2.1)Safeguarding children and young people is a high priority because everybody has the right to be protected from harm and/or abuse. Abuse can include sexual, physical, emotional or neglect. However, as a member of staff or a person working with children and young people, we have the responsibility to safeguard them. Safeguarding framework was put in place to provide children and young people with protection and it has a wider range than child protection, which include special requirements regarding vetting and recruitment procedures, for example, DBS Check. Child protection refers to the procedures that are undertaken to protect any children that are at risk of, or already suffering, significant harm. Furthermore, it involves protecting children and young people that are at risk of maltreatment and helps prevent impairment of a child’s health and development by making sure a child or young person is raised in a positive and safe environment. If a parent or carer fail to protect and care for their child, there is a high risk that the child could end up being placed into an adequate setting or environment such as a foster home.

2.2)A child centred approach is very important as it makes sure the child is put first along with their needs and wants. This approach allows children to connect and communicate with people without being interrupted and without people interfering. Any adult that comes into contact or works with a child has a duty of care to ensure they are safe, and the best interests of the child are prioritized. It is beneficial for the child to have a child centred approach as it allows the child to gain the skills they need to learn. However, because every child will have different needs and wants, by using the right approach for a specific child, it gives a greater chance of the child’s self-esteem and learning to be enhanced which will help them later in life. The greatest thing about a child centred approach is that it benefits all children as they respond differently to different approaches because no two children are ever the same. It is very important that children are aware of their rights and that they understand no one has the right to do anything that they are uncomfortable with. Furthermore, they should be taught and encouraged not to put up with any behaviour from adults or other children that make them feel worthless or threatened.

2.3) The importance of partnership working to safeguard is that agencies and other professionals need to work together, it starts with government legislation right through to local working. Each professional or agency will have a different role of expertise so vulnerable children will need coordinated help from health, education, children social care and the voluntary sector and often the justice services so its important that there is good communication within all the different services available. Safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children depends on effective partnership working between agencies and professionals all people involved in the welfare of a child have a duty to safeguard them. Police, health, visitor, GP, hospital, child minder, nursery, school, after school club, leisure groups such as football and dance classes, social worker, family, friends, neighbours and the local community are all responsible for safeguarding our children and young people and its important we all work and communicate together. The common assessment framework (CAF) provides a way for early intervention for children before it reaches crisis point. It is a shared assessment and planning framework for all communication and that information is shared between different professionals and organisations. The assessment framework centres on child safeguarding and promoting welfare

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2.4)The Children Act 1989 – Local authorities, courts and parents, together with other agencies in the UK were allocated duties to ensure children and young people are safeguarded, and to promote their welfare. The idea is that children and young people are best cared for within their own families, but provisions are made for those parents and families that are unable to co-operate with statutory bodies. Any delays in the system when a child’s welfare is at risk will have detrimental impact on their wellbeing because the child’s welfare is paramount. The child is listened to and their wishes are taken into account as well as physical and emotional needs, age, sex, background circumstances, the likely effect of the child and the harm suffered or likely to suffer.
The Education Act 2002 – Regulation came into force 1st August 2003. It was enforced to have safeguard standards in the classroom and to preserve the role, status and responsibility of qualified teachers in schools. It clarifies the respective roles of qualified teachers and staff in schools, and other staff that are unqualified carrying out specific work relating to teaching and learning.
School governing bodies, local education authorities and further education institutions were required to have arrangements in place to safeguard and promote the welfare of children and young people.
For those working with children and young people, DBS checks must be passed, to ensure that all adults are suitable to be in the classroom. It allows us to know who can do what in the classroom and how much supervision they require. Children are not left on a one to one basis with a teacher or support worker in case of allegations of abuse. Any suspected abuse is reported to a designated teacher, where investigating agencies may become involved. This involves training and ensuring teachers and support staff is aware of their duties and in recognising the signs of child abuse.
The Children Act 2004 – This act was enforced after the response to the 2002 Victoria Climbie inquiry report. Every Child Matters (ECM). This act placed the duty on every local authority to appoint a lead director and member for children and young people services. The principles for the care and support if children are;

• Allow children to remain healthy
• Allow children to remain safe in their environment
• Help children to enjoy life
• Assist children to succeed
• Help make a positive contribution to the lives of children
• Help achieve economic stability for our children and young peoples futures.

The Children Act 2004 made provision for a Children’s Fund, designed to eradicate poverty and financial hardship by families who may be disadvantaged. The fund ensures children between the age of five to thirteen are in regular attendance at school and to reduce the risk of crime by children between this age.
Working together to safeguard children 2006-2010 – This sets out how organisations and individuals should work together to safeguard and promote the welfare of children and young people in accordance with the Children Act 1989 and Children Act 2004.
The 2006 report was updated following the publication of Lord Laming’s report, The protection of Children in England. It was updated to reflect developments in legislation, policy and practice relating to safeguarding children.
Protecting children from harm and enhancing their welfare under this legislation depends on a shared responsibility and effective working relationship between different agencies.
All agencies are to decide and plan how to safeguard and promote the welfare of children.
3.1)It is important for any child in your care to be looked after in a safe, secure and friendly manner. All children should be protected against harm regardless of whether it is accidental or if they are at risk from others which includes staff members or other children.as a parent, it is important that they trust the people who will be looking after their child/ren. We have policies and procedures to adhere to, however, there are three main policies regarding this and they are; Child protection, Risk assessments and health and safety. All staff must be enhanced DBS checked, correctly trained and attend child protection courses etc.
Children do not have the knowledge or know how to protect themselves so we have a duty to help them achieve this.
Some of the policies that have been put in place at my work setting are as follows:


Whistle Blowing


Risk assessment

Health and Safety

Staff Code of Conduct

Special Educational Needs

First Aid and the administration of medicines

3.1)It is important to ensure children and young people are protected from harm in the workplace because children have rights to feel safe and secure. Ensuring their well-being and safety is an essential part in the safeguarding policy. Teachers and other staff members are trusted by parents and carers to make sure their children are safe and their best interests are prioritized. As part of their legal and professional responsibilities, practitioners hold positions of trust and they have a duty of care to the children in their school. The Children Act 1989 states that the child’s welfare is paramount. children should be encouraged to thrive and learn and are entitled to equal opportunities whilst being given a safe and adequate environment. Communication and socialising with their peers, other children and adults is important as they need to feel safe and secure and feel as though they can confine in people with regards to any problems, questions or issues they may need to talk about. Furthermore, practitioners have a responsibility to provide additional support to children or young people who may have special educational needs. Additional support can be in the form of individual sessions within the school, by liaising with external services such as educational psychologists or through the Common Assessment Framework (CAF) process.

3.2)There are multiple policies and procedures that have been put in place to protect children and adults in the work setting.

Data protection Act 1998 has eight main principles which we have to follow in order to protect the data and information of adults and children, they are as follows;

Fairly and lawfully

Processed for limited purposes

Adequate, relevant and not excessive


Not kept for longer than necessary

Processed in line with your rights


Not transferred to other countries without adequate protection

Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 was put in place as it places a duty on its employers to make sure all employees are healthy, safe and have general welfare at work. Furthermore, it also protects everyone who comes on to the work premises, such as, visitors, temp staff, clients, self-employed and the general public.

Safeguarding is very important. The safeguarding policy was bought into place to protect children from harm and to promote their welfare. The six main principles of safeguarding are;







Everyone who comes into contact with a child whether it being in a working environment or home setting has the responsibility to safeguard children and young people. However, the safeguarding policy also covers protection for adults in the work place. Child protection is just one of the many frameworks that is included in the safeguarding policy. Child protection protects children who currently suffer, or are likely to suffer, from significant harm whereas safeguarding covers a wider range and offers more protection.

Education Act 2002 places a duty on all educational settings to put their functions and policies into force as well as safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children and young people. The Act of Parliament also gives schools greater autonomy to implement experimental teaching methods. One of its main purposes is to protect children from harm and to make sure that they are taught in a way that it consistent with our values and the law.

Equality Act 2010 in an act that protects people against discrimination from the following;



Gender reassignment


Marriage or civil partnership


Pregnancy or maternity

Religion or beliefs

Sexual orientation

The act ensures that everyone is given an equal opportunity and is not discriminated against regardless of their lifestyle and/or characteristics. However, in a school, the act sets out four main forms of prohibited conduct that applies to all pupils that share protected characteristics;

Direct discrimination

Indirect discrimination



Direct discrimination is where we treat a disabled pupil differently and less favourably because they are disabled. Indirect discrimination is where we apply a provision that puts a disabled pupil at a disadvantage compared to a pupil who is not disabled. Harassment violates the dignity of a disabled pupil or a situation that creates a hostile, uncomfortable or intimidating environment for them. Victimisation policy protects all pupils, staff, parents and carers against being made a victim if they need to make a complaint or give evidence against another member of pupil or staff at the school. Moreover, a school must not discriminate against other disabled people employed at the school or disabled parents or carers or visitors of the school. This also includes people of a different race, sexual orientation, gender, etc.

The anti-bullying policy was put into place to raise awareness and provide protection and prevention. Bullying can either be in person or via the internet, this is known as cyber bullying. Bullying is common in all schools and affects all age groups including adults and it can have serious effects on victims and it can sadly lead to unthinkable outcomes. It is with utmost importance that we act upon any accusations and try to resolve any issues and prevent it from continuing.

Keeping children safe in education is placed into five parts which are;


The management of safeguarding

Safer recruitment

Allegations of abuse made against teachers and other staff

Child-on-child sexual violence and sexual harassment

To keep children safe, we must always act in the best interest of the child. We have the responsibility to provide a safe and practical environment for children where they can learn and explore.

3.3) The Public Interest Disclosure Act was introduced in 1999 to give greater protection to whistle blowers. It tells us which disclosures can be protected, the circumstances in which such disclosures are protected and the people who may be protected.
The procedure to follow if an employee wishes to raise a concern is as follows;

If an employee has a concern about malpractice, they can be raised verbally or in writing and should include the names of individuals of who the allegations are being made against.

The nature of the malpractice that is alleged with relevant dates and the reasons for the concern.

Their concerns should be raised first with their Line manager but if the disclosure concerns them, the employee should write to the Chief Executive or the HR Manager.

Disclosures involving the Chief Executive should be raised with the Chair of the Board and so forth.

All receiving managers have a responsibility to act on the concerns raised in accordance with The Standards Board for England’s Whistleblowing Policy and Procedure.

The Head of Legal will determine whether a concern constitutes a disclosure or whether it should be dealt with under another procedure and the employee will be informed.

The receiving manager will always inform the employee in writing of the process to be followed.

An employee who raises a concern and is not satisfied with the final outcome or action proposed then they have the rights to appeal against the decision to a more senior manager.
All parties involved are given the opportunity to tell their version of the story and to defend any complaints made against them. All personal data shall be dealt with in compliance with the Data Protection Act 1998. Where employees raise concerns in good faith and reasonably believe them to be true, they will be protected from possible reprisals or victimisation.
However, to be protected as a whistle blower they need to make a qualifying disclosure about malpractice. This could be a disclosure about:
• Criminal offences
• Failure to comply with a legal obligation
• Miscarriages of justice
• Threats to an individual’s health and safety
• Damage to the environment
• A deliberate attempt to cover up any of the above

A qualifying disclosure will be protected only if they report and raise their concern to the relevant person in the correct way. They must comply with the following;
• Make the disclosure in good faith and without malice
• Believe that the information is true to the best of their knowledge
If they make a qualifying disclosure in good faith to their employer or through a process that your employer has agreed then they are protected. However, all disclosures will be assessed and investigated discreetly and there is a strong emphasis on maintaining the confidentiality of both the whistle blower and the accused. Furthermore, the recipient of the report will assess whether it is necessary to protect the accused party/parties until the concerns have been investigated. The investigating manager will have the following responsibilities towards the accused;

Provide any supporting evidence

Advise in writing of the procedure to be followed

Give the accused an opportunity to respond in person or in writing to the claims made

Receive and consider any relevant evidence

Inform them of their right to be accompanied at any interview

Inform the person about the seriousness of the allegations being made

Where necessary the Standards Board will provide support, counselling or mediation to those subject to investigation in order to ensure normal working relationships are resumed as effectively as possible. For the alleged wrongdoer, the privacy concerns include protection of identity, safety, employment and liberty. Whistle blowers are protected for public interest, to encourage people to speak out if they find malpractice in an organisation or workplace.

3.4)as a member of staff we have to prevent any suspicious situations and it is important that we protect ourselves from any possibility of false or negative accusations that can be made against us. We can help do this by being careful in our relationship with the pupils. Whatever we are doing, we must have a reason as to why we are doing it so we have to work in an open way. In every educational setting, there are always favourites and also children that we do not like as much but we have to remain professional and treat all pupils with equality. There are many ways we can protect ourselves, a few ways would be as follows;

Avoid being alone with students in a closed room

Should a child need to be undressed due to the result of an accident then we must have at least two members of staff present

The way we work should always be in an open and transparent way

If children are being collected late, we should always have at least two members of staff present until the parents or carers arrive

Classroom doors are to be kept open where necessary especially in a one to one situation

As a professional, when we go or plan any educational trips, it is our responsibility to carry out any risk assessments that are required. All risk assessments should include the following;

Age, fitness and behaviour of the pupils

Any SEN of the pupils

any medical needs of the pupils

Competence of the accompanying staff members

Qualifications of the accompanying staff members

Adult to pupil ratio

Emergency procedures

Permission from parents or carers

The Health and Safety at Work Regulations Act 1999 requires all professionals and employers to carry out the risk assessments and to assess the risks of any activities planned. A trip must not go ahead until all the above risks have been assessed in line with the schools policies and procedures.

1.1) There are five current policies and procedures that have been put in place for safeguarding the welfare of children and young people which are;

Children Act 1989

Children Act 2004

Working together to safeguard children Act 2006

Education Act 2002

The United Nations Convention on the rights of the child 1989

These have been put in place because they all ensure the safety and welfare of children and young people. Childrens Act 1989 simplifies the laws affecting children because children’s welfare is paramount. It also defines parental responsibility. Children Act 2004 is an amendment of Children Act 1989 because of the death of Victoria Climbe. Furthermore, it ensures all agencies work together and share information. Working together to safeguard children Act 2006 defines the duties of organisations working together to safeguard children and young people. Education Act 2002 are guidelines set out for Local Education Authorities (LEA), Head teachers, governing bodies and all staff members of a school to make sure all children feel safe from harm. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989 was put in place to make sure children are looked after and are safe from harm and physical/mental abuse. It states that children have the right to be protected and to be able to express their views and opinions without fear.

1.2) The safeguarding of children is known as an umbrella term which means it involves everything to ensure the health and safety of the children. Child protection is just one of the many frameworks of safeguarding. The child protection procedures should include information on the following;

A named person responsible for child protection

A description as to what child abuse is

An incident recording process

A code of behaviour for staff

Safe recruitment

Guidance on confidentiality

Child protection covers and protects children who are, or likely to suffer, from significant harm. It states that no child or group of children should be treated less favourably and they should have the same rights to access the services they need to meet their particular needs. All children have the rights to be protected from harm and abuse regardless of age, sex, background, race, disability etc.


Explain the benefits of early intervention in promoting an individual’s mental health and wellbeing There is increasing evidence that early intervention, prevention and the promotion of better mental health and wellbeing across the whole population is vital for a healthy society. Therefore promoting mental health and wellbeing can have multiple benefits improved health outcomes, life expectancy, productivity and educational and economic outcomes as well reductions in violence and crime.
Discrimination against other people is what we use as a way of keeping ourselves safe – from uncomfortable questions, facing reality, and challenges to ourselves. But it is a belittling and dangerous technique. It marginalises other people and in the end, when we discriminate as a society, it causes pain, distress, and long-term damage. It also damages us as a society because it limits our world and impoverishes our understanding. People who have experience of mental illness almost always also have experience of discrimination. They may be denied jobs, accommodation, relationships, social dignity, and of course adequate services. Their families, and the people who work to try to help them may also experience discrimination, because it spreads like a sickness. It is sometimes hard to explain what we mean by discrimination. It is one of those abstract words which cuts us off from the human impact.
But this report starts to give some illustrations of what it means for people. And more importantly, this report begins to examine what causes us to discriminate against others. It looks for parallels and differences in other kinds of discrimination – on the basis of gender, sexuality, age, culture, religion, colour, victimisation, physical disabilities, and size. Sometimes people offer very simplistic solutions to the problem of discrimination. Just change attitudes?. Tighten up the law. Get people to stand up for themselves.
For every complex problem there is a simple solution. And it is wrong. Complex problems usually mean complex solutions. Discrimination is not a tame problem. It is a wicked one. So the solution involves a combination of approaches, as this report explains. We also need to be aware that the problem of discrimination will itself change as we try to change it and so it may need to be re solved time and again. The Mental Health Commission is committed to getting rid of discrimination against people with mental illness. It knows that there is no quick solution, because it involves refusing, as a society, to accept any longer the myths about mental illness


2.1.4 Memory and Oxidative Stress
Oxidative stress has an important role in the generation of many human diseases (Rajendran et al., 2014). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are produced continuously in the body via oxidative metabolism, mitochondrial bioenergetics, and immune function (Roleira et al., 2015). The most common types of ROS include superoxide anion, hyphochlorous acid, hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen, hypochlorite, hydroxyl radical, and lipid peroxides, which have a vital role in cell progression, growth, death, and differentiation. They can join with nucleic acids, enzymes, membrane lipids, proteins, and other small molecules (Rajendran et al., 2014). Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) manage the inflammation resulted from the short-term postprandial mitochondrial oxidative stress (Jung et al., 2009).
Normally, the production of ROS is managed by multiple antioxidant systems (Gandhi and Abramov, 2012). Oxidative stress is a status of imbalance between ROS generation and antioxidant protection, resulting in huge overgrowth of ROS (Ray et al., 2012). Oxidative stress has many different mechanisms includes cell membrane damage from lipid peroxidation, alterations in protein structure and role as aresult of protein oxidation, and structural damage to DNA (Gandhi and Abramov, 2012).
The most metabolically active organs in the body is the brain, it is affected by oxidative stress mainly because of the following causes. Firs, high oxygen demand of the brain, that may reach 20% of the body oxygen use. Second, the presence of high number of redox-active metals such as iron or copper and they catalyze ROS production. Third, the brain cell membranes polyunsaturated fatty acids are highly reactive and represent a substrates for lipid peroxidation(Wang and Michaelis, 2010). Finally, GSH in the brain levels in the brain is low, that have an impact of endogenous antioxidant in the removal of ROS (Ferreira et al., 2015).
Oxidative imbalance and the resulted neuronal damage may be an essential cause in the begining and development of AD (Wang et al., 2014). Memory and learning malfunctions are stimulated by injecting of A?1-42 into the mice bilateral hippocampus and were suppressed by diverse antioxidants (Li et al., 2014, Yu et al., 2015, Chu et al., 2012).
2.1.5 Memory and BDNF
The neurotrophin BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) is an individual from a group of neurotrophic factors basically engaged with directing the survival and separation of neuronal populaces amid advancement (Huang and Reichardt, 2001). An incredible group of confirmation shows additionally that BDNF directs the structure and elements of various neuronal circuits all through life (Lu et al., 2009).
Steady with the view that action subordinate changes in synaptic quality underlie memory handling and capacity (Kandel, 2001), a developing assortment of confirmation rose proposing that BDNF assumes a urgent part in learning and memory (Lu et al., 2009).
Numerous hippocampus and additionally amygdala-subordinate learning assignments, including dread elimination, are joined by particular changes in BDNF mRNA and protein handling, requiring ideal levels of endogenous BDNF to shape stable recollections. For instance, acknowledgment memory builds BDNF discharge and actuates ERK2 in the dentate gyrus and the perirhinal cortex(K. and M., 2012).
BDNF is associated with the development of various sorts of recollections and is likewise basic for keeping up dependable capacity of data in hippocampus, amygdala and separate cortex numerous hours subsequent to learning happens. BDNF might be important to check the regular procedure of memory rot, which is run of the mill in maturing and is exacerbated in some neurodegenerative disorders(K. and M., 2012).