences”,”type”:”book”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=20ca5ebe-4b1a-4f48-8b8b-f7e9d17d7859″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Cohen, 1988)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Cohen, 1988)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Cohen, 1988)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Cohen, 1988)
*k is the minimum number of categories in either rows and columns
Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 19: Adapted from ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1234/12345678″,”ISBN”:”0121790606″,”ISSN”:”01621459″,”PMID”:”17877467″,”abstract”:”Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (2nd edition). Hillsdale, New Jersey: L.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Cohen”,”given”:”Jacob”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Lawrence Earlbaum Associates”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1988″},”title”:”Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences”,”type”:”book”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=20ca5ebe-4b1a-4f48-8b8b-f7e9d17d7859″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Cohen, 1988)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Cohen, 1988)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Cohen, 1988)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Cohen, 1988)
*k is the minimum number of categories in either rows and columns

At ?=0.05, only the attribute “Informed” from the Online Advertising showed it was significant and so it did at ? =0.10 (10%). The Cramer-V value was 0.277, near the border of the higher threshold of Cohen’s table.

The attributes “Remarkable” of the In-Situ channel and “Original” of the Word-of-Mouth channel were not significant at ?= 0.05 but they were, indeed, significant at ? =0.10. Notice their corresponding Cramer-V values, 0.208 and 0.201, respectively. These values coincide with the center of the interval for “Small” association in Cohen’s table.

Despite the attributes “Encourage to Buy” (Word-of-Mouth), “Common” and “Remarkable” (Online Advertising), and “Appreciated” (Active Sellers) were neither significant at ? =0.05 nor at ? =0.10, they showed a small association effect according to Cohen’s Cramer-V interval (near the lower interval value). Their corresponding Cramer-V values were: 0.123, 0.137, 0.135, and 0.123, respectively.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 9: Chi-square coefficients, Cramer-V values, Inference and Association of Gender.

Communication channel Attribute ?2 coefficient p-value Significance Cramer-V Cramer-V effect
Online Advertising Encourage to buy 0.2944 0.58735 NO 0.05956 NO
Online Advertising Common 2.3188 0.12781 NO 0.16714 SMALL
Online Advertising For Me 0.0314 0.85935 NO 0.01946 NO
Online Advertising Effective 0.0102 0.91965 NO 0.01107 NO
Online Advertising Informed 6.3687 0.01161 YES 0.277 SMALL
Online Advertising Remarkable 1.5169 0.21808 NO 0.13518 SMALL
In-Situ Advertising Encourage to buy 0.2945 0.58735 NO 0.06 NO
In-Situ Advertising Common 0.6747 0.41142 NO 0.09 NO
In-Situ Advertising Remarkable 3.5767 0.05859 YES 0.208 SMALL
In-Situ Advertising For Me 0.0406 0.84033 NO 0.022 NO
In-Situ Advertising Effective 0.0123 0.91153 NO 0.012 NO
In-Situ Advertising Informed 0.1045 0.74647 NO 0.035 NO
Word-of-mouth Attracted 0 0.99553 NO 0.01 NO
Word-of-mouth Appreciated 0.0409 0.83966 NO 0.023 NO
Word-of-mouth Encourage to buy 1.2039 0.27253 NO 0.123 SMALL
Word-of-mouth Effective 0.791 0.37379 NO 0.099 NO
Word-of-mouth Trusted source 0.0409 0.83966 NO 0.023 NO
Word-of-mouth Original 3.2241 0.07256 YES 0.201 SMALL
Active Sellers Attracted 0.011 0.91636 NO 0.012 NO
Active Sellers Appreciated 1.2008 0.27317 NO 0.123 SMALL
Active Sellers Encourage to buy 0.2799 0.59674 NO 0.059 NO
Active Sellers Effective 0.4503 0.5022 NO 0.075 NO
Active Sellers Trusted source 0.4026 0.52573 NO 0.071 NO
Active Sellers Original 0.05 0.823 NO 0.025 NO
Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 20: Shows chi-square coefficients and P-values for Pearson’s chi square test, and Cramer-V’s statistics test values for determining the effect of gender on attributes perception for the four communication channels.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 10: Critical values for gender inference
  Level of significance  
Degree of freedom 10% 5% 1%
1 2.706 3.841 6.635
Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 21: The above table shows the critical values for inference of
effect of gender on attributes for the 4 channels
In short, out of 24 attributes in total, as far as gender effect is concerned only three attributes were significant at 5% and 10% of level of significance using the Pearson’s chi-square test and seven of them showed a relatively small association accordingly to Cohen’s Cramer-V classification. The seven attributes that showed a small association were:
Online Advertising: Common, Informed, Remarkable;
In-Situ Advertising: Remarkable;
Word-of-mouth: Encourage to buy, Original;
Active Sellers: Appreciated.

Synthesis ; Description
Overview concerning each attribute perception is analized below:Online AdvertisementEncouragement to buy
Based on the figure 2 it is possible to infer that about 33% of people answered that online advertisement encouraged them to buy with moderately certainty or no certainty and the remaining 67% answered that online advertisement did not encourage them to buy with moderately certainty or lack of certainty. Millennials perceive online advertisement as lacking Encouragement to Buy. This implies online advertising is not perceived as a tool to encourage to buy and consumers do not believe it might work that way. It might also suggest that in this respect, the online advertisement lacks the element that might be perceived as persuasive.
Common
Based on the figure 2 it is possible to infer that approximately, 71% of participants answered that online advertisement is quite common and as a group they were moderately certain of this opinion. In a more detailed view, we can see that 38% out of them were highly certain that online advertisement is common, so it is quite a big pool of consumers that truly believe that online tobacco advertisement is common and probably had contact with it. About 29% of people answered with high certainty that online advertisement is not common – the average speed is fast (7) which means they have a strong conviction the online advertisement is not common.
For Me
Based on the figure 2 it is possible to infer that the negative answer to the “For Me” attribute with moderately certainty is two and a half as large as the positive answer and also provided with moderately certainty, 73% vs 27%. A priori, this may lead to conclude that online advertisement it is not for millennials. Nevertheless, with some effort and creativity this perception can be changed (as the certainty of negative answer is not strong yet), so that millennials feel identified with online advertisement. It can be related also to the attribute encourages me to buy – with lack of identification the online communication will not be effective.
Effective
Based on the figure 2 it is possible to infer that about 55% of the sample population agreed online advertisement is not effective and the remaining 45% agreed is indeed effective. About 26% of people who answered positively to the online advertisement as being effective did so with high certainty. There is still room for improvement here – first you can try to convince 19% of people who answered positively but only with moderate certainty or uncertainty. It can be done by applying more emotional communication that will be perceived as relevant for them.

Informative
Based on the figure 2 it is possible to infer that half of people agreed that online advertisement is informative with high certainty and the other half disagreed but with only moderate certainty. Out of the second half, that is, the group who considers online advertisement as not informative only 19% is certain of their attitude. The remaining 31% of people still could be persuaded that online advertisement is informative, provided the information content of the online advertisement is improved.

Memorable
Based on the figure 2 it is possible to infer that about 65% of millennials claimed that online advertisement is not memorable and most of them are highly convinced about it. Millennials perceive online advertisement as not memorable. Online advertisement needs to be improved in this respect in order to change perception for lack of memorability. The reason behind the low memorability could be the huge amount of online advertisement millennials are exposed nowadays, which reduces the chances to keep focus and attention, with the exception of a few appealing online advertisements that might have strong impact and, therefore, will be remembered.

In-situ AdvertisementEncouragement to buy
Based on the figure 2 it is possible to infer that about 33% of people answered that in situ advertisement encouraged them to buy with moderately certainty and the remaining 67% answered that in situ advertisement (ISA) did not encourage them to buy but with moderately certainty. Millennials perceive in situ advertisement as lacking Encouragement to Buy but they are not certain – it may suggest that there is room left for creative and persuasive in situ materials to reach clients. Nevertheless, this implies in situ advertising needs an improvement effort that can be successfully achieved by increasing visual promotions.

Common
Based on the figure 2 it is possible to infer that 75% of consumers answered that the in-situ advertisement is common, and they were quite certain about it. Millennials perceive in situ advertisement as common. It can be concluded among millennials that they are familiarized with in situ advertisement and they have experienced this kind of communication.

Memorable
Based on the figure 2 it is possible to infer that about 38% of sample answered with moderately certainty in situ advertisement is memorable compared to 62% who answered with moderately certainty in situ advertisement is not memorable. Millennials perceive in situ advertisement rather as not memorable but neither group (supporters and rejecters) is certain of their own answers. It means that in situ advertisement is rather blend for them and in order to be memorable some creative actions had to be taken.
For Me
Based on the figure 2 it is possible to infer that approximately three-fourth of the millennials have answered with high certainty that in situ advertisement is not “For Me”. Only 23% said ISA is for them but out of them only 13% truly believed in it. Most millennials perceive in situ advertisement is not for them – it might suggest that the in-situ advertisement is not the place where the brand can build relevance and emotional attachment –In situ materials should be focused on action and driving sales.
Effective
Based on the figure 2 it is possible to infer that the opinions are polarized since half of millennials perceive in situ advertisement is effective and the other half perceive is not effective but neither supporters nor followers are certain if they are right. It is hard for them to judge the effectiveness, but their perception for this factor shows that they are open to it. Hence, if the ad contains a solid content, there is some reason to believe acceptance of ISA being effective. In particular, 26% of people who answered positively to the in-situ advertisement as being effective did it with very high certainty, hence, can be a good target group for such actions. There is still room for effective improvement among the group of people with moderately certainty or uncertainty.

Informative
Based on the figure 2 it is possible to infer that about 54% of people who answered with certainty that in situ advertisement is informative and they truly believe in it. The remaining 46% who answered that in situ advertisement is not informative were only moderately certain. Note that the value index for this attribute is 8, that is, a strong conviction. Millennials perceive in situ advertisement is informative and it might be one of the most important features that ISA should have – the question remains what information they desire – either it is about promotion, about quality, country of origin, who is using it, to what lifestyle it fits etc. If the communication will match their motives the perception of ISA will improve. So, there is a need first to define the most relevant information millennials are looking for when they mean they are looking for information in this channel. For this reason, further studies for a better understanding of the reasons behind their belief is suggested.

Word-of-MouthAttractive
Based on the figure 7 it is possible to infer that about half of the sample group has answered with moderately certainty that word-of- mouth is attractive but the other half of those whom have disagreed, answered with high certainty. It might suggest that there are people who consciously strongly reject this type of advertising as attractive. On the other hand, even those who claimed it is attractive were not fully certain. It might suggest that in terms of attractiveness there are some issues and it would be wise to understand what exactly respondents had in mind saying that WOM is or is not attractive. Was the unattractiveness caused by ethical, fairness, personal, experiential considerations? Did it have to do with the people delivering this kind of communication? Advertising campaign should emphasize and address loyalty and brand awareness to spread word-of-mouth and increase diffusion effort.
Appreciated
Based on the figure 7 it is possible to infer that about 56% of sample is sure that they appreciate word-of-mouth, but the remaining 44% are sure they do not appreciate word-of-mouth. It suggests that the attitudes here are polarized and it would be beneficial to understand who and why they do appreciate the word-of-mouth and why they do not. Knowing their socio-demographic characteristics would bring a higher understanding and the next study to understand their motives and drivers could provide deep insights on how to fully use the word-of-mouth potential. Advertising campaign should emphasize and address loyalty and brand awareness to spread word-of-mouth and increase diffusion effort.
Encourages me to buy
Based on the figure 7 it is possible to infer that about 41% of sample answered with lack of certainty word-of-mouth encourages them to buy while the remaining 59% answered also with lack of certainty that word-of- mouth does not encourage them to buy. Millennials are highly polarized in terms of certainty, a fraction of them believes word-of-mouth encourage them to buy, the other fraction has strong doubts.

Effective
Based on the figure 7 it is possible to infer that about half of the sample answered with moderate certainty that word-of-mouth is effective whereas other half answered with high certainty word-of-mouth is not effective. It seems as effectiveness here might be correlated with appreciation and encouragement to buy. More people are convinced that word-of-mouth is not effective but notice this is only their perception. Those who said it is effective were not entirely certain. It may suggest that the experience of the respondents with word-of-mouth is rather scarce and as with Encouragement to buy, they might not know how to judge this properly. Advertising campaign should be addressed to improve effectiveness of word-of-mouth.
Trusted source
Based on the figure 7 it is possible to infer that about 44% of sample answered with moderately certainty word-of-mouth is a trusted source and the remaining 56% answered with moderately certainty word-of-mouth is not a trusted source Again, the attitudes seem to be not fixed. Probably the trustworthiness depends on who is delivering word-of-mouth and thus the general judgement lacks certainty. To be able to answer more precisely here we would need to identify more types of word-of-mouth and then establish which one is the most trusted. Efforts should emphasize on an advertising campaign to improve bonds with a trusted source and his/her credibility.

Original
Based on the figure 7 it is possible to infer that about 53% of sample answered with high certainty word-of-mouth is original and the remaining 47% answered also with high certainty word-of-mouth is not original. Again, the attitudes are polarized, and it may suggest that word-of-mouth is a category hard to judge for Millennials, too many factors might influence the scores and thus Millennials cannot be sure whether it is original or not. Efforts should emphasize an advertising campaign to improve originality of word-of-mouth.

Active SellerAttractive
Based on the figure 7 it is possible to infer that about 43% of sample has answered with high certainty Active sellers are attractive and the remaining 57% has answered with moderately certainty that Active sellers are not attractive.
It seems that people who claim that Active sellers are attractive truly believe in it and even those who declared Active Sellers are not attractive were not entirely certain and might be open to change the attitude.
Appreciated
Based on the figure 7 it is possible to infer that about 40% of sample has answered with high certainty Active sellers (AS) are appreciated, the remaining 60% has answered with moderately certainty that AS are not appreciated. It means that there is a strong group of Millennials who truly appreciate the AS and it would be great to understand who they are. On the other hand, there is a group who claims that they do not appreciate the AS but they are not truly convinced about this rejection. Again, knowing more about these groups would help to create more tailored programs for AS and increase their effectiveness when they contact both type of consumers. The firm should develop a program intended to improve appreciation of AS.
Encourages me to buy
Based on the figure 7 it is possible to infer that about 46% of sample has answered with moderately certainty that AS do encourage them to buy and the remaining 54% has answered with moderately certainty that AS do not encourage them to buy. As previously mentioned, Millennials may have hard time to judge if the AS encourages them to buy. They might even be reluctant to admit it themselves. This score should be treated only as a perception of consumers and it shows that only half of the Millennials is somewhat ready to admit that AS can be effective. Nevertheless, the firm could develop a program intended to improve persuasion and sales skills of AS.
Effective
Based on the figure 7 it is possible to infer that about half of sample has answered with high certainty AS are effective and the remaining half has answered with moderately certainty that AS are not effective. On emotional level, Millennials felt that AS are effective and if they claimed so they were certain. Even those who denied effectiveness did only so with moderate certainty. Nevertheless, the firm could develop a skill program intended to improve effectiveness of AS.
Trusted source
Based on the figure 7 it is possible to infer that about 30% of sample has answered with high certainty AS are a trusted source and the remaining 70% has answered with high certainty that AS are not a trusted source. Only a fraction of Millennials perceives AS as trusted source. This is the biggest issue with AS – as a seller they immediately are perceived as untrustworthy. It is a big issue and probably one very hard to overcome. However, there is a 30% of respondents who believed it can be a trusted source, moreover about 18% of them strongly believe in it. Maybe knowing their background some additional insights could be derived. It is true also for the opposite direction – to know more about true haters (45%) and understand what the biggest issues are, regarding trust of AS. The firm could develop a program intended to improve trustworthiness of AS (emotional intelligence, body language).
Original
Based on the figure 7 it is possible to infer that about half of sample has answered with high certainty AS are original and the remaining half has answered also with high certainty that AS are not original. Again, this score might suggest that the attitudes are polarized due to many factors. The firm should develop an enrollment program intended to select skilled and proactive AS.

Discussion for each channelOnline Advertisement :
General comment: The progressively popularity of the internet, its growing expansion through different devices and popular social networks have produced a generation of complex and knowledgeable consumers. The population of internet users has grown consistently over time and it is forecasted to keep growing ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”0″},”title”:”Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2016–2021″,”type”:”report”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e224a2c7-25d2-42cd-8792-f23677a232dd”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(<i>Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2016–2021</i>, n.d.)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2016–2021, n.d.)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(<i>Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2016–2021</i>, n.d.)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2016–2021, n.d.). Such a large group of users represents interesting opportunities for the online advertisement in particular. Still, the challenge comes when marketers try to differentiate their online marketing efforts in order that they can effectively connect and engage with their target customers. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Todd A. Mooradian,Kurt Matzler”,”given”:”Lisa Szykman”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2018″},”page”:”79-92″,”title”:”Empathetic responses to advertising : Testing a network of antecedents and consequences Author ( s ): Todd A . Mooradian , Kurt Matzler and Lisa Szykman Published by : Springer Stable URL : https://www.jstor.org/stable/41217899 Empathetic responses to adv”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”19″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=945c1e37-f7b7-4372-9466-37ea7ba593cc”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Todd A. Mooradian,Kurt Matzler, 2018)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Todd A. Mooradian,Kurt Matzler, 2018)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Todd A. Mooradian,Kurt Matzler, 2018)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Todd A. Mooradian,Kurt Matzler, 2018). Nevertheless, identifying key values that attract a target group, in this case millennials, it is not a simple task. Hence, today it is possible to gather further insights (values, lifestyles, preferences) from a target group by using different type of tests in order to match the core message of advertising to these characteristics.
In this specific study, a reaction time test was used as a measurement to identify weak vs strong attitudes of the OTA channel to communicate a new category of products. The target group “Millennials” was selected as a departing step.
Research on online advertisement has found that since online advertisement alternatives proliferate, consumer’s ability to avoid and to choose messages has increased. Indeed, it suggests online advertising has become annoying and intrusive ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“abstract”:”Internet advertising market has grown rapidly over the past decade. Its annual revenue has reached around 21.1 billion in 2007, and more than half of Internet advertising is related to Web advertising. Web advertising affects the majority if not all web viewers who would encounter some Web ads at one time or the other when they are using the Web. With such a magnitude on investment and in influence, however, our understanding of Web ads is limited and fragmented. This study aims to provide a comprehensive picture of the state of research on Web advertising, especially its interaction with individual viewers. In this meta-analysis of more than sixty empirical research articles published from 1996 to 2007, we develop a framework of Web advertising research that can be used to demonstrate the research foci so far. Both dependent and independent variables can be classified with the framework. Our findings indicate that (1) empirical studies on Web advertising have considered features of four components and their interactions: viewer, Web Ad, ad host, and product/service being advertised. The impacts of Web ads have been found to be on viewers and viewers’ interactions with ads, hosts, and products/services. (2) The number of empirical research of Web advertising has increased gradually in different academic disciplines; however, the number is very insignificant compared to the growing Web advertising market and the broad influence of Web ads. (3) The study efforts are scattered and the findings are inconsistent and inconclusive. We conclude the existing studies and point out future research directions in this area.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Zhang”,”given”:”Ping”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Kim”,”given”:”Youngseek”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS)”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2008″},”title”:”Web advertising: what do we know about its acceptance and impacts? – A meta-analysis of the literature”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=539d0303-cf0b-4244-81d4-832603cdb2da”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Zhang ; Kim, 2008)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Zhang ; Kim, 2008)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Zhang ; Kim, 2008)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Zhang & Kim, 2008) For this reason, it does not seem unreasonable to speculate why the results of this study has found that millennials do not perceive OTA as a source that encourages them to buy a product.
Nowadays, marketers are challenged to identify what features in online advertisement are more engaging and call more the attention of a targeted group and attract more traffic.ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hampp”,”given”:”Andrew”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2007″},”publisher”:”Advertising Age 78, no. 13″,”publisher-place”:”New York”,”title”:”Will a new currency devalue your ads”,”type”:”book”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4dc16de9-eb03-424b-ac79-3c62052bf140″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Hampp, 2007)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Hampp, 2007)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Hampp, 2007)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Hampp, 2007). Prior research suggests that an individual gets involved in online advertisement content when he/she can associate the content with high personal goals and product consumption ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1086/506296″,”ISBN”:”00935301″,”ISSN”:”0093-5301″,”PMID”:”22027518″,”abstract”:”Advertising is commonly presented in the context of media articles or programs that are intended to engage the consumer. An important aspect of this engagement is media transportation, where a person not only attends to information but also is absorbed into the narrative flow of a story in a pleasurable and active way. This research examines the effects of the transportation experience produced by the media context on the impact of ads that appear in that context. Three studies show that transportation can have both positive and negative effects on advertising. Intrusion of the ad into the transportation process is shown to mediate the negative effects, which occurs independently of involvement.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Wang”,”given”:”Jing”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Calder”,”given”:”Bobby J.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Consumer Research”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2006″},”page”:”151-162″,”title”:”Media Transportation and Advertising”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”33″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3db5ad1f-c72a-44ad-bf17-3a9b97350cfb”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Wang ; Calder, 2006)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Wang ; Calder, 2006)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Wang ; Calder, 2006)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Wang & Calder, 2006). When the association is strong, more special connections will be further strengthened, more individual connections will occur, which as a result facilitates mental stimulation of product consumption. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1086/506296″,”ISBN”:”00935301″,”ISSN”:”0093-5301″,”PMID”:”22027518″,”abstract”:”Advertising is commonly presented in the context of media articles or programs that are intended to engage the consumer. An important aspect of this engagement is media transportation, where a person not only attends to information but also is absorbed into the narrative flow of a story in a pleasurable and active way. This research examines the effects of the transportation experience produced by the media context on the impact of ads that appear in that context. Three studies show that transportation can have both positive and negative effects on advertising. Intrusion of the ad into the transportation process is shown to mediate the negative effects, which occurs independently of involvement.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Wang”,”given”:”Jing”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Calder”,”given”:”Bobby J.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Consumer Research”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2006″},”page”:”151-162″,”title”:”Media Transportation and Advertising”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”33″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3db5ad1f-c72a-44ad-bf17-3a9b97350cfb”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Wang ; Calder, 2006)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Wang ; Calder, 2006)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Wang ; Calder, 2006)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Wang & Calder, 2006).Other researcher found that advertisement interactivity positively affects consumer attitude towards an advertisement channel. The literature indicates that perceived advertisement richness is another relevant attribute of OTA that contributes to a consumer emotional response ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Todd A. Mooradian,Kurt Matzler”,”given”:”Lisa Szykman”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2018″},”page”:”79-92″,”title”:”Empathetic responses to advertising : Testing a network of antecedents and consequences Author ( s ): Todd A . Mooradian , Kurt Matzler and Lisa Szykman Published by : Springer Stable URL : https://www.jstor.org/stable/41217899 Empathetic responses to adv”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”19″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=945c1e37-f7b7-4372-9466-37ea7ba593cc”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Todd A. Mooradian,Kurt Matzler, 2018)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Todd A. Mooradian,Kurt Matzler, 2018)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Todd A. Mooradian,Kurt Matzler, 2018)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Todd A. Mooradian,Kurt Matzler, 2018). A rich advertisement is characterized by an intense precision of images which makes the user live an experience to the point he or she can have a mental imagination of the ad while reading/ viewing it. Therefore, the main aim of advertisement should be centered in outbreaking the user attention, emotionally engage him and provoke a concrete imaginary situation. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Nisbett”,”given”:”Richard E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1980″},”publisher”:”Englewood Cliffs N.J. : Prentice Hall”,”title”:”Human inference : strategies and shortcomings of social judgment”,”type”:”book”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e87451d0-e7a5-488f-8864-84dab1d348b7″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Nisbett, 1980)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Nisbett, 1980)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Nisbett, 1980)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Nisbett, 1980)
A rich advertisement could also be characterized for its vivid information that is emotionally interesting, concrete and as a result, the focal attention of the user is drawn. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“ISBN”:”9780415442732″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Bob M. Fennis”,”given”:”Wolfgang Stroebe”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Psychology”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”0″},”page”:”1-534″,”title”:”The Psychology of Advertising”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=457efd40-319e-49e2-bb24-f08c342f7b8a”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Bob M. Fennis, n.d.)”,”manualFormatting”:”(Bob M. Fennis, 2016.)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Bob M. Fennis, n.d.)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Bob M. Fennis, n.d.)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Bob M. Fennis, 2016.)
The current study findings identified two key features that are outstanding among the others tested in this channel. On the one hand, millennials claimed that the online tobacco advertisement is common, but we can find some lack of certainty of this attitude. Still, it is a good thing millennial found common this channel due to the fact that this attribute is related to familiarity. This represents great news in the sense that familiarity and repetition of advertisement have a direct effect at the process of forming opinions ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.2307/2118323″,”ISBN”:”00335533″,”ISSN”:”0033-5533″,”abstract”:”Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact [email protected] A simple supply and demand framework is used to analyze changes in the U. S. wage structure from 1963 to 1987. Rapid secular growth in the demand for more-educated workers, “more-skilled” workers, and females appears to be the driving force behind observed changes in the wage structure. Measured changes in the allocation of labor between industries and occupations strongly favored college graduates and females throughout the period. Movements in the college wage premium over this period appear to be strongly related to fluctuations in the rate of growth of the supply of college graduates.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Katz”,”given”:”L. F.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Murphy”,”given”:”K. M.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”The Quarterly Journal of Economics”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1992″},”title”:”Changes in Relative Wages, 1963-1987: Supply and Demand Factors”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=05ca1a4f-fd88-4f8a-98c4-3feba6d97b0e”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Katz ; Murphy, 1992)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Katz ; Murphy, 1992)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Katz ; Murphy, 1992)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Katz & Murphy, 1992). Several academics have found that repetition and familiarity are key variables in encouragement and attitude formation. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1521/soco.22.3.310.35970″,”ISBN”:”0278-016X”,”ISSN”:”0278-016X”,”PMID”:”229602716″,”abstract”:”Past research has suggested that familiarity with a message, brought about by repetition, can increase (Cacioppo Petty, 1989) or decrease (Garcia-Marques Mackie, 2001) analytic (systematic) processing of that message. Two experiments attempted to resolve these contradictory findings by examining how personal relevance may moderate the impact of familiarity on processing. Experiment 1 manipulated repetition and personal relevance and found that message repetition increased analytic processing (as reflected by greater persuasion following strong vs. weak arguments) under high relevance conditions and decreased analytic processing when relevance was low. In Experiment 2, both repetition and relevance were manipulated in different ways, but results again showed that repetition reduced analytic processing under low relevance conditions and that perceived familiarity mediated this outcome. Implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA (journal abstract”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Claypool”,”given”:”Heather M.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mackie”,”given”:”Diane M.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Garcia-Marques”,”given”:”Teresa”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”McIntosh”,”given”:”Ashley”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Udall”,”given”:”Ashton”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Social Cognition”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2004″},”title”:”The Effects of Personal Relevance and Repetition on Persuasive Processing”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=bfefe4e5-8ea0-4d97-ae67-ea55b0157837″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Claypool, Mackie, Garcia-Marques, McIntosh, ; Udall, 2004)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Claypool, Mackie, Garcia-Marques, McIntosh, ; Udall, 2004)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Claypool, Mackie, Garcia-Marques, McIntosh, ; Udall, 2004)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Claypool, Mackie, Garcia-Marques, McIntosh, & Udall, 2004)
On the other hand, the biggest advantage OTA might have that affects positively consumers attitude towards the new category is the informative factor – half of people claim that it can be informative, and they are quite certain of it, moreover, those who denied it are much less certain. This insight provides a frame to work upon and develop strategies focusing in the informative aspect that seems to be relevant for millennials in this specific channel. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1080/135272600750036364″,”ISBN”:”00218499″,”ISSN”:”00218499″,”PMID”:”9612040470″,”abstract”:”The growth of advertising on the World Wide Web requires research on users’ general perceptions since these affect attitudes toward individual advertisements. This article presents results of an intercept survey focusing on the perceived value of Web advertising, an approach developed by the author for assessing advertising in the general media. Both the hypothesized model of advertising value and its role as an antecedent of overall audience attitudes are confirmed. The author maintains that advertising value is a useful measurement criterion for evaluating advertising effects generally, and particularly in the case of the Web. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR\nCopyright of Journal of Advertising Research is the property of Warc LTD and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Ducoffe”,”given”:”Robert H.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Advertising Research”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1996″},”title”:”Advertising value and advertising on the web”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c61308d0-f7df-416b-b319-19bf93b99955″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Ducoffe, 1996)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Ducoffe, 1996)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Ducoffe, 1996)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Ducoffe, 1996) found that entertaining advertisement is likely to be classified as informative, which would represent great news since informative advertising is considered a useful source for deciding.
Proceeding from here, users often engage in a self-referring, a process in which they apply the advertisement informative aspect to themselves to judge its usefulness ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1002/mar.4220050106″,”ISSN”:”15206793″,”abstract”:”This research examines the extent to which individuals self-reference advertising portrayals and the consequences of doing so. A composite self-referencing measure is developed relative to how self-referencing has been defined and induced in past research. Individuals who exhibited high levels of self-referencing of stimulus advertisements elicited more positive attitudes and cognitive responses than those who exhibited low levels of self-referencing. Self-referencing was also found to mediate the effect of various sex-role portrayals on respondents’ attitudes.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Debevec”,”given”:”Kathleen”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Iyer”,”given”:”Easwar”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Psychology & Marketing”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1988″},”title”:”Self?referencing as a mediator of the effectiveness of sex?role portrayals in advertising”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a70cb4dc-2990-400e-adf7-b3f1473dd862″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Debevec & Iyer, 1988)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Debevec & Iyer, 1988)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Debevec & Iyer, 1988)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Debevec & Iyer, 1988). Self-referring is a processing strategy that individuals use to relate input information to an individual self-construct and it is important in the sense that if the information used in the OTA is appealing for the user it will have the potential to engage him which as a result is successful at building positive attitudes towards a product.
In-situ Advertisement:
General comment:
The ISA is perceived as common and informative source; however, it lacks relevance and bond with the consumers. It suggests that it is more a sales tool than a brand image tool. For this reason, this channel is quite attractive for pursuing further trade activities due to the fact, that most of millennials find this channel relevant when searching for information they are looking for so that it will provide clarifying clues. The point here is to define what kind of information consumers are seeking at the point of purchase (POS). It might be reductions among teenagers, promotions or just information for different options of products.
Future research should be pursued in order to expand the understanding of what kind of information millennials are looking for when they go to the POS in a store.
Due to the bans of billboards advertisement and constraints on events sponsorships and related advertisement, the In-situ advertisement has had increased relevance and become a unique and indispensable source of advertising for the tobacco industry. This channel in particular has been shown to have a strong influence in reinforcing tobacco communications. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“PMID”:”22876391″,”abstract”:”We have made progress in reducing tobacco use among youth; however, far too many young people are still using tobacco. Today, more than 600,000 middle school students and 3 million high school students smoke cigarettes. Rates of decline for cigarette smoking have slowed in the last decade and rates of decline for smokeless tobacco use have stalled completely”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”U.S. Surgeon General”,”given”:””,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”U.S. Department of Health & Human Services”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2012″},”title”:”Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults. A report from the Surgeon General”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d32ca993-a1c4-426e-8d6b-9a412edfa6eb”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(U.S. Surgeon General, 2012)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(U.S. Surgeon General, 2012)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(U.S. Surgeon General, 2012)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(U.S. Surgeon General, 2012). For this reason, it will be of great value to have deeper research regarding the identified type of information consumers are looking when they state this channel is informative due to the relevance of the channel for the industry.

Word-of-mouth:
General Comment: Word-of-Mouth normally takes places after a purchase experience, when the customers share with others their own experience. It is exchanged through oral communication in real time and in a limited geographical space ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“ISBN”:”0769527558″,”abstract”:”This research seeks to assess the impact of electronic Word-of-Mouth (eWOM) on sales performance of digital products. Digital microproducts such as Amazon.coms 49-cent short books, or Apples 99-cent songs are digital goods that can be sold anywhere, at any time, at a low acquisition cost and no delivery costs via Web-based electronic commerce. Set at a fixed and low price, it is expected that price elasticity no longer plays a dominant role in the purchasing decision. This research empirically measures the impact of electronic word-of-mouth, as measured by product ratings, brand ratings and ratings of complementary goods, on the microproduct buying decision. To this end, we have developed a demand model based on electronic word-of-mouth for digital microproducts. We conducted an empirical study using 551 Shorts from Amazon.com. Shorts are condensed versions of books in PDF formats for a fixed price of 49 cents. We tested and validated our proposed demand model. Our findings suggest that book ratings by readers as a measure of electronic word-of-mouth are not a good predictor of book sales. On the other hand, book sales are correlated to the number of reviews, the reputation of the author, and the reputation of complementary goods. Finally, we present a number of theoretical and practical recommendations regarding the use of e-WOM for online sales of microproducts.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Amblee”,”given”:”Naveen”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Bui”,”given”:”Tung”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”ECIS”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2007″},”title”:”The Impact of Electronic Word-of-mouth on digital microproducts: An empirical investigation of Amazon shorts”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c693b14c-8454-4e27-9ea1-9d4c4d30b520″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Amblee & Bui, 2007)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Amblee & Bui, 2007)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Amblee & Bui, 2007)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Amblee & Bui, 2007). This channel is relevant due to the fact that people count on other users opinion and information in order to take a decision ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“abstract”:”Online consumer reviews provide product information and recommendations from the customer perspective. This study investigates the effects of negative online consumer reviews on consumer product attitude. In particular, it examines the proportion and quality of negative online consumer reviews from the perspective of information processing. The elaboration likelihood model is used to explain the persuasive effect of the proportion and quality depending on product involvement. A high proportion of negative online consumer reviews elicits a conformity effect. As the proportion of negative online consumer reviews increases, high-involvement consumers tend to conform to the perspective of reviewers, depending on the quality of the negative online consumer reviews; in contrast, low-involvement consumers tend to conform to the perspective of reviewers regardless of the quality of the negative online consumer reviews. The experiment in this study uses 248 college students in Korea.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Lee”,”given”:”J”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Park”,”given”:”D”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Han”,”given”:”I”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Electronic Commerce Research and Applications”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2008″},”title”:”The effect of negative online consumer reviews on product attitude: the information-processing view”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=61bf3467-24e5-4bbc-a891-506053af4167″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Lee, Park, & Han, 2008)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Lee, Park, & Han, 2008)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Lee, Park, & Han, 2008)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Lee, Park, & Han, 2008) and within the last 10 years this communication phenomena is gaining relevance. In this particular study, the word-of-mouth channel has not gone unnoticed, indeed, it is perceived as an appreciated and original source of information, which represents an interesting opportunity to be exploited.

Customer interactions through word-of-mouth can have an important impact on the customer response to a purchase decision. This interpersonal interaction between an
agent and a potential user, where the influence agent is not a sales representative of
the company but a committed user of a product could have an important degree of
influence when trying to convince close relatives and friends to try the products as
well. This channel is in particular effective in spreading new products ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”citeulike-article-id:126680″,”ISBN”:”0028740742 (CLOTH) 0029266718 (PAPER)”,”ISSN”:”0306-4603″,”PMID”:”12369480″,”abstract”:”Much has been made of the profound effect of the ” tipping point ” , the point at which a trend catches fire – spreading exponentially through the population. The idea suggests that, for good or bad, change can be promoted rather easily in a social system through a domino effect. The tipping point idea finds its origins in diffusion theory, which is a set of generalizations regarding the typical spread of innovations within a social system. In an effort to judge the truth and power of epidemic spreading of trends, I read Everett Rogers’s scholarly and scientific Diffusion of Innovations (1995), which has become the standard textbook and reference on diffusion studies. What I find in this comprehensive and even-handed treatment is an insightful explanation of the conditions that indicate that an innovation will reach the much-hyped tipping point. In this review, I will outline these basic characteristics of an innovation and its context that correlate with its diffusion. Furthermore, I will show the ways in which these understandings improve our capacity to take efficacious action to speed it up. At this point, I will be able to evaluate the claim that the tipping point makes it easy to spread change. The Mechanism of Diffusion Diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system (5). Given that decisions are not authoritative or collective, each member of the social system faces his/her own innovation-decision that follows a 5-step process (162): 1) Knowledge – person becomes aware of an innovation and has some idea of how it functions, 2) Persuasion – person forms a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward the innovation,”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Rogers”,”given”:”Everett”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Free Press New York”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1995″},”title”:”Diffusion of Innovations”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=46966639-b863-447c-a531-9506a4be8681″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Rogers, 1995)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Rogers, 1995)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Rogers, 1995)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Rogers, 1995) and ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.2307/1252200″,”ISBN”:”00222429″,”ISSN”:”00222429″,”PMID”:”9102183020″,”abstract”:”REF: When consumers can’t evaluate the quality of a service (credence), they rely on WOM.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Murray”,”given”:”Keith B.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Marketing”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1991″},”title”:”A Test of Services Marketing Theory: Consumer Information Acquisition Activities”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=70c68f8c-65ff-4d76-bc99-c74dd5248a3f”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Murray, 1991)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Murray, 1991)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Murray, 1991)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Murray, 1991) and the «Non-conventional nicotine products» category is relatively new in the market, and it falls down in a novel product category.

With the rise of internet communication, word-of-mouth has taken on a new modality
in which consumers are discussing on an unimaginable scale about products
experience via online networks. This represents a platform for this highly appreciated
channel to expand horizons within millennials. This new modality in which word-of-
mouth is being used embodies an opportunity to be exploited in the sense that
individuals make decisions easily when they can rely on other experiences and
opinions, and it triggers a feeling of appreciation, a sense of empathy, credibility and
communityADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1002/dir.1014″,”ISBN”:”1520-6653″,”ISSN”:”10949968″,”PMID”:”75163558″,”abstract”:”We report the results of an experiment in which consumers were instructed to gather online information about one of five specific product topics by accessing either online discussions (i.e., Internet forums or bulletin boards) or marketer-generated online information (i.e., corporate webpages). At the end of a 12-week period, the consumers who gathered information from online discussions reported greater interest in the product topic than did those consumers who acquired information from the marketer-generated sources. We discuss the study’s implications for better understanding word-of-mouth communication and for developing more successful consumer websites.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Bickart”,”given”:”Barbara”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Schindler”,”given”:”Robert M.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Interactive Marketing”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2001″},”title”:”Internet forums as influential sources of consumer information”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6187e26e-6aee-406c-87cc-fb05783fb61a”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Bickart ; Schindler, 2001)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Bickart ; Schindler, 2001)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Bickart ; Schindler, 2001)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Bickart & Schindler, 2001).
Word-of-mouth is considered critical in the theory and practice of diffusion models.

Needless to say, this represents an opportunity to target a market segment and
divide the potential market into sub-groups. One crucial sub-group is “early majority” ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1080/09687769.2010.529107″,”ISBN”:”1303-6521″,”ISSN”:”13036521″,”PMID”:”12238525″,”abstract”:”The article discusses Everett M. Rogers’ diffusion on innovations theory and the studies on educational technology based on Rogers’ theory. Rogers argued that innovations offering more relative advantage, compatibility, simplicity, trialability, and observability will be adopted faster than other innovations. Her further asserted that the availability of all of the variables of innovations speed up the innovation-diffusion process.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Sahin”,”given”:”Ismail”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Rogers”,”given”:”For”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2006″},”title”:”Detailed Review of Rogers ‘ Diffusion of Innovations Theory and Educational Technology-Related Studies Based on Rogers”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6dbd84ce-968a-41e3-b0f3-109c325ca735″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Sahin & Rogers, 2006)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Sahin & Rogers, 2006)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Sahin & Rogers, 2006)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Sahin & Rogers, 2006). Even though the early majority does not occupy a leadership position ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.2501/S0265048709200692″,”ISSN”:”02650487″,”abstract”:”The article discusses the social influence model and electronic word-of-mouth advertising in the context of personal computers and mobile Internet. The social influence model that was proposed by U. M. Dholakia and colleagues in their 2004 study is the causal model used in this study to represent consumers’ participation in electronic word of mouth. A survey of consumers in Japan and psychological aspects of advertising such as the effect of cognitive social identity, motivation, novelty seeking or intrinsic enjoyment, and social intention on desire for a product are mentioned.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Okazaki”,”given”:”Shintaro”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”International Journal of Advertising”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2009″},”title”:”Social influence model and electronic word of mouth: PC versus mobile internet”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f7201eca-5200-4148-bc49-808ac6b28ee3″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Okazaki, 2009)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Okazaki, 2009)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Okazaki, 2009)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Okazaki, 2009) they occupy an influential place in society. In consequence, it will be interesting to use the identified values in marketing communications targeting an early majority of consumers for having more effective results. For example, from the perspective that word-of-mouth is perceived from millennials as an original source this could be aligned to future communication to place emphasis in the originality factor in order that millennials capture, retain and later on spread the word more effectively.

Accordingly, decision makers should realize the full potential of word-of-mouth as a function of the level of influence it has as far as customer decision-making is concerned. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.2753/JEC1086-4415110405″,”ISBN”:”10864415″,”ISSN”:”10864415″,”PMID”:”25895402″,”abstract”:”On-line consumer reviews, functioning both as informants and as recommenders, are important in making purchase decisions and for product sales. Their persuasive impact depends on both their quality and their quantity. This paper uses the elaboration likelihood model to explain how level of involvement with a product moderates these relationships. The study produces three major findings: (1) the quality of on-line reviews has a positive effect on consumers’ purchasing intention, (2) purchasing intention increases as the number of reviews increases, and (3) low-involvement consumers are affected by the quantity rather than the quality of reviews, but high-involvement consumers are affected by review quantity mainly when the review quality is high. These findings have implications for on-line sellers in terms of how to manage on-line consumer reviews. Copyright © 2007 M.E. Sharpe, Inc. All rights reserved.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Park”,”given”:”D.-H.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Lee”,”given”:”J.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Han”,”given”:”I.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”International Journal of Electronic Commerce”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2007″},”title”:”The effect of on-line consumer reviews on consumer purchasing intention: The moderating role of involvement”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0b2c8ab7-08fb-4cd7-b389-0f34df7ab2b9″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Park, Lee, & Han, 2007)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Park, Lee, & Han, 2007)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Park, Lee, & Han, 2007)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Park, Lee, & Han, 2007) For this reason, it is important to foster the statements from this study in order to align them for finding the specific online strategies that could be implemented to spread word-of-mouth behavior among consumers. In leveraging these new insights, companies will be more prepared to incentive interaction between users to accelerate diffusion of a given product.
Word-of-mouth can be placed in many different ways to incentive user’s interaction such as: forums, blogs, newsletters. Depending on the objectives and targets these channels may differ. The following are examples that scholars believe could be used to spreading word-of-mouth.
Blogs in which interaction regarding specific subjects of interest for millennials are covered. For instance: advices of product usage, good and bad experiences with the new category, etc.ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Piller”,”given”:”Charles”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1999″},”publisher”:”Times”,”publisher-place”:”Los Angeles”,”title”:”Everyone is a critic in cyberspace”,”type”:”book”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3a50366b-671e-497a-9722-e1f0135d75b3″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Piller, 1999)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Piller, 1999)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Piller, 1999)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Piller, 1999). In addition to this, another good option are newsletters which might generate dialogue and discussion among millennials. Overall, the internet offers many alternatives to reach and influence consumer information search process.
Nonetheless, there is plenty room for further and future research on this channel, especially from the perspective of millennials and from what they are looking for. Future research studies may focus on the mixed test statements in order to gather deeper information and understand millennials perception so that marketers will be in a better position to foster a substantial experience for customers. This means that there are opportunities in this channel, but it would be beneficial to undertake deeper studies to understand the drivers and motives of consumers in this category. – e.g. what attractiveness means for them, what are the main reasons why half of the group appreciates the word-of-mouth and the other half does not? What characteristics can be discovered in true followers (HI YES) and true rejecters (HI NO)? With the findings the company could leverage the understanding of what is perceived to be important for millennials concerning this specific communication and will effectively reinforce future advertisement campaigns.
Active Seller:
General Comment:
The Active Sellers channel has become a normal practice nowadays with great relevance in order to effectively promote a product or service attractiveness. The use of Active Sellers is a contemporary marketing strategy firms are starting to use. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1057/palgrave.pb.5990005″,”ISBN”:”1744-0696″,”ISSN”:”1744-0696″,”abstract”:”Cities all over Europe include more and more marketing techniques and methods in their administration practice and governing philosophy. The transfer of marketing knowledge, however, to the operational environment of cities proves a cause of difficulties and misalignments, mostly due to the peculiar nature of places in general and cities in particular as marketable assets. In this paper, city branding is suggested as the appropriate way to describe and implement city marketing. City marketing application is largely dependent on the construction, communication and management of the city’s image, as it is accepted that encounters with the city take place through perceptions and images. Therefore the object of city marketing is the city’s image, which in turn is the starting point for developing the city’s brand. The most appropriate concept to understand marketing applicability within cities is the recently developed concept of corporate branding, which with the necessary modifications is applied to cities. The core of the paper is a theoretical framework to understand the city’s brand and its management, which was developed through a review of the literature on both city marketing and the corporate brand. City branding provides, on the one hand, the basis for developing policy to pursue economic development and, at the same time, it serves as a conduit for city residents to identify with their city. In this sense the relevance of and need for a framework describing and clarifying the processes involved in city branding are equally strong for facing increasing competition for resources, investment and tourism on the one hand and for addressing urgent social issues like social exclusion and cultural diversity on the other. The framework focuses on the use of city branding and its potential effects on city residents and the way residents associate with and experience their city, and it is based on a combination of city marketing measures and the components of the city’s brand management.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Kavaratzis”,”given”:”Michalis”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Place Branding”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2004″},”title”:”From city marketing to city branding: Towards a theoretical framework for developing city brands”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9fe9e356-18b0-4857-bcda-eda79d0d9ba8″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Kavaratzis, 2004)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Kavaratzis, 2004)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Kavaratzis, 2004)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Kavaratzis, 2004). Normally Active sellers are seen as a reliable source whose interaction effect influences users to take action ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1038/nj7014-253a”,”ISBN”:”0814416691″,”ISSN”:”00278378″,”PMID”:”15600146″,”abstract”:”The first edition of The Secrets of Word of Mouth Marketing provided readers with step by step guidance for constructing a word of mouth marketing campaign that would penetrate successive audience tiers and build sales exponentially. Extensively revised to reflect the profound changes in the marketplace, from new attitudes and communication methods, to new ways of relating to increasingly wary Web 2.0 customers, the second edition of this groundbreaking book shows readers how they can move beyond traditional approaches to inspire the kind of word of mouth that catches fire and generates revenue. Featuring enlightening case studies and examples, as well as an updated version of the authors innovative Decision Matrix for identifying potential buyers and determining and crafting the right kind of message, The Secrets of Word of Mouth Marketing simplifies the process of choosing the delivery method, harnessing the power of influencers, and measuring results. From how to navigate the latest digital media to what Malcolm Gladwell got wrong, this is still the last word on word of mouth.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Warrington”,”given”:”Traci”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Journal of Consumer Marketing”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2002″},”title”:”The Secrets of Word-of-Mouth Marketing : How to Trigger Exponential Sales through Runaway Word of …”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2446c257-de39-431b-b596-ed137a7419cd”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Warrington, 2002)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Warrington, 2002)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Warrington, 2002)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Warrington, 2002). In this research Active sellers seem to work well for one part of respondents. They are perceived as an attractive, effective and original source. This channel might be appreciated by those who prefer interaction from a person-to-person basis. They view AS’s purpose as an “adviser” of a category of products. However, it is important that the firm works carefully in generating trust during these interactions. This means that the firm should
consider strategically working in the way Active sellers approach customers and
figure it out what added value they can offer to customers and not focus exclusively
on just promoting a product but creating an experience in which trust is generated.

Moreover, it would be beneficial to gather more information about those who
appreciate AS and those who reject them to understand the main motives and drivers
of consumers.

Recommendations & Conclusions
The tobacco industry is a highly regulated industry; for this reason, it represents a constant challenge for advertisers in this industry. This challenge has two sides: performance survival in the business landscape and performance innovation achievement with innovative ideas for creation of competitive advantage.
The current study examined the effects of four advertisement channels (Online, In-situ, Word-of-Mouth and Active Sellers) towards the «Non-conventional nicotine products» category on consumer attitudes and perception to obtain deeper insights that could be used for decision makers in a near future in the most convenient way possible. The Biocode software was used to measure individual’s perception within the four different channels in order to come with relevant insights for a clear understanding of consumers implicit attitudes. As a result of analysis of findings provided from 164 millennials, pros and cons have been found in the four channels considered. Starting with the Online Advertisement, findings from the sample data leads me to conclude that this channel demands a strong effort to be more appealing for millennials. From the data, it seems that at this very moment this channel is not perceived as interesting from the perspective of Encouragement to buy. From literature research, it may be possible the reason for this is a saturation effect, that is, the overwhelming quantity of online advertisement consumers are exposed nowadays. Still, the good news for this channel is that it is perceived as an informative source. There is lots of potential to work upon online content informative aspects in the sense of creating entertaining, novel and interactive advertisement a consumer can relate to. By this means a consumer will develop a positive attitude towards the company and the product.
It will be important to place an effort in making the content the most interactive as possible so that users will assume an active role when interacting with the online material. As a result, users will have an experience while interacting with the online material and this in turn will create a positive attitude towards the online advertisement. Another recommendation from the point of view of the advertisement content, is to focus in novel information of the category of products. Exceeding existing consumer expectancies could potentially attract and hold user’s attention with more effectivity.
On the other hand, since the majority of participants perceives the channel as common, this implies millennials are familiarized with this type of advertisement. This represents another current opportunity since the entire advertising campaign could be designed to take full advantage of such familiarity. This familiarity needs to be outweighed against the findings from data that this is not a ‘hot emotional’ channel to reach millennials. Thus, working upon activating emotional response of millennials could be an interesting approach due to the fact that the channel is already perceived as common. Needless to say, plenty of actions could be taken to make this channel more touching. For example, as mentioned previously working upon the content and design of OTA, making the OTA more interactive, entertaining, and participative.
Secondly, in-situ advertisement is a promising channel to be exploited within Millennials. This channel has shown to be a reliable source of information for millennials when they are willing to find a product to buy. It is suggested to pay special attention to this channel as far as trade activities are concerned, due to the fact that academics found this channel interesting; in particular to display potentials promotions, reductions and information regarding a product. Yet, it is difficult to make a particular recommendation about findings from this channel due to the lack of deeper information regarding the attribute “informative.

However, it is recommended to keep with further research to define what kind of information Millennials are searching for when looking for in-situ material. By identifying what they are looking for it will be possible to design specific in-situ material that will effectively fulfill consumer expectations.
Furthermore, most of the tested attributes around the word-of-mouth channel are divided in opinions which makes it difficult to make strong assumptions. Although most of the statement are mixed, there are strong attitudes towards two statements in particular: appreciated and original. In contrast, there is a very low attitude towards the statement encouragement to buy. For this reason, it is inferred that Millennials either have low or no experience with this type of communication or they do not consider this type of communication as an advertising channel at all.

Nerveless, considering this channel is perceived as an appreciated and original source, there is an appealing potential for growth in the consecutive years to come, specifically if it is combined with the internet, in which opinions, reviews and interactions play an interesting role in decision-making. Considering, word-of-mouth is a powerful marketing tool that allows companies to listen customer experience, reach and interact with customers to understand their needs. It is highly recommended to place special attention to this channel to increase brand awareness, brand positioning and brand image so that this development will have a positive impact in the trade activities to impulse sales.
In spite of this potential, it is recommended to take this form of communication with caution because oral comments tend to leave room for ambiguity given consumer’s difficulty in exteriorizing the subconscious level. If this limitation is properly worked out, it will contribute to the acceleration of marketing efforts.
Despite, this particular channel may have the potential to accelerate marketing efforts in order to spread information positively if used correctly, it may also have the potential to affect negatively already well-established reputation and brand image when the activity is used inappropriately.
Finally, the Active Sellers channel has the potential to be exploited within Millennials. This channel in particular has shown to be perceived as an effective and attractive way of advertising. The greatest inconvenience for this type of promoters is that it is not perceived as a trustworthy source. Nerveless, trustworthiness could be conveyed by emphasizing that the message source (AS) does not have a conferred interest in delivering a message to the user. Therefore, an interesting approach to increase the credibility of the AS could be to create the impression of an uninterested communicator in order to guard down the target and open their wiliness to listen to what the AS have to say.
In overall the current research identifies the key positive and negative attributes for the four advertisement channels. Each channel has pros and cons and there is no an absolute formula for a specific combination. The recommendation is to combine them with flexibility and test them in a reiterative process. Trial and error will bring about the most effective combination. Keep testing because times are changing at a relatively high speed.
Further studies are recommended to establish whether or not there are effects of gender on attributes perception or specifically investigate in more detail the seven attributes that showed a relatively small association between gender.

AttestationJe déclare sur l’honneur, que j’ai effectué ce Travail de Master seul, sans autre aide que celles dûment signalées dans les références, et que je n’ai utilisé que les sources expressément mentionnées. Je ne donnerai aucune copie de ce rapport à un tiers sans l’autorisation conjointe du Responsable de l’Orientation et du Professeur chargé du suivi du Travail de Master et de l’institution ou entreprise pour laquelle ce travail a été effectué.

Fribourg, September 4, 2018.

Stefano Falconi
References1 ADDIN Mendeley Bibliography CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY AJZEN, I., ; FISHBEIN, M. (1980). Understanding Attitudes and Prediciting Social Behaviour. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.

2 Amblee, N., ; Bui, T. (2007). The Impact of Electronic Word-of-mouth on digital microproducts: An empirical investigation of Amazon shorts. ECIS.

3 Bassili, J. N. (1996). Meta-Judgmental versus Operative Indexes of Psychological Attributes: The Case of Measures of Attitude Strength. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.71.4.637
4 Becker, W. J., Cropanzano, R., ; Sanfey, A. G. (2011). Organizational neuroscience: Taking organizational theory inside the neural black box. Journal of Management, 37(4), 933–961. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206311398955
5 Bickart, B., ; Schindler, R. M. (2001). Internet forums as influential sources of consumer information. Journal of Interactive Marketing. https://doi.org/10.1002/dir.1014
6 Black, J., Hashimzade, N., ; Myles, G. (2017). E-commerce. A Dictionary of Economics, A Dictionary of Economics. Chicago: Oxford University Press.

7 Bob M. Fennis, W. S. (n.d.). The Psychology of Advertising. Psychology, 1–534.

8 Braeutigam, S. (2005). Neuroeconomics – From neural systems to economic behaviour. Brain Research Bulletin, 67(5), 355–360. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2005.06.009
9 Braidot, N. (2013). Neuromarketing: ¿Por qué tus clientes se acuestan con otro si dicen que les gustas tú? Effective Management-Gestión 2000.

10 Brodie, R. J., Ilic, A., Juric, B., ; Hollebeek, L. (2013). Consumer engagement in a virtual brand community: An exploratory analysis. Journal of Business Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.07.029
11 Camerer, C., Loewenstein, G., ; Rabin, M. (2004). Advances in Behavioral Economics. Advances in Behavioral Economics. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004
12 Cialdini, R. B., ; Goldstein, N. J. (2004). Social Influence: Compliance and Conformity. Annual Review of Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.142015
13 Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2016–2021. (n.d.).

14 Claypool, H. M., Mackie, D. M., Garcia-Marques, T., McIntosh, A., ; Udall, A. (2004). The Effects of Personal Relevance and Repetition on Persuasive Processing. Social Cognition. https://doi.org/10.1521/soco.22.3.310.35970
15 Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Lawrence Earlbaum Associates. https://doi.org/10.1234/12345678
16 Cross, S. E., ; Madson, L. (1997). Models of the self: Self-construals and gender. Psychological Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.122.1.5
17 Dabholkar, P. A. (1994). Comparison Processes Linked references are available on JSTOR for this article?: Incorporating Choice into an Attitudinal Framework?: Analyzing Models of Mental Comparison Processes. Journal of Consumer Research, 21(1), 100–118.

18 De Martino, B., Kumaran, D., Seymour, B., ; Dolan, R. J. (2006). Frames, biases and rational decision-making in the human brain. Science. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1128356
19 Debevec, K., ; Iyer, E. (1988). Self?referencing as a mediator of the effectiveness of sex?role portrayals in advertising. Psychology ; Marketing. https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.4220050106
20 Ducoffe, R. H. (1996). Advertising value and advertising on the web. Journal of Advertising Research. https://doi.org/10.1080/135272600750036364
21 Eagly, A. H., ; Chaiken, S. (1993). Psychology of Attitudes. Psychology of Attitudes. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.04.090
22 Fazio, R. H. (1989). On the power and functionality of attitudes: The role of attitude accessibility. In Attitude structure and function. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004
23 Fazio, R. H., Powell, M. C., ; Williams, C. J. (1989). The Role of Attitude Accessibility in the Attitude-to-Behavior Process. Journal of Consumer Research, 16(3), 280. https://doi.org/10.1086/209214
24 Fishbein, M., ; Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behaviour: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. https://doi.org/10.2307/2065853
25 Fisher, R. J., ; Dubé, L. (2005). Gender Differences in Responses to Emotional Advertising: A Social Desirability Perspective. Journal of Consumer Research. https://doi.org/10.1086/426621
26 Fitzsimons, G. J., Hutchinson, J. W., Williams, P., Alba, J. W., Chartrand, T. L., Huber, J., … Tavassoli, N. T. (2002). Non-Conscious Influences on Consumer Choice. Marketing Letters, 13(3), 269–279. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020313710388
27 Glimcher, P. W. (2011). Foundations of Neuroeconomic Analysis. Foundations of Neuroeconomic Analysis. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744251.001.0001
28 Greenwald, A. G., Nosek, B. A., ; Banaji, M. R. (2003). Understanding and Using the Implicit Association Test: I. An Improved Scoring Algorithm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(2), 197–216. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.197
29 Hampp, A. (2007). Will a new currency devalue your ads. New York: Advertising Age 78, no. 13.

30 Hanson, J. D., ; Kysar, D. A. (1999). Taking behavioralism seriously: some evidence of market manipulation. Harvard Law Review, 112(7), 1422–1570. https://doi.org/10.2307/1228171
31 Hare, T. A., Camerer, C. F., ; Rangel, A. (2009). Self-control in decision-Making involves modulation of the vmPFC valuation system. Science. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1168450
32 Harris, F., MacKintosh, A. M., Anderson, S., Hastings, G., Borland, R., Fong, G. T., … Cummings, K. M. (2006). Effects of the 2003 advertising/promotion ban in the United Kingdom on awareness of tobacco marketing: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey. Tobacco Control. https://doi.org/10.1136/tc.2005.013110
33 Harrison-Walker, L. J. (2001). The Measurement of Word-of-Mouth Communication and an Investigation of Service Quality and Customer Commitment As Potential Antecedents. Journal of Service Research. https://doi.org/10.1177/109467050141006
34 Hsu, M., Anen, C., ; Quartz, S. R. (2008). The right and the good: Distributive justice and neural encoding of equity and efficiency. Science. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1153651
35 Hsu, M., Bhatt, M., Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., ; Camerer, C. F. (2005). Neuroscience: Neural systems responding to degrees of uncertainty in human decision-making. Science. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1115327
36 James F. Engel, Roger D. Blackwell, P. W. M. (1990). Consumer behavior. Chicago: Chicago?: Dryden Press.

37 Johan, A. (1967). Word of mouth advertising: A review of the literature.

38 Jurgen, K. (2012). Estamos Ciegos: El neuromarketing y neuroinnovación en los procesos estratégicos de las empresas. Mexico.

39 Kable, J. W., ; Glimcher, P. W. (2007). The neural correlates of subjective value during intertemporal choice. Nature Neuroscience. https://doi.org/10.1038/nn2007
40 Kahneman, D. (2011). Pensar rápido, pensar despacio. Los Ángeles, 1903. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13398-014-0173-7.2
41 Katz, L. F., ; Murphy, K. M. (1992). Changes in Relative Wages, 1963-1987: Supply and Demand Factors. The Quarterly Journal of Economics. https://doi.org/10.2307/2118323
42 Kavaratzis, M. (2004). From city marketing to city branding: Towards a theoretical framework for developing city brands. Place Branding. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.pb.5990005
43 Langer, E. J. (1992). Matters of mind: Mindfulness/mindlessness in perspective. Consciousness and Cognition. https://doi.org/10.1016/1053-8100(92)90066-J
44 Lee, J., Park, D., ; Han, I. (2008). The effect of negative online consumer reviews on product attitude: the information-processing view. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications.

45 Madhavaram, S., ; Appan, R. (2010). The potential implications of web-based marketing communications for consumers’ implicit and explicit brand attitudes: A call for research. Psychology and Marketing, 27(2), 186–202. https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.20326
46 Meyers-Levy, J., & Sternthal, B. (1991). Gender Differences in the Use of Message Cues and Judgments. Journal of Marketing Research. https://doi.org/10.2307/3172728
47 Murray, K. B. (1991). A Test of Services Marketing Theory: Consumer Information Acquisition Activities. Journal of Marketing. https://doi.org/10.2307/1252200
48 Nevid, J. S., & McClelland, N. (2010). Measurement of implicit and explicit attitudes toward Barack Obama. Psychology & Marketing, 27(10), 989–1000. https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.20369
49 Nisbett, R. E. (1980). Human inference?: strategies and shortcomings of social judgment. Englewood Cliffs N.J.?: Prentice Hall.

50 Okazaki, S. (2009). Social influence model and electronic word of mouth: PC versus mobile internet. International Journal of Advertising. https://doi.org/10.2501/S0265048709200692
51 Otnes, C., & McGrath, M. A. (2001). Perceptions and realities of male shopping behavior. Journal of Retailing. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4359(00)00047-6
52 Park, D.-H., Lee, J., & Han, I. (2007). The effect of on-line consumer reviews on consumer purchasing intention: The moderating role of involvement. International Journal of Electronic Commerce. https://doi.org/10.2753/JEC1086-4415110405
53 Persky, J. (1995). Retrospectives: the ethology of homo economicus. The Journal of Economic Perspectives. https://doi.org/10.2307/2138175
54 Piller, C. (1999). Everyone is a critic in cyberspace. Los Angeles: Times.

55 Rezaei, A. R. (2011). Validity and reliability of the IAT: Measuring gender and ethnic stereotypes. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(5), 1937–1941. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2011.04.018
56 Richardson-Klavehn, A., & Bjork, R. A. (1988). Measures of Memory. Annual Review of Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.39.020188.002355
57 Rogers, E. (1995). Diffusion of Innovations. Free Press New York. https://doi.org/citeulike-article-id:126680
58 Sahin, I., & Rogers, F. (2006). Detailed Review of Rogers ‘ Diffusion of Innovations Theory and Educational Technology-Related Studies Based on Rogers. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687769.2010.529107
59 Schacter, D. L. (1987). Implicit Memory: History and Current Status. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.13.3.501
60 Schoemaker, P. J. H., ; Tetlock, P. E. (2017). Building a more intelligent enterprise. MIT Sloan Management Review, 58(3), 28–38. Retrieved from http://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/building-a-more-intelligent-enterprise/
61 Sedikides, C., ; Brewer, M. B. (1996). 1 Individual Self, Relational Self, and Collective Self. Journal of Personality. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-407188-9.00005-3
62 Shih, W., ; Allen, M. (2007). Working with Generation-D: Adopting and adapting to cultural learning and change. Library Management. https://doi.org/10.1108/01435120710723572
62 Todd A. Mooradian,Kurt Matzler, L. S. (2018). Empathetic responses to advertising?: Testing a network of antecedents and consequences Author ( s ): Todd A . Mooradian , Kurt Matzler and Lisa Szykman Published by?: Springer Stable URL?: https://www.jstor.org/stable/41217899 Empathetic responses to adv, 19(2), 79–92.

64 U.S. Surgeon General. (2012). Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults. A report from the Surgeon General. U.S. Department of Health ; Human Services.

65 Venkatraman, V., Payne, J. W., Bettman, J. R., Luce, M. F., ; Huettel, S. A. (2009). Separate Neural Mechanisms Underlie Choices and Strategic Preferences in Risky Decision Making. Neuron. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2009.04.007
66 Visser, P. S., Bizer, G. Y., ; Krosnick, J. A. (2006). Exploring the Latent Structure of Strength-related Attitude Attributes. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(06)38001-X
67 Wang, J., ; Calder, B. J. (2006). Media Transportation and Advertising. Journal of Consumer Research, 33(2), 151–162. https://doi.org/10.1086/506296
68 Warrington, T. (2002). The Secrets of Word-of-Mouth Marketing?: How to Trigger Exponential Sales through Runaway Word of … Journal of Consumer Marketing. https://doi.org/10.1038/nj7014-253a
69 Westbrook, R. A. (1987). Product/Consumption-Based Affective Responses and Postpurchase Processes. Journal of Marketing Research, 24(3), 258. https://doi.org/10.2307/3151636
70 Zaltman, G. (2003). How customers think. Cambridge: Harvard Business School Press, Harvard University, 27(3), 480. https://doi.org/10.2501/S026504870808013X
71 Zhang, P., ; Kim, Y. (2008). Web advertising: what do we know about its acceptance and impacts? – A meta-analysis of the literature. Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS).

AppendicesList of the appendices
Annex 1: About the company behind ICODE
Annex 2: Company presence Worldwide
Annex 3: Added value of BIOCODE
Annex 4: Validity of the test

Appendix I
-1498605168265Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 22: Adapted from How to predict true emotions intro to NEUROHM intro to RT ; BIOCODETM+ selected case studies
Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 22: Adapted from How to predict true emotions intro to NEUROHM intro to RT ; BIOCODETM+ selected case studies
-14986020193000

Appendix II
-50298020147600
-4102104935583Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 23: Adapted from How to predict true emotions intro to NEUROHM intro to RT ; BIOCODETM+ selected case studies
0Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 23: Adapted from How to predict true emotions intro to NEUROHM intro to RT ; BIOCODETM+ selected case studies

Appendix III
-2374905123815Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 24: Adapted from How to predict true emotions intro to NEUROHM intro to RT ; BIOCODETM+ selected case studies
Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 24: Adapted from How to predict true emotions intro to NEUROHM intro to RT ; BIOCODETM+ selected case studies
-23694520129500
Appendix iv
-17081514677600
-171359157207Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 25: Adapted from How to predict true emotions intro to NEUROHM intro to RT ; BIOCODETM+ selected case studies
0Note SEQ Note_ * ARABIC 25: Adapted from How to predict true emotions intro to NEUROHM intro to RT ; BIOCODETM+ selected case studies

x

Hi!
I'm Mia

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out