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2.2 Theories and model of staff training
According to Mitchell (2013, p.31), as the training process is required very much for the skills development of the staffs, the staff training development management needs to follow various types models in order to plan a proper training process. The various models of training also help them to provide the employees proper training in an effective manner. The management of staff training needs to follow various types of effective models for training such as Systems models, Instructional system development model and the transactional model.
Systems models
As stated by Kaslow (2014, p.19), systems model is one of the most effective models of staff training as it helps the staff training management to improve the performance level of staffs, employees. By following this model, the management can make their employees meet the business purpose of the industry. This model of training has five steps like analyse, designing, development, proper execution and proper development.
Analyze
Analyzing is the first step in this model and it aims to focus on the needs of the training. In this step, the management can analyze the performance level of the staffs and can understand in which area, the employees lack the most. This step also helps them to understand the employee, groups who needs the training and helps them to determine the cost of the training, measure the performance level based on the requirements of the organization.
Development
This third step helps the organisation to assist the staffs that they can learn about the activities of industry properly. It also makes the staffs understand about the delivery method and makes the staff training management to examine the materials for training and to check the information provided to staffs in order to ensure that they can accomplish the goals, objectives of the industry (Kaslow, 2014, p.31).
Proper execution
It is the fourth steps in this model of training. By following this steps, the hospitality industry can make it sure that they have properly executed the training procedures and it provide an assurance that their training procedures have achieved its goals, purpose. The wrong decisions in this step can lead the industry towards major business, loss.

Proper evaluation of development
As per the opinion of Ford (2014, p.19), this step is considered as the last and final step in this model. By following this step, the management of staff training can evaluate the success of their training by measuring the level of performance growth of the staffs effectively. It also helps them to make necessary amendments by viewing the flaws in the previous process in order to ensure the good level of training. This step also helps them to make it sure that their staffs can easily improve the satisfaction level of the customers.

2.3 Concept of development
According to Gray and Truesdale (2015, p.401), the concept of development is also very important for the hospitality industry as it determines, the goodwill, business profit of the industry. Staff development is a development process for staffs that ensure the business development of the hospitality industry. On the other hand, the concept of staff development also indicates towards the approaches of professional development as staff development procedures. Therefore, the staff development procedures are necessary for the organisation as it also helps them to improve the level of capability of the staffs. Apart from this, staff development process also helps the employees, staffs to develop their professional standard, skills, Knowledge in order to meet the objectives, goals, business purpose of the industry.
On the contrary, as per the opinion of Zijlmans et al. (2015, p.611), staff development process also helps the employee to improve their career graph and to have a good position in the organisation. Proper development process also helps them to improve their skills based on the requirements of the business industry that they can bring a huge profit to their organisation. Proper development process also helps the staffs to meet the satisfaction level by improving their skills; behavioural attitude and level, of communication Staff development also lead the staffs towards the high-quality performance that is very much important to enhance business globally (Mitchell, 2013, p.31).
On the other hand, staff development indicates towards the planning for professional development procedures that can be beneficial both for the staffs and for the organisation. Apart from this, staff development also helps the organisation to have efficient employees, the guidance of expert for their organisation and this kind of approaches also help the organisation to have strong support from their employee and it will be beneficial for them.

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2.4 Theories and models of development
As per the opinion of Huffman et al. (2014, p.448), hospitality industry needs to follow various kinds of model for their staff development process as it helps them to enrich their staff development process in an effective manner. On the other hand, the proper implementation of various models also helps them to enhance skills of the staffs and by following this model, the management can make their staffs fully involved in their business activities. Therefore, the management of hospitality industry needs to follow various types of staff development models such as Kirkpatrick’s model of Staff Development, individually guided staff development model and so on. Staff development model is a kind development model that mainly focuses on the development procedures for the training of the staffs, workers. The development model shows the management effective ways to improve their training process. In addition, it also helps the staff development management to set their planning for training in an effective way. On the other hand, as per the opinion of Zijlmans et al. (2015, p.611), staff development training is essential for the business firms, hotel industries as it also helps them to accomplish their business objectives and to enhance the level of service. It has been observed that Kirkpatrick’s model of Staff Development is considered as the most effective model for the staff development planning. The development model of Kirkpatrick aims to focus on the various factors such as reaction, behavioural attitude, learning and results.
Reaction
This phase is considered as the first phase in this model and it has been observed that these steps help the leaders, trainer to observe the reaction of the trainees positively. It also reminds the management about the necessity of feedback from the employees, staffs in order to ensure their development training is effective enough or not. The feedback from the staffs also helps them to understand the area they lack (Gray and Truesdale 2015, p.401). The feedback session also indicates towards the suggestion of the staffs in order for the further improvement in the staff development process .
Behavioural attitude
This step also helps the management to focus on the behavioural attitude of the staffs. It also helps the industry to make them understand that they need to maintain the good behavioural attitude towards the customers (Ford, 2014, p.19). It also encourages the employees, staffs to develop their communication level as it also an important part of the behavioural attitude of the employees.
Learnings
This step also helps the staff development management to check the knowledge level of staffs and it also helps them to understand how much information their staffs, employees have collected or not. The learning session also helps them to understand that whether they learned everything, whether they understand their role, responsibility or not.
Results
This step is considered as the final step of this model as it helps the industry to measure their investment in staff development process (Huffman et al. 2014, p.441). It also helps the management to compare the outcome, performance growth of the employees, staffs between the pre staff development process and post staff development process.
2.5 SERVQUAL model
According to Mitchell (2013, p.31), SERVQUAL model aims to focus on the customer satisfaction. By following this model, the hospitality industry can evaluate the various dimensions of the service quality such as tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy.
Tangibility
This model helps the industry to focus on the tangibility of their products, services in order to ensure that they are offering good quality products to the customers. On the other hand, it also helps them to notice that the services they are offering can fulfill the need of the customers.
Reliability
The management also needs to look at the fact that they can maintain the safety, security at their workplace. They need to provide their customers such a good quality service that they can maintain trustworthiness towards their customers.
Responsiveness
This step of this model also helps the management to notice that customers are accepting their products and they can satisfy the needs of the customers.
Assurance
This model also helps them to maintain their service quality. It also helps them to provide the customers with an assurance that they would get the best quality services.
Empathy
This dimension aims to focus on the activities of the industry and it makes the management of hospitality industry to understand the fact that they need to give more focus on the problems, issues, complaints of the customers. It also reminds them the fact that they need to solve the problems of the customers accordingly.

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2. Write a short account to explain the difference between sequence and rate of development 1.2

The sequence of development is a process where an event is followed one after the other and achieves a level of succession with a series of changes or growth for example the normal sequence in which babies and children learn different skills rolling over, sitting up, lunging forward, crawling, pulling up, cruising, standing unaided, walking and finally running.
If a child has difficulty meeting a milestone it can mean delays in moving onto the next one.
However each child is unique and we need to remember that development is holistic, children will “usually” follow the same pattern of development but the ages in which they reach them can vary depending on the individual and if there are disabilities that may affect them. Developmental milestones are given as a broad average of expectation and so some children may stand out for reaching a milestone earlier or later than their peers.
Many skills and areas of development will overlap with each other so for something that is considered a physical skill like playing netball it cannot happen without having social and cognitive skills as well.
If a young person’s growth is different and noticeable to that of their peers this has the potential to affect their behaviour, puberty can vary widely between boys and girls and even between children of the same sex by as much as 3years, having early puberty can attract unwanted attention in the form of acne, body odour or development of breasts.
Development is normally divided into different areas but it does all link and connect into one another. Physical development will affect a child’s ability to socialise, grow in confidence and become independent.

The rate of development is referring to the speed in which a child will develop, the sequence will always stay the same but the rate will change, when observing a child’s development, it is important to look at all areas but the difference between the sequence and rate is important as it can highlight areas in which the child needs extra support and will help to identify if the child has a special educational need such as dyslexia. The rate at which each child develops is individual to themselves.

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2

2.0 INTRODUCTION
Many previous studies have been conducted by different researchers relating to inventory management in relation to company performance. In this section, various literatures will be reviewed with the aim of getting a clear and deeper understanding of the research topic. The aim of the section will be to see the various aspect of the business that can be affected in the case where inventory management is left unattended to. The section will as address the various measurement of inventory management that can have an influence on company performance as brought out by several studies.
2.1 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK and CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
According to Halachmi and Bouckart (2005) “the aim of inventory management is to maintain the quantities of stock held by a business at a level which optimizes some management criteria such as minimizing the costs incurred by the whole business enterprise for improved performance”.
Performance is a measure of the results achieved. Performance efficiency is the ratio between effort extended and results achieved, according to Malcolm, S. (2005). Performance can be measured by obtaining the magnitude of a quantity, such as length or mass, relative to a unit of measurement, such as a meter or a kilogram. Inventory management challenges can interfere with a company’s profits and customer service. They can cost a business more money and can lead to an excess of inventory overstock that is difficult to move. Most of these problems are usually due to poor inventory processes and out-of-date systems, Gourdin et al(2001).
2.1.1 IMPORTANCE OF INVENTORY MANAGEMENT
Inventory Management is a process performed by almost all companies and organizations as the absence of inventory management may lead to loss of sales and customers in times of high demand. It can therefore be said that failure to manage inventory effectively can have a significant impact on a company’s performance and growth. According Coyle et al (2003), he emphasizes on the importance of inventory on the balance sheet, as he states that, “Inventory is an asset on the balance sheet of companies has taken an increased significance because of the strategy of many firms to reduce their inventory in fixed assets that is plants, warehouses, office buildings, equipment and machinery. Another importance of inventory can be placed on its ability to guard against stock outs costs. This cost is incurred when a customer’s demands cannot be fulfilled because the inventory is completely depleted. It refers to the disrupted production when materials are unavailable. In many instances, demand rates and delivery times are subjected to variability. According to Gaither (1996),Stock outs can be due to higher than average demand rates and longer than the normal delivery times.He again identifies another importance of inventory as, to maintain flexibility in scheduling. Here, costs and complexities related to scheduling personnel and equipment sometimes make it desirable to produce at times and quantities that do not directly correspond to the current demand. The ability to produce goods for inventory instead of directly for customers gives managers greater flexibility in scheduling.
2.1.2 THE REASONS FOR STOCKING INVENTORY
There are various reasons as to why firms and companies keep inventories or rather stock certain products. Reasons for maintaining inventories:
1. Demand
A retailer stays in business when he/she has the product the customer wants on hand when the customer wants them. If not, the retailer will have to back order the product. If the customer can get the goods from some other source, he or she many chose to do so rather than wait than wait in order to allow the original customer to meet demand later (through back-order). Hence, in some instances a sale is lost forever if goods are not in stock.
2. Running Operations
In order to manufacture a product a manufacturer must have certain purchased items (raw materials component or subassemblies). Completing the production of finished goods can be prevented when a manufacturer is running out of only one item. Inventory between successive dependent operations also serves to decouple the dependency of the operations. A work-center often depends upon the previous operation to provide it with parts to work on. If work stops at awork-center, all subsequent centers will shut down for lack of work. Each machine can maintain its operation for a limited time, hopefully until operations resume at the original center if a supply of work-in-progress inventory is kept between each work-center (kuku, 2004).
3. Lead Time
Lead time is the time that elapses between when order is placed (either a production order issued to the factory floor or a purchase order) and actual time goods ordered are received. If an external firm or an internal department or plant (supplier) cannot supply the required goods on demand, then the client firm must keep an inventory of needed goods. The larger the quantity of goods the firm must carry in inventory depends on the longer the lead time.
4. Hedge
Inventory can also be used as a hedge against price increases and inflation. Before a price increase goes into effect, salesmen routinely call purchasing agents. According to kuku (2004), this gives the buyer a chance to purchase material in excess of current need at a price that is lower than it would be if the buyer waited until after the price increase occurs.
5. Quantity Discount
Purchase of large quantities of goods often times attracts a price discount to the firms. This also frequently results in inventory in excess of what is currently needed to meet demand. However, the decision to buy in large quantities is justifiable if the discount is sufficient to offset the extra holding cost incurred as a result of the excess inventory.
6. Flexibility Of Inventory Service
Flexibility of inventory service provides an organization with the ability to keep inventory services to an agreed service level in a predictable fashion with acceptable risk and cost. This capability can be tested and valued by customers. Managing inventory to ensure high customer service level is critical in the supply chain.
According to Lieberman et al (2002), however, to maintain assets is very costly. Reflecting the level of availability of inventory to the customers is in three categories namely, raw material inventory, work-in-progress inventory and finished goods inventory. Excess in each side is