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5008121-2886430″We hereby declare that we have read this thesis and in ouropinion this thesis is suffcient in term of scope and quality for the
award of the degree of Master of Science (Engineering Business Management)”
Signature : ________________________________
Name of Supervisor I : AP. DR. KHAIRUR RIJAL JAMALUDIN
Date : 9 May 2018Signature : ________________________________
Name of Supervisor I : AP. DR. ASTUTY AMRIN
Date : 9 May 2018
Invistigate Inventory Management in Aref Contractor Company
Mohanad alsharif
A report submitted in partial fulfilment of the
requirements for the award of the degree of
Master of Science (Engineering Business Management)
Razak School of UTM in Engineering and Advanced Technology
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
May 2018
DECLARATIONI declare that this report entitled “title of the report” is the result of my own research except as cited in the references. The report has not been accepted for any degree and is not concurrently submitted in candidature of any other degree.

Signature : …………………………………………….

Name : Mohanad Alsharif
Date :
10 May 2018

DEDICATIONThis report is dedicated to my father, who taught me that the best kind of knowledge to have is that which is learned for its own sake. It is also dedicated to my mother, who taught me that even the largest task can be accomplished if it is done one step at a time.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTIn preparing this report, I was in contact with many people, researchers, academicians, and practitioners. They have contributed towards my understanding and thoughts. In particular, I wish to express my sincere appreciation to my main thesis supervisor, Professor Dr. Mohd Shariff Nabi Baksh, for encouragement, guidance, critics and friendship. I am also very thankful to my co-supervisor Professor Dr Awaluddin Mohd Shaharoun and Associate Professor Dr. Hishamuddin Jamaluddin for their guidance, advices and motivation. Without their continued support and interest, this thesis would not have been the same as presented here.

I am also indebted to Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) for funding my Ph.D study. Librarians at UTM, Cardiff University of Wales and the National University of Singapore also deserve special thanks for their assistance in supplying the relevant literatures.

My fellow postgraduate student should also be recognised for their support. My sincere appreciation also extends to all my colleagues and others who have provided assistance at various occasions. Their views and tips are useful indeed. Unfortunately, it is not possible to list all of them in this limited space. I am grateful to all my family members.

ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study is to investigate the application of genetic algorithm (GA) in modelling linear and non-linear dynamic systems and develop an alternative model structure selection algorithm based on GA. Orthogonal least square (OLS), a gradient descent method was used as the benchmark for the proposed algorithm. A model structure selection based on modified genetic algorithm (MGA) has been proposed in this study to reduce problems of premature convergence in simple GA (SGA). The effect of different combinations of MGA operators on the performance of the developed model was studied and the effectiveness and shortcomings of MGA were highlighted. Results were compared between SGA, MGA and benchmark OLS method. It was discovered that with similar number of dynamic terms, in most cases, MGA performs better than SGA in terms of exploring potential solution and outperformed the OLS algorithm in terms of selected number of terms and predictive accuracy. In addition, the use of local search with MGA for fine-tuning the algorithm was also proposed and investigated, named as memetic algorithm (MA). Simulation results demonstrated that in most cases, MA is able to produce an adequate and parsimonious model that can satisfy the model validation tests with significant advantages over OLS, SGA and MGA methods. Furthermore, the case studies on identification of multivariable systems based on real experiment t al data from two systems namely a turbo alternator and a continuous stirred tank reactor showed that the proposed algorithm could be used as an alternative to adequately identify adequate and parsimonious models for those systems.

ABSTRAKKajian ini dilakukan bertujuan mengkaji penggunaan algoritma genetik (GA)
dalam pemodelan sistem dinamik linear dan tak linear dan membangunkan kaedah alternatif bagi pcmilihan struktur model menggunakan GA. Algorithma kuasa dua terkecil ortogon (OLS), satu kaedah penurunan kecerunan digunakan sebagai bandingan bagi kaedah yang dicadangkan. Pcmilihan struktur model mengunakan kaedah algoritma genetik yang diubahsuai (MGA) dicadangkan dalam kajian ini bagi
mengurangkan masalah konvergens pramatang dalam algoritma genetik mudah (SGA). Kesan penggunaan gabungan operator MGA yang berbeza ke atas prestasi model yang terbentuk dikaji dan keberkesanan serta kekurangan MGA diu t arakan. Kajian simulasi dilakukan untuk membanding SGA, MGA dan OLS. Dengan meggunakan bilangan parametcr dinamik yang setara kajian ini mendapati, dalam kebanyakan kes, prestasi MGA adalah lebih baik daripada SGA dalam mencari penyelesaian yang berpotensi dan lebih berkebolehan daripada OLS dalam menentukan bilangan sebutan yang dipilih dan ketcpatan ramalan. Di samping itu, penggunaan carian tcmpatan dalam MGA untuk menambah baik algorithma tersebut dicadang dan dikaji, dinamai sebagai algoritma mcmetic (MA). Hasil simulasi menunjukkan, dalam kebanyakan kes, MA berkeupayaan menghasilkan model yang bersesuaian dan parsimoni dan mcmenuhi ujian pengsahihan model di samping mcmperolehi beberapa kelebihan dibandingkan dengan kaedah OLS, SGA dan MGA. Tambahan pula, kajian kes untuk sistcm berbilang pcmbolehubah menggunakan data eksperimental sebenar daripada dua sistem iaitu sistem pengulang-alik turbo dan reaktor teraduk berterusan menunjukkan algoritma ini boleh digunakan sebagai alternatif untuk mcmperolehi model termudah yang memadai bagi sistcm tersebut.

TABLE OF CONTENTSCHAPTER TITLE PAGE
TOC o “6-7” h z u “Heading 1,2,Heading 2,3,Heading 3,4,Heading 4,5,Heading 5,6,Title,1,References,1” DECLARATION PAGEREF _Toc511826887 h iiDEDICATION PAGEREF _Toc511826888 h iiiACKNOWLEDGEMENT PAGEREF _Toc511826889 h ivABSTRACT PAGEREF _Toc511826890 h vABSTRAK PAGEREF _Toc511826891 h viTABLE OF CONTENTS PAGEREF _Toc511826892 h viiLIST OF TABLES PAGEREF _Toc511826893 h ixLIST OF FIGURES PAGEREF _Toc511826894 h xLIST OF EQUATIONS PAGEREF _Toc511826895 h xiLIST OF ABBREVIATIONS PAGEREF _Toc511826896 h xiiLIST OF SYMBOLS PAGEREF _Toc511826897 h xiiiLIST OF APPENDICES PAGEREF _Toc511826898 h xiv1INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc511826899 h 11.1Overview PAGEREF _Toc511826900 h 11.2Company XYZ Background PAGEREF _Toc511826901 h 21.3Problem Background PAGEREF _Toc511826902 h 21.4Problem Statement PAGEREF _Toc511826903 h 31.5Research Objectives and Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc511826904 h 31.6Scope of Research PAGEREF _Toc511826905 h 41.7Significant of the Study PAGEREF _Toc511826906 h 41.8Report Organization PAGEREF _Toc511826907 h 42LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc511826908 h 52.1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc511826909 h 52.2TVET PAGEREF _Toc511826910 h 62.3TVET Instructors PAGEREF _Toc511826911 h 62.44th IR PAGEREF _Toc511826912 h 62.5Competency PAGEREF _Toc511826913 h 62.6Readiness PAGEREF _Toc511826914 h 62.7Conceptual Framework PAGEREF _Toc511826915 h 62.8Summary PAGEREF _Toc511826916 h 63RESEARCH METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc511826917 h 73.1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc511826918 h 73.2Research Design PAGEREF _Toc511826919 h 73.3Population and Samples PAGEREF _Toc511826920 h 83.4Research Instruments PAGEREF _Toc511826921 h 83.5Pilot Study PAGEREF _Toc511826922 h 83.6Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc511826923 h 83.7Research Flowchart PAGEREF _Toc511826924 h 93.8Summary PAGEREF _Toc511826925 h 9REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc511826926 h 10
LIST OF TABLESTABLE NO. TITLE PAGE
TOC h z c “Table” Table 1.1 :Your text begin here PAGEREF _Toc482482999 h 2Table 1.2 :Your text begin here PAGEREF _Toc482483000 h 2Table 2.1 :Your text begin here PAGEREF _Toc482483001 h 2Table 2.2 :Your text begin here Your text begin here Your text begin here Your text begin here PAGEREF _Toc482483002 h 2
LIST OF FIGURESFIGURE NO. TITLE PAGE
TOC h z c “Figure” Figure 1.1Your text begin here PAGEREF _Toc500498830 h 2Figure 1.2Your text begin here PAGEREF _Toc500498831 h 2Figure 2.1Your text begin here PAGEREF _Toc500498832 h 3Figure 2.2Your text begin here Your text begin here Your text begin here Your text begin here PAGEREF _Toc500498833 h 3

LIST OF EQUATIONSEQUATION NO. TITLE PAGE
TOC h z c “Equation” Equation 1.1First invalid equation PAGEREF _Toc500499424 h 2Equation 1.2Equation for thermal heat exchange PAGEREF _Toc500499425 h 2Equation 3.1My proposed equation PAGEREF _Toc500499426 h 5
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS- – LIST OF APPENDICESAPPENDIX TITLE PAGE
A Your appendix text begins here X
B Your appendix text begins here X
C Your appendix text begins here X
*note: Insert the appendices manually. No automatic.

CHAPTER 1
4917440-734695INTRODUCTIONInventory managment is the artwork and science of attaining the set targets of deciding to buy the materials at the lowest viable costs, making sure sufficient go with the flow and making the mosteconomical use of such materials in order that the total cost of production is minimized through the creation of such an environment that would enable the humans make a contribution tothe success of the objectives with least quantity of such inputs as money, time, materialetc. On the different hand, inventory manipulate is the science primarily based art of making sure that enough inventory is held via an agency to meet economically both its internal and externaldemand commitments. There can be dangers in holding both too a good deal or too littleinventory, as such, inventory control is principally concerned with acquiring the correctbalance or compromise between these two extremes. It is therefore, the extent that should be held that administration is interested in.Inventory management
Organization’s stock is an important component and its management is imperative to the victory and cost lessening of the firm’s use. Appropriate warehousing of stock so that when products are requested, they are held at the stockroom for the least time conceivable minimizing holding cost of stock (Wild, T., 2017). Consequently, other operational costs may increment inventory management costs like through the balance of requesting costs, holding costs, security stock and stock outs (Palevich, 2011) and (Wisner, Tan and Leong ,2011). Once an organization realizes this, it can create online stock administration instrument to screen its stock data by breaking it down into bunches by relating the categories with its customers.
Beamon and Kotleba (2006) clarify that Re-order level (ROL) is basic for helpful organizations to attain ideal efficiency and be successful. They got to have two reorder levels one that’s normal whereas a second one that’s for emergency cases .This gives customer satisfaction.

Bachetti, Plebani, Saccani and Syntetos (2010) argue that inventory management got to be organized in a consistent way to encourage the organization knowledge of when to order and amount to order. financial order amount enables organizations plan their inventory replenishment on a timely basis such as month to month quarterly half yearly or yearly basis. as organizations attempt to move forward on the stock administration financial order amount eoq and re-order point rop are important tools organizations can use to guarantee that stock supply does not hit a stock out as clarified by (gonzalez and gonzalez ,2010 )
just-in-time (JIT) contributes significantly to an organizations positive execution and client satisfaction. a study attempted that in the us to analyze stock administration and was found out that organizations that kept as well much stock in their warehouse worked an wasteful supply chain whereas those that kept minimal stock in their warehouse were exceptionally effective lai and cheng 2009 it was found out that keeping direct stock is nice and it empowers an organization work negligible costs of holding and setup costs eliminate undesirable lead time and create products as per clients order. this enables an organization accomplish add up to quality control tqc as proficient and successful supply chain management are executed in a firms value chain kumar and suresh (2009) and datta (2007) guarantee an unceasing supply of raw materials to encourage continuous production.

Organization’s stock is an important component and its management is imperative to the victory and cost lessening of the firm’s use. Wild, (2002) suggests, appropriate warehousing of stock so that when products are requested, they are held at the stockroom for the least time conceivable minimizing holding cost of stock. Consequently, other operational costs may increment inventory management costs like through the balance of requesting costs, holding costs, security stock and stock outs (Palevich, 2012) and (Wisner, Tan and Leong 2011). Once an organization realizes this, it can create online stock administration instrument to screen its stock data by breaking it down into bunches by relating the categories with its customers.

Aref Contractor Company BackgroundAref Controcter is one of the unique companies in Jeddah Saudi Arabia owned by Abdullah Aref Alsharif. It was founded in 2006. It offers the customer a variety of services such as a design for residential and public buildings, road design, road construction,and gardens. Aref Contracting has a large number of clients from Jeddah, Riyadh, Makkah, Dammam and Tabuk, and now wants to expand in Saudi Arabia. The success is a strong relationship with customers and the believe in customer satisfaction.

Aref Contractor Company nature
Aref Contractor Company is providing all materials, labor and equipment such as cars, tools, engineers and services required to build the project. The main contractor is the person who hires the workers to perform construction work.

Problem Background
Inventory management is important to both the contractor company and manufacturing company . The availability of goods and materials that have the right amount of finished products, components and / or raw materials is essential to the success of a business. For example, if a company that sells goods or services has insufficient inventory, sales may be lost when customers access another company to purchase available goods or services. The cost to the business can increase, because costs associated with overstocking may include, but are not limited to, maintenance, storage, depreciation, amortization, loss of assets, such as money, net interest income, and / or inventory impairment. In any case, over-inventory will allocate capital that can be used more effectively elsewhere. Manufacturing companies or contracting companies face many challenges. In this regard, a manufacturer may require a variety of manufacturing parts / components used in the manufacture of a good. Inventory of inadequate workforce from these components can result in production delays, delivery delays, and ultimately, low customer satisfaction. As with entrepreneurs, it is necessary to reconcile the need for available stocks with the cost of excessive stock(Henderson, M., Pytel, D., McCreary, P. and Cortes, G., Flowvision LLC, 2013).

Problem Statement
Any contracting company must manage its inventories effectively. Inventory management involves identifying inventory that must remain at hand at a given time, decisions regarding the purchase of raw materials in large quantities, the number of times physical orders are placed and the optimal time to submit a request. “Why do we always run out of stock?” A large number of contractors face the frustration and frustration of trying to maintain stable production processes at the same time, providing customers with appropriate services and maintaining investments in equities and equipment at reasonable levels. The fact that statements are made so often indicates the many conflicts of interest (Henderson, M., Pytel, D., McCreary, P. and Cortes, G., Flowvision LLC, 2013).

Research Objectives Aiming to improve the service , this paper studies on inventory situations throughout the contractor company and manufacturing . The findings of this research will be the input for improve the inventory managment to retain customers’ loyalty and trust, also to maintain the reputation of Aref Contractor Company
The research objectives (RO) can be further detailed as follows:
To examine basic action models (such as EOQ), safty stocks also amount of work.

To find out how much the company loses due to non-purchase in quantitative volumes (EOQ).

To determine if there is a relationship between inventory level and production level and customer services.

Determine if there is a relationship between the inventory level and the profitability level of Aref Contracting Company.

Finally. Make recommendations for improvement
1.6 Research Questions
The research questions (RQ) for this study are:
Objective 1. What is the amount of economic order of the Aref Contracting Company ?
Objective 2. Does the company buy in the amount of the economic order?
Objective 3. What basic inventory models are most common for contractor companies and manufacturing companies?
Objective 4. What should be the size of the inventory?
5. Is there a link between inventory levels and profitability?
Scope of Research Inventory management is really a very broad area, but this study is limited to manufacturing companies and cotractor companies, with special reference to the Aref Contractor Company in Jeddah Saudi Arabia.

the Investigations in this project is to what extent the inventory managment have affected the profitability, efficiency e.t.c. Also, attempts are made to analyses any cost savings . Efforts are also made to relate the level of inventory to the level of production and sales. Finally, inventory costs are related to the levels of profit with the aid of basic statistical tools .

Significant of the StudyIt is important to consider the social and economic commitment to the growth of the country . So that all the ways that will improve the company’s growth ,it must be exploited, so the researcher’s hope is that this study isuseful for owner of Aref Contractor Company and others.

This research project would help the management of Aref Contractor Company, to identify the most influentia risk of inventory management and production. Furthermore, the study will also help the management of the company, to guide against losses .

Report OrganizationIn this course, three chapters will be covered that comprises introduction, literature review, and methodology.

CHAPTER 2
5022850-449390LITERATURE REVIEWIntroductionOf course, no one thought of an issue in the same way, but the profit of the companies depends on the good management , an issue that seems to be unanimous among the leaders of the company. This is what happened here, when we try to examine and examine the past and present work that deals with inventory management and the development of an economic quantity model suitable for contractor companies. The subject of inventory management has sparked much debate in public debates, workshops and symposia, at the local, national and international levels, between public institutions and policy makers, organizations and academics. Various efforts have been made through the management of new businesses through projects, incentives, etc. For the organization of workshops in the same field. A study of most scripts in inventory management has some common and interesting features. Many of these writings deal with most of the problems associated with inventory management; others still focus on the best inventory management model.

This literature review was largely based on journals, some ,owner interview and expert opinions on issues relevant to the objectives of this study. It is divided into the following items:
Inventory Issues
Inventory System
Importance Inventory Management Issue
Economic Order
Quantity Evaluation of the Economic
Batch Size Formula
Another Batch Formula Reduce Stocks at Risk.

HISTORICAL SKETCH OF INVENTORY PROBLEMS:
Although inventory problems are as old as history itself, it has only been since the turn ofthe century that any attempts has been made to employ analytical techniques in studying theseproblems. The initial impetus for the use of mathematical methods in inventory analysisseems to have been supplied by the concurrent growth of the manufacturing industries andthe various branches of engineering, – especially industrial engineering. The real need foranalysis was first recognized in industries that had a combination of production schedulingproblems and inventory problems i.e. in situations in which items were produced in lots – thecost of set up being fairly high – and then stored at a factory warehouse (Ardichvili, A., Cardozo, R. and Ray, S., 2003)
SPECIFICATION OF AN INVENTORY SYSTEM:
The inventory system is basically an input-output system. In order toarrive at the best inventory policy i.e. the best decision rules for when and how much to order, it is necessary to have a clear picture of the inventory system.

Figure STYLEREF 1 s 2.1An input-Output representation of an Inventory System.

It is system that we can proceed to analyses its operation and effectiveness
Regardless of the items in the warehouse, an inventory system requires the specification of
components shown in the entrée-sortie representation of figure 2.1; these include:
1. The mods of application for items held in stock (ie the output of the system). The ne peut pas être contrôlé, ne peut pas être contrôlé, ne peut être comparé à la plus grande request de l’inventeur.

2. The supply model (l’entrée du système). The contrôle le contrôle du inventory système.

3. Operational constraints: Generally, the range of options to make the decisions to manage a system in stock is limited by a series of restrictions related to limited stock, to the limited budgeto disponible par stocks etc. Occasionally, the pays of est origin limité à la politique des extranjeros en relation avec le nombre de valores. Unless such constraints are not taken explicitly, it is difficult to arrive at an optimal and feasible inventory policy. (Xu, Z. and Zhang, X., 2013).

PROBLEM OF INVENTORY MANAGEMENT:
The problem of inventory involves the formulation of decision rules that answer two important questions:
1. When to place an order (or configure it for production) to restoreinventory?
2. How much should you ask for (or produce) for each supply?
the decision-making rules should aim to meet the expected demand at a minimum or maximum cost of benefits. (Puche, J., Ponte, B., Costas, J., Pino, R. and De la Fuente, D., 2016).
In many situations, our assumptions about known quatity and zero or constant delay are not valid. Demand and delay are often variable quantities, so we know best only their probability distribution. If we assume that the question and the delay are random variables, the analysis of the inventory management problem will become very complex. It has been found, however, that reasonably good situations can be obtained for many practical inventory management problems by assuming that the delay is a known constant.

2.1.4 THE AMOUNT OF THE ECONOMIC ORDER
The derivation of the basic EOQ model (Quantity of economic order) is quite simple in a situation

CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGYDEFINITION OF AREA AND STUDY POPULATION
It would have been better to conduct this research in all manufacturing companies and cotractor companies across the country in order to strive for excellence while achieving the best possible result.

However, such a large population will present some problems. Due to the resulting financial, temporal and other limitations, the researcher reduced his research to a single contractor.IntroductionREFERENCESHenderson, M., Pytel, D., McCreary, P. and Cortes, G., Flowvision LLC, 2013. Inventory management system. U.S. Patent 8,515,834.ADDIN Mendeley Bibliography CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY
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Xu, Z. and Zhang, X., 2013. Hesitant fuzzy multi-attribute decision making based on TOPSIS with incomplete weight information. Knowledge-Based Systems, 52, pp.53-64.

Puche, J., Ponte, B., Costas, J., Pino, R. and De la Fuente, D., 2016. Systemic approach to supply chain management through the viable system model and the theory of constraints. Production planning ; control, 27(5), pp.421-430.

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APPENDIX A