UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Program: Bachelor of Engineering (Hons.) Mechanical
Course: Engineer in Society
Course Code: MEC600
Lecturer/Tutor Name:DR. Muhamad Ali Bin Ahmad
Bil Student Name Student ID Signature
1. ZUHANIM BINTI ZULKIFLEE 2016238722
DATE OF SUBMISSION: NOVEMBER 2018
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TOC o "1-3" h z u HYPERLINK l "_Toc529803044" 1.0INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc529803044 h 3
HYPERLINK l "_Toc529803045" 2.0SUGGESTION OR SOLUTION AND CHALLENGE TO IMPLEMENTATION AND SUPPORT UNITED NATION SUSTAINABLE PAGEREF _Toc529803045 h 4
HYPERLINK l "_Toc529803046" 3.0POTENTIAL UNETHICAL PROBLEMS AND SUGGESTION OR SOLUTION DO’S AND DON’TS PAGEREF _Toc529803046 h 7
HYPERLINK l "_Toc529803047" 4.0DISCUSSION PAGEREF _Toc529803047 h 9
HYPERLINK l "_Toc529803048" 5.0CONCLUSION PAGEREF _Toc529803048 h 10
HYPERLINK l "_Toc529803049" 6.0PROMOTE INFORMATION FOR PUBLIC AWARENESS PAGEREF _Toc529803049 h 11
HYPERLINK l "_Toc529803050" 7.0REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc529803050 h 12
LIST OF FIGURE
TOC h z c "Figure" HYPERLINK "file:///C:\Users\User\Music\Documents\assignment%20sustainable.docx" l "_Toc529804968" Figure 2.1: Highland Tower Collapsed 1993 PAGEREF _Toc529804968 h 6
HYPERLINK "file:///C:\Users\User\Music\Documents\assignment%20sustainable.docx" l "_Toc529804969" Figure 2.2: Manek Urai, Kelantan 2014 PAGEREF _Toc529804969 h 6
HYPERLINK l "_Toc529804970" Figure 3.1: Illegal logging PAGEREF _Toc529804970 h 8
HYPERLINK l "_Toc529804971" Figure 3.2: garbage disposal PAGEREF _Toc529804971 h 9
HYPERLINK "file:///C:\Users\User\Music\Documents\assignment%20sustainable.docx" l "_Toc529804972" Figure 6.1: Instagram PAGEREF _Toc529804972 h 12
HYPERLINK "file:///C:\Users\User\Music\Documents\assignment%20sustainable.docx" l "_Toc529804973" Figure 6.2: Facebook PAGEREF _Toc529804973 h 12
Food is what HYPERLINK "https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/People" o "People" people and HYPERLINK "https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal" o "Animal" animals eat to survive.Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for help to a life form .Food usually comes from animals or HYPERLINK "https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plant" o "Plant" plants. It is eaten by living things to provide HYPERLINK "https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy" o "Energy" energy and HYPERLINK "https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nutrition" o "Nutrition" nutrition.The consumption of food is enjoyable to humans. It contains HYPERLINK "https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein" o "Protein" protein, HYPERLINK "https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fat" o "Fat" fat, HYPERLINK "https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbohydrate" o "Carbohydrate" carbohydrates, HYPERLINK "https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin" o "Vitamin" vitamins, and HYPERLINK "https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dietary_mineral" o "Dietary mineral" minerals. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. Historically, humans secured food through two methods hunting and gathering and agriculture. Today, most of the food energy required by the ever increasing population of the world is supplied by the food industry. The issues for this assignment sustainability of food in term of Preventive law, R&D (GMO etc), new agriculture technique, large scale modern farming, and alternative food.
Regardless of the central role of food in our lives, until recently it gained little attention from the law and policy sectors.Legislation and policy decisions play a role in determining how food is grown, prepared, transported and consumed, from nutrition guidelines to food safety regulations to trade agreements. Attorneys who practice food facilitate the operation of the food industry to advise customers on issues such as regulatory compliance, intellectual property and commerce.
New Agriculture Technique
Agricultural technology refers to technology for the production of machines used on a farm to help with farming. Agricultural machines have been designed for practically every stage of the agricultural process.Agricultural Technique the technology of farming, the system of practices followed in crop growing. The purpose of agricultural technology is to ensure high crop yields with minimal labor and capital investment per unit of the produced product. This aim is accompanied by the introduction of scientific achievements and the results of advanced experience in agricultural practice, the application of chemistry to agriculture and the combination of mechanization and automation of production processes. Agricultural engineering includes tillage, fertilization, seed preparation for sowing, sowing, planting, sowing, plant disease control and pest control, harvesting, retention of snow, soil leveling and watering.
Large Scale Modern Farming
Agriculture system involving the commercial production of large quantities of crops and livestock on large farms. A large – scale agricultural system involving the cultivation of crops and the rearing of animals on large parts of land using modern agricultural technologies.Technology is the main driver of the growth of large farms today. Replacing mechanical power and chemicals with labour, was the main feature of technological development in agriculture.The results were continuous increases in the amount of resources that an individual farmer can manage, growth in farm size and rapid increases in agricultural labor productivity.Modern large – scale farms originate either initially as a large – scale farm with state-of – the-art technology or by acquiring more land or consolidating with other farms into a large – scale farm.
2.0SUGGESTION OR SOLUTION AND CHALLENGE TO IMPLEMENTATION AND SUPPORT UNITED NATION SUSTAINABLE
2.1 Preventive law
The growth of our food system has also created new problems for lawyers and policy makers, creating many new and exciting roles for lawyers.With increasing obesity and an increasing gap in food access between those who can afford fresh food and those who are relegated to " food deserts, " lawyers and policy experts are increasingly called upon to identify and pilot solutions to improve the food system.So the solution for this problem includes:
Mandatory preventive controls for food facilities: For the implementation of a written preventive control plan, food facilities are required.
Evaluate the risks that could affect food safety
Specifying which preventive steps or controls will be implemented to reduce or prevent the risks significantly
Specify how the facility will monitor these controls to make sure that they work, maintain routine monitoring records and
2)Mandatory produce safety standards: The FDA must lay down minimum scientific standards for the safe production and harvesting of fruits and vegetables.These standards must take into account natural hazards, as well as those which can be introduced unintentionally or intentionally, and must address soil modifications, hygiene, packaging, temperature controls, wildlife and water.
3)Authority to prevent intentional contamination:FDA must issue regulations to protect against intentional food adulteration, including the development of science – based mitigation strategies to prepare and protect the food supply chain in specific vulnerable areas.
2.2 New Agriculture Technique
In agriculture, sustainability is a complex idea with many facets, including the economics of such a sustainable farm, which should be a profitable business that contributes to a strong economy, which is fair to its workers and which has a mutually beneficial relationship with the surrounding community, and the environmental.Environmental sustainability in farming means good management of the natural systems and resources on which farms rely.Among other things, this involves:
Building and maintaining healthy soil
Managing water wisely
Minimizing air, water, and climate pollution
There is a whole research area dedicated to these objectives: agroecology, the science of farm management as ecosystems. Farms that use agroecological principles can avoid damaging effects without sacrificing productivity or profitability by working with nature rather than against it.
2.3 Large Scale Modern Farming
Modern, large – scale farming has emerged in the past half century and is characterized by monocropping, which is the practice of growing only one crop per year on the same parcel of land, the constant and heavy use of chemical inputs and seeds that produce high – yielding crops but do not re – generate. These practices lead modern large-scale agriculture to be highly unsustainable because :
1 ) The soil becomes less productive
Monocropping is a relatively new farming practice that has replaced traditional methods of growing multiple crops on a piece of land. This repeated process of growing the same crop on the same land is harsh on the soil and causes soil to become less productive.
Practices are not resistant to shocks
Another risk of large – scale modern agriculture is that it is less resilient to climate change and shocks. For example, if the crop is not resistant to drought, the entire crop is ruined.If a pest attacks a crop, the whole harvest will eventually be attacked. On the other hand, traditional farming methods respected the diversity of seeds and crops and this diversity of agriculture enabled a certain amount of safety in the event of a single crop failure.
3) Power is transferred to multinational companies and seed companies from farmers and consumers.
Many small – scale farmers can not compete, let alone survive in an industry dominated by a few multinational and seed companies with a concentration of power. These companies supply seeds to farmers that do not re – generate. This means that farmers rely on seed companies to supply them with seeds every year instead of becoming self – sufficient. This removes farmers ‘ control and places them in the growing agribusiness industry, which strives to make profits instead of guaranteeing food security for the needs of a growing population.
3.0POTENTIAL UNETHICAL PROBLEMSThe ethical problems of the food industry are wide – ranging. This includes fair and fair treatment for employees of the food industry, especially since disproportionate numbers of minorities are employed in food processing and food service. The link between calorie consumption and weight gain was always as clear as the bathroom scale number. But instead of recognizing this and taking corrective action to more responsibly sell a better product, food processors played innocent by mixing with the multitude of causes.It is time to end the charade and order the necessary changes that the industry has refused to make. Although awareness of the health effects of obesity has grown, the industry has continued to emphasize cheap and often unhealthy ingredients that maximize taste, shelf life and profits.More egregiously, larger portion sizes have been aggressively promoted, one of the few ways to increase overall consumption in an otherwise slow – growth market. The government, large corporations, advertising agencies, producers and consumers present a number of ethical and moral issues relating to our food supply.Like most dilemmas that we face as individuals and as a society, solving these problems requires decisions or compromises between different values.
3.1 SUGGESTION OR SOLUTION
Contact people more actively about their food choices. Requires prominent calorie disclosure in chain restaurants and sales machines for each item on the menu. And establish a front – of – the-pack labeling system to promote healthier choices in food. The government should also support community campaigns to inform and inspire better food and more exercise.Factory Farming ; Fast Food Factory A single company can own or control all aspects of the production process, from the production of animals and feed to slaughter, packaging and distribution.A company may also contract farmers if the company determines all aspects of animal husbandry, while the farmer is responsible for capital expenditure, waste disposal and much of the risk.
3.2 DO’S AND DON’TS
This is the list of do’s and don’ts in food safety :
1. Thoroughly wash your hands and utensils before preparing food. Don’t leave food for two hours or more.
2. Avoid cross-contamination by keeping raw food away from cooked food. Do not use canned goods that show dangerous signs like bulges.
3. Do use expiration dates as general guidelines.
Never taste foods that you think might be unsafe.
Use different towels for different purposes. Do not use the same hand towel to dry a group of children’s hands.
Take the vegetables and rinse them in clean water to remove excess dirt and pesticide residues. Do not drink unpasteurized water or milk.
Hunger in developing countries is one of the world’s most significant barriers to poverty reduction and global development. Many of them are children for whom early hunger leaves a lifelong legacy of cognitive and physical disability. Human and economic waste is appalling. Such hunger is not due to food shortages globally, and if we make the right decisions now, we can still feed the world despite population growth and climate change. The number of overweight and obese people in the world who have their own health problems, including a sharp increase in heart disease and diabetes, is about the same as the number of hungry people.
Work humanitarian organizations should link farmers to the people and resources they need to increase production, feed their families and increase their incomes. They also need to help communities develop plans and skills to manage their resources sustainably in order to improve crop and livestock production.In addition, government should make responsible investments in the value chains of rural and agricultural economies and integrated markets for the sustainable management of natural resources.They should be accompanied by a better focus on research and innovation with information and communication technology and digitisation as important enablers. New impetus for research and innovation is needed to accelerate this process in order to promote sustainable agricultural productivity.Sustainable food and nutrition security, resource efficiency and climate-intelligent agriculture should be clearly the focus. The link between research, farmers and industry needs to be strengthened.The goal is to set to drive both food security and economic growth, which in turn will help to erase hunger.
As the conclusion In order to ensure that food production is safe and sufficient, political and economic decisions by governments and companies and not technological constraints will determine how successfully we can feed an increasing population in poor countries.To make wise decisions, an international body should be set up to ensure that the necessary technology reaches the places where it is needed and to deal with the political, economic and social problems associated with the transfer of technology.UNESCO has been designating monuments as belonging to humankind, which must be preserved not only for the benefit of the locals, but for the entire world.Perhaps new technologies that could solve basic human well – being problems should have a similar status in order to reach everyone who needs them.
6.0PROMOTE INFORMATION FOR PUBLIC AWARENESSPromote information zero hunger on the instagram and facebook
7.0REFERENCES1.Denkenberger, D ; Pearce, J. Feeding Everyone No Matter What: Managing Food Security After Global Catastrophe (Academic Press, Waltham, MA, 2014).
2.Maher, TM Jr ; Baum, SD. Adaptation to and recovery from global catastrophe. Sustainability (2013).
3.Isaacson, B. To feed humankind, we need the farms of the future today.Newsweek October 2015). http://www.newsweek.com/2015/10/30/feed-humankind-we-need-farms-future-t….
4. Safety and health in agriculture. International Labour Organization. (2011)
5.Acquaah, G. 2002. ;Soil and Land; pp. 165–210 in Principles of Crop Production, Theories, Techniques and Technology. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.