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4.The Graduate is a great example of a film where lens and camera choices were used effectively to convey the director’s point of view. It seemed like every choice made by the director Mike Nichols director and the director of cinematography Bob Surtees was justified. The outcome of each shot played an important role in shaping the message of the film. The cinematography of Bob Surtees is very complicated and thoughtful but at the same time seems poetic and spontaneous.
All of Mrs. Robinson and Benjamin’s scenes pass in a musically backed montage sequence, a segment that uses rapid editing, special effects and music to present compressed narrative information. This shows the endless pass of time. One scene is edited so that it appears Benjamin is walking directly from his parents’ dining room into the hotel room he shares with Mrs. Robinson. This seems to accent the separation of him and his parents, though they still live under the same roof.
Cinematography is the discipline of making lighting and camera choices when recording photographic images for the cinema. It is closely related to the art of still photography, though many additional issues arise when both the camera and elements of the scene may be in motion. In order to explain the techniques that were used in The Graduate, I decided to focus on one scene and examine the choices that Mike Nichols and Bob Surtees made.
The scene I am describing is the day after Ben and Elaine went on their first date. Ben drives in the rain outside the Robinsons’ house and a pair of women’s legs runs up to the car. They are not Elaine’s legs but rather Mrs. Robinson’s. She intercepts him before he can get out of his car. She hysterically threatens an ultimatum. She will unpleasantly divulge everything about their affair if he continues to show any interest or have contact with Elaine. During this whole scene, we see that it is raining very hard outside. The scene in the car was filmed in a very interesting way. At first we see a view from the front. Two characters sit on the opposite sides of the frame. The image seems very flat. The viewer cannot focus on anything but the characters’ faces. The depth of field and depth of focus are very small. One of the reasons why this scene was shot like that was because of the rain. Mike Nichols wanted this scene to take place on a very rainy day. Of course no one would ever think about waiting for real rain in Beverly Hills during the summer so they had to create it by themselves. The crew set up a rainmaker over the car in which the actors were riding. They shot from alongside and from in front using a 500 millimeter telephoto lens which threw the background so far out of focus that it was impossible to tell whether it was pouring in the distance or not. This was a great example of a practical use of lenses. The Graduate, however, was rich in many experimental uses of the camera that were mainly chosen to more directly describe the characters’ state of minds.
Thinking that confessing the truth to Elaine will solve everything, Benjamin makes a major miscalculation. He rushes towards the house with Mrs. Robinson pursuing close behind. Here again, the scene of Ben running towards the house was shot with a telephoto lens. This lens was chosen to create an illusion that rain is present everywhere, not only over Ben’s head. The use of the telephoto lens and the movement of the camera created another very interesting effect. The moment when Ben is running was shot from a farther distance. One can notice that the camera hardly keeps up with the character. A couple of times Ben almost runs away from the frame. Then the camera catches up and Ben runs away again. The movement of the camera is very jerky. The whole shot was intended to be like this in order to create a feeling of insecurity, panic and paranoia that Ben experiences at that moment.
When Benjamin runs into the house and up the stairs, we see the first shot with a large depth of field. The camera is positioned upstairs and is not moving at all. The viewers’ eyes follow Ben entering the building and running upstairs. Having two major plans within a frame creates the depth of field. The wall and the door have the function of a background. The upper steps and railing present the foreground. Here, on the other hand, a wide lens was used in place of the telephoto lens. We can clearly notice that Ben covers great distance from the distant door to the first floor. We can also notice a very deep depth of focus. As Ben comes very close to the camera, we can still see a sharp image of rain in the door downstairs.
As soon as Ben gets to Elaine’s room, he begins to confess the identity of the older woman of his affair. Glancing at her mother and then looking back at Benjamin, Elaine’s out-of-focus face slowly comes into focus as she realizes the woman is her mother. In this case, focus was used to graphically present the moment when Elaine realizes the fact that Ben had an affair with her mother.
Totally offended, Elaine refuses to speak to Ben and orders him out. Mrs. Robinson bids him goodbye as the camera pulls back from her black-clothed image in the corner of the white hallway. In this case, zoom was used to emphasize the psychological distance that suddenly occurred between Ben and Mrs. Robinson. Once so close to each other, they suddenly become enemies.
There are many other examples of creative use of lenses throughout the movie. I think that both Mike Nichols and Bob Surtees succeeded in moving the story and conveying the themes of film by using visual medium. Because of the extraordinary cinematography, the themes of The Graduate became more clear and the film as a whole aesthetically pleasing.

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4. COCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
After considering some of the research publications I got an idea that in some cases trust can be underlying factor for the digital marketing of retail business. The information quality is an important tool that concerns the customers most. If the needs a sensitive information like which company products you use? What makes you spend your money and where you spend your money the most and on which products etc questions like these create second thoughts in customer minds and they feel insecure to reveal that information straight away. The communication quality is very important like if you want to know about the lifestyle then businesses should make sure that they should not be entirely promotion focused. Since each human and their behaviour is different firstly you make sure to decrease their privacy concern and then make that relationship with customers more promotion focussed by increasing the communication quality. There isn’t any specific way to gain a consumer trust and decreasing privacy concern. The retail business like the ‘The Warehouse Group’ can apply a technology called ‘biometric data’ like the Singapore airlines have implemented in 2011. In this technology they introduced a smart check in system that allows passengers to check in, select their seats and clear immigration in lesser time. Biometric data of the customer is stored in a smart chip of the smart and can used for check in process (Lwin, Wirtz, ; Stanland, 2015) The retail ‘Warehouse Group’ can apply self-check counters technology and biometric data but to make sure that consumer data should not be compromised. Since ‘The Warehouse Group’ is known for its reputation and their customers are connected to the brand they have maintained a trust factor with their customers to make adaptable to any change in their service.
4.1 Knowledge Gap
The most common methodology critique I found in the research papers was most of the research were carried out on the financial sectors, health sectors and the research that is carried generic “The Privacy Dyad” includes only the graduates in its research. Although, the graduates might have sound understanding of technology but still if a business want to know the consumer concerns about their data being collected then they must include actual consumers of that service also. Some of the research were carried out on one industry and in a specific country and those findings may be subjected to that country or nation but might not be generic. The retail sector is a different a totally different sector and the information or data required for business purposes is entirely different from the health sector or the financial sector. In that sector, businesses want to know their eating, wearing and daily usage of products data which is not directly related to their personal lives. For addressing the consumer concerns the research publications should include consumers not just the students or any specific age group. The proper research methodology should include person from every age group and end user of that product to come to an opinion. Our group project is about if “The Warehouse Group” starts exporting its own brand label products is that a profitable step? Will that reduce the costs and make a decrease in their cost of doing business. My individual focus is what should be the customer reaction towards that step and for gaining idea about that “The Warehouse Group” needs its customer data to know their preferences and what should be the target market of the warehouse brand products.
4.2 Future Work
The retail businesses should make use technological advancements and try to implement it soon as possible to make customer purchasing convenient. “The Warehouse Group” should introduce self-check counters to know about the opinion of customers about their purchases. The retail businesses should make sure that quality communication and information without compromising their security can be achieved on the goodwill of the business. If retail businesses have proper information about their customer base before making any change then might have an idea what’s the consumer reaction towards that change. If the warehouse group launches its own in store brand product then they have an idea how much profitable that step would be for the businesses. Now the warehouse latest strategy is to transform its information technology systems to modern cloud systems to become more customer centric business. (Yeoman , 2018) For implementing cloud technology and to find potential customers or existing customer you should know them better and make changes according to the customer needs.

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